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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 926750, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264723

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several variants of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have emerged and have consistently replaced the previous dominant variant. Therapeutics against variants of SARS-CoV-2 are urgently needed. Ideal SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic antibodies would have high potency in viral neutralization against several emerging variants. Neutralization antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 could provide immediate protection after SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially for the most vulnerable populations. In this work, we comprehensively characterize the breadth and efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 RBD-targeting fully human monoclonal antibody (mAb) MW3321. MW3321 retains full neutralization activity to all tested 12 variants that have arisen in the human population, which are assigned as VOC (Variants of Concern) and VOI (Variants of Interest) due to their impacts on public health. Escape mutation experiments using replicating SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus show that escape mutants were not generated until passage 6 for MW3321, which is much more resistant to escape mutation compared with another clinical staged SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing mAb MW3311. MW3321 could effectively reduce viral burden in hACE2-transgenic mice challenged with either wild-type or Delta SARS-CoV-2 strains through viral neutralization and Fc-mediated effector functions. Moreover, MW3321 exhibits a typical hIgG1 pharmacokinetic and safety profile in cynomolgus monkeys. These data support the development of MW3321 as a monotherapy or cocktail against SARS-CoV-2-related diseases.

2.
Vaccine ; 40(47): 6839-6848, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042193

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has drastically changed our way of life and continues to have an unmitigated socioeconomic impact across the globe. Research into potential vaccine design and production is focused on the spike (S) protein of the virus, which is critical for virus entry into host cells. Yet, whether the degree of glycosylation in the S protein is associated with vaccine efficacy remains unclear. Here, we first optimized the expression of the S protein in mammalian cells. While we found no significant discrepancy in purity, homogeneity, or receptor binding ability among S proteins derived from 293F cells (referred to as 293F S-2P), 293S GnTI- cells (defective in N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase I enzyme; 293S S-2P), or TN-5B1-4 insect cells (Bac S-2P), there was significant variation in the glycosylation patterns and thermal stability of the proteins. Compared with the partially glycosylated 293S S-2P or Bac S-2P, the fully glycosylated 293F S-2P exhibited higher binding reactivity to convalescent sera. In addition, 293F S-2P induced higher IgG and neutralizing antibody titres than 293S or Bac S-2P in mice. Furthermore, a prime-boost-boost regimen, using a combined immunization of S-2P proteins with various degrees of glycosylation, elicited a more robust neutralizing antibody response than a single S-2P alone. Collectively, this study provides insight into ways to design a more effective SARS-CoV-2 immunogen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Mice , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , Glycosylation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Mammals/metabolism , COVID-19 Serotherapy
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(34): e2204256119, 2022 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991767

ABSTRACT

Antibody therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19 have been highly successful. However, the recent emergence of the Omicron variant has posed a challenge, as it evades detection by most existing SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). Here, we successfully generated a panel of SARS-CoV-2/SARS-CoV cross-neutralizing antibodies by sequential immunization of the two pseudoviruses. Of the potential candidates, we found that nAbs X01, X10, and X17 offer broad neutralizing potential against most variants of concern, with X17 further identified as a Class 5 nAb with undiminished neutralization against the Omicron variant. Cryo-electron microscopy structures of the three antibodies together in complex with each of the spike proteins of the prototypical SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and Delta and Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 defined three nonoverlapping conserved epitopes on the receptor-binding domain. The triple-antibody mixture exhibited enhanced resistance to viral evasion and effective protection against infection of the Beta variant in hamsters. Our findings will aid the development of antibody therapeutics and broad vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Conserved Sequence , Cricetinae , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Mice , Neutralization Tests , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
4.
J Virol Methods ; 309: 114597, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966905

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become disaster for human society. As the pandemic becomes more regular, we should develop more rapid and accurate detection methods to achieve early diagnosis and treatment. Antigen detection methods based on spike protein has great potential, however, it has not been effectively developed, probably due to the torturing conformational complexity. By utilizing cross-blocking data, we clustered SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) into 6 clusters. Subsequently, the antigenic sites for representative mAbs were identified by RBDs with designed residue substitutions. The sensitivity and specificity of selected antibody pairs was demonstrated using serial diluted samples of SARS-CoV-2 S protein and SARS-CoV S protein. Furthermore, pseudovirus system was constructed to determine the detection capability against SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. 6 RBD-specific mAbs, recognizing different antigenic sites, were identified as potential candidates for optimal antibody pairs for detection of SARS-CoV-2 S protein. By considering relative spatial position, accessibility and conservation of corresponding antigenic sites, affinity and the presence of competitive antibodies in clinical samples, 6H7-6G3 was rationally identified as optimal antibody pair for detection of both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. Furthermore, our results showed that 6H7 and 6G3 effectively bind to SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). Taken together, we identified 6H7-6G3 antibody pair as a promising rapid antigen diagnostic tool in containing COVID-19 pandemic caused by multiple VOCs. Moreover, our results also provide an important reference in screening of antibody pairs detecting antigens with complex conformation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
5.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1958060

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several variants of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have emerged and have consistently replaced the previous dominant variant. Therapeutics against variants of SARS-CoV-2 are urgently needed. Ideal SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic antibodies would have high potency in viral neutralization against several emerging variants. Neutralization antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 could provide immediate protection after SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially for the most vulnerable populations. In this work, we comprehensively characterize the breadth and efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 RBD-targeting fully human monoclonal antibody (mAb) MW3321. MW3321 retains full neutralization activity to all tested 12 variants that have arisen in the human population, which are assigned as VOC (Variants of Concern) and VOI (Variants of Interest) due to their impacts on public health. Escape mutation experiments using replicating SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus show that escape mutants were not generated until passage 6 for MW3321, which is much more resistant to escape mutation compared with another clinical staged SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing mAb MW3311. MW3321 could effectively reduce viral burden in hACE2-transgenic mice challenged with either wild-type or Delta SARS-CoV-2 strains through viral neutralization and Fc-mediated effector functions. Moreover, MW3321 exhibits a typical hIgG1 pharmacokinetic and safety profile in cynomolgus monkeys. These data support the development of MW3321 as a monotherapy or cocktail against SARS-CoV-2-related diseases.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 854630, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952414

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents an unprecedented public health crisis worldwide. Although several vaccines are available, the global supply of vaccines, particularly within developing countries, is inadequate, and this necessitates a need for the development of less expensive, accessible vaccine options. To this end, here, we used the Escherichia coli expression system to produce a recombinant fusion protein comprising the receptor binding domain (RBD) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; residues 319-541) and the fragment A domain of Cross-Reacting Material 197 (CRM197); hereafter, CRMA-RBD. We show that this CRMA-RBD fusion protein has excellent physicochemical properties and strong reactivity with COVID-19 convalescent sera and representative neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). Furthermore, compared with the use of a traditional aluminum adjuvant, we find that combining the CRMA-RBD protein with a nitrogen bisphosphonate-modified zinc-aluminum hybrid adjuvant (FH-002C-Ac) leads to stronger humoral immune responses in mice, with 4-log neutralizing antibody titers. Overall, our study highlights the value of this E. coli-expressed fusion protein as an alternative vaccine candidate strategy against COVID-19.

7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 572989, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488436

ABSTRACT

Background: The rapid coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has hit hard on the world and causes panic since the virus causes serious infectious respiratory illness and easily leads to severe conditions such as immune system overactivation or cytokine storm. Due to the limited knowledge on the course of infection of this coronavirus and the lack of an effective treatment for this fatal disease, mortality remains high. The emergence of a cytokine storm in patients with a severe condition has been reported as the top reason of the death of patients with COVID-19 infection. However, the causative mechanism of cytokine storm remains elusive. Thus, we aim to observe the association of coagulopathy (D-dimer) with cytokine (i.e., IL-6) and CT imaging in COVID-19-infected patients. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, we systematically analyzed the comprehensive clinical laboratory data of COVID-19-positive patients in different illness groups of mild, moderate, and severe conditions according to the Chinese Clinical Guidance for COVID-19 Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment (7th edition). T tests and chi-square tests were used for two-group comparisons. One-way ANOVA was used for three-group comparisons. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients of the D-dimer level with IL-6 and CT imaging were computed at baseline. With regular liquid biopsy approach, D-dimer, IL-6, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were recorded repeatedly with a time curve to investigate disease progression, along with CT imaging, and other indicators. Results: All the 64 patients were clinically evaluated and classified into three groups of mild (32 cases), moderate (23 cases), and severe (nine cases) conditions. The D-dimer level positively correlated with IL-6 (R = 0.5) at baseline when the COVID-19-infected patients were admitted. In addition, we observed that D-dimer rises earlier than the cytokine storm represented by IL-6 surge, which suggests that coagulopathy might act as a trigger to potentiate a cytokine storm. Conclusion: Integrated analysis revealed a positive correlation of coagulopathy with cytokine storm in COVID-19-infected patients; the D-dimer rises early, which indicates that coagulopathy acts as a prodrome of cytokine storm. Coagulopathy can be used to monitor early cytokine storm in COVID-19-infected patients.

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