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1.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 1687-1694, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938523

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic is the severe global pandemic with large numbers of infected cases and deaths in recent decades. The previous studies were all about the influence of albumin (ALB) for the severity and mortality of in-patients infected with COVID-19. But few studies exist about the influence factors to achieve viral negative conversion. Therefore, this study conducted an exploratory study to investigate the effect of albumin on negative conversion rate. Methods: Among the 190 hospitalized patients with moderate COVID-19 who had a course of disease longer than 30 days, 102 achieved viral negative conversion in 30-45 days and 88 not after 45 days. Taking other variables as concomitant variable, Cox proportional hazard regression model was applied to explore the influence of albumin to negative conversion rate under various factors. Results: By comparing patients who could and could not achieve the finally viral negative conversion, a possible nonlinear relationship between the continuous variables and clinical outcomes was examined by a restricted cubic spline regression model. An association was found between albumin levels and hazard ratio of viral negative conversion rate (P = 0.027). The increase of albumin was accompanied with decreases of hazard ratio of viral negative conversion rate (the value of albumin <38 g/L). But when the value of albumin was higher than 38 g/L, the hazard ratio of viral negative conversion rate approached 1, it means that albumin is not a risk factor for the viral negative conversion rate of COVID-19 disease. Conclusion: For patients with COVID-19, albumin is a common and observed laboratory parameter. It is associated with final viral negative conversion rate although its underlying mechanism and relationship with the viral negative conversion rate still need to be clarified.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335395

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has once again brought the significance of biopharmaceutical and medical technology sectors to the spotlight. Seeing that some of the most critical medical breakthroughs such as the speedy mRNA vaccine development were results of cross-border patenting collaboration, we have proposed in a previous work a new method to identify the cross-border collaborative regional centres in the patent networks, using on a clustering comparison approach based on adjusted mutual information (AMI). In this paper, we focus on the UK industrial landscape. We use the UK bioscience and health technology sector statistics from 2015 to 2020 and look into the regional growth of each postcode area. We compare the top growth regions with the cross-border collaborative centers identified using AMI comparison at the postcode area level, and find that both long-term and short-term AMI gains show an increase in the correlation with regional annual growth rates of firm numbers in the studies sectors from 2016 to 2020, and the increase is more consistent with the short-term AMI gain. Areas more central in the long-term cross-regional R&D collaboration tend to have more developed industrial settings with higher business numbers and, potentially more employment and turnover in the field.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330137

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has once again brought the significance of biopharmaceutical and medical technology sectors to the spotlight. Seeing that some of the most critical medical breakthroughs such as the speedy mRNA vaccine development were results of cross-border patenting collaboration, we have proposed in a previous work a new method to identify the cross-border collaborative regional centres in the patent networks, using on a clustering comparison approach based on adjusted mutual information (AMI). In this paper, we focus on the UK industrial landscape. We use the UK bioscience and health technology sector statistics from 2015 to 2020 and look into the regional growth of each postcode area. We compare the top growth regions with the cross-border collaborative centers identified using AMI comparison at the postcode area level, and find that areas more central in the long-term cross-regional R&D collaboration tend to have more developed industrial settings with higher business numbers and, potentially more employment and turnover in the field.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325444

ABSTRACT

Imported COVID-19 cases, if unchecked, can jeopardize the effort of domestic containment. We aim to find out what sustainable border control options for different entities (e.g., countries, states) exist during the reopening phases, given their own choice of domestic control measures and new technologies such as contact tracing. We propose a SUIHR model, which represents an extension to the discrete time SIR models. The model focuses on studying the spreading of virus predominantly by asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic patients. Imported risk and (1-tier) contact tracing are both built into the model. Under plausible parameter assumptions, we seek sustainable border control policies, in combination with sufficient internal measures, which allow entities to confine the virus without the need to revert back to more restrictive life styles or to rely on herd immunity. When the base reproduction number of COVID-19 exceeds 2.5, even 100% effective contact tracing alone is not enough to contain the spreading. For an entity that has completely eliminated the virus domestically, and resumes "normal", very strict pre-departure screening and test and isolation upon arrival combined with effective contact tracing can only delay another outbreak by 6 months. However, if the total net imported cases are non-increasing, and the entity employs a confining domestic control policy, then the total new cases can be contained even without border control.

5.
Pain Rep ; 6(1): e931, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537606

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic poses a major threat to human health and health care systems. Urgent prevention and control measures have obstructed patients' access to pain treatment, and many patients with pain have been unable to receive adequate and timely medical services. Many patients with COVID-19 report painful symptoms including headache, muscle pain, and chest pain during the initial phase of the disease. Persistent pain sequela in patients with COVID-19 has a physical or mental impact and may also affect the immune, endocrine, and other systems. However, the management and treatment of neurological symptoms such as pain are often neglected for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Based on the China's early experience in the management of COVID-19 symptoms, the possible negative effects of pre-existing chronic pain in patients with COVID-19 and the challenges of COVID-19 prevention and control bring to the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pain are discussed. This review calls to attention the need to optimize pain management during and after COVID-19.

6.
J Med Virol ; 94(2): 521-530, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508796

ABSTRACT

Measles is one of the most infectious diseases of humans. It is caused by the measles virus (MeV) and can lead to serious illness, lifelong complications, and even death. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is now available to study molecular epidemiology and identify MeV transmission pathways. In the present study, WGS of 23 MeV strains of genotype H1, collected in Mainland China between 2006 and 2018, were generated and compared to 31 WGSs from the public domain to analyze genomic characteristics, evolutionary rates and date of emergence of H1 genotype. The noncoding region between M and F protein genes (M/F NCR) was the most variable region throughout the genome. Although the nucleotide substitution rate of H1 WGS was around 0.75 × 10-3 substitution per site per year, the M/F NCR had an evolutionary rate three times higher, with 2.44 × 10-3 substitution per site per year. Phylogenetic analysis identified three distinct genetic groups. The Time of the Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) of H1 genotype was estimated at approximately 1988, while the first genetic group appeared around 1995 followed by two other genetic groups in 1999-2002. Bayesian skyline plot showed that the genetic diversity of the H1 genotype remained stable even though the number of MeV cases decreased 50 times between 2014 (52 628) and 2020 (993). The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic might have some effect on the measles epidemic and further studies will be necessary to assess the genetic diversity of the H1 genotype in a post-COVID area.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral/genetics , Measles virus/genetics , China/epidemiology , Genes, Viral/genetics , Genetic Variation , Genomics , Genotype , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/virology , Measles virus/classification , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/genetics
7.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 94:68-71, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1409677

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To compare the clinical characteristics and the dynamics of viral load between imported and non-imported patients with COVID-19. Design and methods: Data from 51 laboratory-confirmed patients were retrospectively analyzed.

8.
China CDC Wkly ; 2(34): 645-650, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355404

ABSTRACT

WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS TOPIC?: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic, while the profile of antibody response against the COVID-19 virus has not been well clarified. WHAT IS ADDED BY THIS REPORT?: In this study, 210 serum samples from 160 confirmed COVID-19 cases with different disease severities were recruited. The IgM, IgA, IgG, and neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against COVID-19 virus were determined. Our findings indicated that four antibodies could be detectable at low levels within 2 weeks of disease onset, then rapidly increasing and peaking from the 3rd to 5th Weeks. NAb decreased between 5th and 9th Weeks, and a higher IgM/IgA level was observed in the groups with mild/moderate severity within 2 weeks (p<0.05), while all 4 types of antibodies were higher in the group with severe/critical severity after 4 weeks (p<0.05). WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE?: Our study on the dynamics of serological antibody responses against COVID-19 virus among COVID-19 patients complements the recognition regarding the humoral immune response to COVID-19 virus infection. The findings will help in the interpretation of antibody detection results for COVID-19 patients and be beneficial for the evaluation of vaccination effects.

9.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(30): 637-644, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317436

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic? Though coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has largely been controlled in China, several outbreaks of COVID-19 have occurred from importation of cases or of suspected virus-contaminated products. Though several outbreaks have been traced to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolated on the outer packaging of cold chain products, live virus has not been obtained. What is added by this report? In September 2020, two dock workers were detected as having asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection using throat swabs during routine screening in Qingdao, China. Epidemiological information showed that the two dock workers were infected after contact with contaminated outer packaging, which was confirmed by genomic sequencing. Compared to the Wuhan reference strain, the sequences from the dock workers and the package materials differed by 12-14 nucleotides. Furthermore, infectious virus from the cold chain products was isolated by cell culture, and typical SARS-CoV-2 particles were observed under electron microscopy. What are the implications for public health practice? The international community should pay close attention to SARS-CoV-2 transmission mode through cold chain, build international cooperative efforts in response, share relevant data, and call on all countries to take effective prevention and control measures to prevent virus contamination in cold-chain food production, marine fishing and processing, transportation, and other operations.

10.
Chin Med Sci J ; 36(2): 85-96, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299806

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo describe the epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and prognoses of COVID-19 confirmed patients in a single center in Beijing, China. Methods The study retrospectively included 19 patients with nucleic acid-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at our hospital from January 20 to March 5, 2020. The final follow-up date was March 14, 2020. The epidemiologic and clinical information was obtained through direct communication with the patients or their family members. Laboratory results retrieved from medical records and radiological images were analyzed both qualitatively by two senior chest radiologists as well as quantitatively via an artificial intelligence software. Results We identified 5 family clusters (13/19, 68.4%) from the study cohort. All cases had good clinical prognoses and were either mild (3/19) or moderate (16/19) clinical types. Fever (15/19, 78.9%) and dry cough (11/19, 57.9%) were common symptoms. Two patients received negative results for more than three consecutive viral nucleic acid tests. The longest interval between an initial CT abnormal finding and a confirmed diagnosis was 30 days. One patient's nucleic acid test turned positive on the follow-up examination after discharge. The presence of radiological abnormalities was non-specific for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Conclusions COVID-19 patients with mild or no clinical symptoms are common in Beijing, China. Radiological abnormalities are mostly non-specific and massive CT examinations for COVID-19 screening should be avoided. Analyses of the contact histories of diagnosed cases in combination with clinical, radiological and laboratory findings are crucial for the early detection of COVID-19. Close monitoring after discharge is also recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Child , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
11.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(21): 441-447, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237076

ABSTRACT

What is known about this topic? Few major outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have occurred in China after major non-pharmaceutical interventions and vaccines have been deployed and implemented. However, sporadic outbreaks that had high possibility to be linked to cold chain products were reported in several cities of China.. What is added by this report? In July 2020, a COVID-19 outbreak occurred in Dalian, China. The investigations of this outbreak strongly suggested that the infection source was from COVID-19 virus-contaminated packaging of frozen seafood during inbound unloading personnel contact. What are the implications for public health practice? Virus contaminated paper surfaces could maintain infectivity for at least 17-24 days at -25 ℃. Exposure to COVID-19 virus-contaminated surfaces is a potential route for introducing the virus to a susceptible population. Countries with no domestic transmission of COVID-19 should consider introducing prevention strategies for both inbound travellers and imported goods. Several measures to prevent the introduction of the virus via cold-chain goods can be implemented.

12.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 611223, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231402

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused public panic and psychological health problems, especially in medical staff. We aimed to investigate the psychological effect of the COVID-19 outbreak on medical staff. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the psychological impact of medical staff working in COVID-19 designated hospitals from February to March 2020 in China. We assessed psychological health problems using the Symptom Check List 90 (SCL-90). Results: Among 656 medical staff, 244 were frontline medical staff and 412 general medical staff. The prevalence of psychological health problems was 19.7%. The SCL-90 scores in frontline medical staff were significantly higher than that in general medical staff (mean: 141.22 vs. 129.54, P < 0.05). Furthermore, gender [odds ratio (OR) = 1.53, 95% CI = (1.02, 2.30), P = 0.042 for female vs. male] and the burden of current work [OR = 7.55, 95% CI = (3.75, 15.21), P < 0.001 for high burden; OR = 2.76, 95% CI = (1.80, 4.24), P < 0.001 for moderate burden vs. low burden] were associated with increased risk of poor psychological status. Conclusions: Medical staff experienced a high risk of psychological health problems during the outbreak of COVID-19, especially for frontline medical staff. Psychological health services are expected to arrange for medical staff in future unexpected infectious disease outbreaks.

13.
Pain Rep ; 6(1): e931, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231052

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic poses a major threat to human health and health care systems. Urgent prevention and control measures have obstructed patients' access to pain treatment, and many patients with pain have been unable to receive adequate and timely medical services. Many patients with COVID-19 report painful symptoms including headache, muscle pain, and chest pain during the initial phase of the disease. Persistent pain sequela in patients with COVID-19 has a physical or mental impact and may also affect the immune, endocrine, and other systems. However, the management and treatment of neurological symptoms such as pain are often neglected for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Based on the China's early experience in the management of COVID-19 symptoms, the possible negative effects of pre-existing chronic pain in patients with COVID-19 and the challenges of COVID-19 prevention and control bring to the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pain are discussed. This review calls to attention the need to optimize pain management during and after COVID-19.

14.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 41: 102044, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Imported COVID-19 cases, if unchecked, can jeopardize the effort of domestic containment. We aim to find out what sustainable border control options for different entities (e.g., countries, states) exist during the reopening phases, given their own choice of domestic control measures. METHODS: We propose a SUIHR model, which has built-in imported risk and (1-tier) contact tracing to study the cross-border spreading and control of COVID-19. Under plausible parameter assumptions, we examine the effectiveness of border control policies, in combination with internal measures, to confine the virus and avoid reverting back to more restrictive life styles again. RESULTS: When the basic reproduction number R0 of COVID-19 exceeds 2.5, even 100% effective contact tracing alone is not enough to contain the spreading. For an entity that has completely eliminated the virus domestically, and resumes "normal", without mandatory institutional quarantine, even very strict border control measures combined with effective contact tracing can only delay another outbreak by 6 months. For entities employing a confining domestic control policy, non-increasing net imported cases is sufficient to remain open. CONCLUSIONS: Extremely strict border control in entities, where domestic spreading is currently eliminated (e.g., China), is justifiable. However such harsh measure are not necessary for other places. Entities successfully confining the virus by internal measures can open up to similar entities without additional border controls so long as the imported risk stays non-increasing. Opening the borders to entities lacking sufficient internal control of the virus should be exercised in combination with pre-departure screening and tests upon arrival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Public Policy , Travel , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Imported/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Imported/transmission , Contact Tracing/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Government , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 8: 100094, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China implemented containment measures to stop SARS-CoV-2 transmission in response to the COVID-19 epidemic. After the first epidemic wave, we conducted population-based serological surveys to determine extent of infection, risk factors for infection, and neutralization antibody levels to assess the real infections in the random sampled population. METHODS: We used a multistage, stratified cluster random sampling strategy to conduct serological surveys in three areas - Wuhan, Hubei Province outside Wuhan, and six provinces selected on COVID-19 incidence and containment strategy. Participants were consenting individuals >1 year old who resided in the survey area >14 days during the epidemic. Provinces screened sera for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM, IgG, and total antibody by two lateral flow immunoassays and one magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay; positive samples were verified by micro-neutralization assay. FINDINGS: We enrolled 34,857 participants (overall response rate, 92%); 427 were positive by micro-neutralization assay. Wuhan had the highest weighted seroprevalence (4•43%, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=3•48%-5•62%), followed by Hubei-ex-Wuhan (0•44%, 95%CI=0•26%-0•76%), and the other provinces (<0•1%). Living in Wuhan (adjusted odds ratio aOR=13•70, 95%CI= 7•91-23•75), contact with COVID-19 patients (aOR=7•35, 95%CI=5•05-10•69), and age over 40 (aOR=1•36, 95%CI=1•07-1•72) were significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among seropositives, 101 (24%) reported symptoms and had higher geometric mean neutralizing antibody titers than among the 326 (76%) without symptoms (30±2•4 vs 15±2•1, p<0•001). INTERPRETATION: The low overall extent of infection and steep gradient of seropositivity from Wuhan to the outer provinces provide evidence supporting the success of containment of the first wave of COVID-19 in China. SARS-CoV-2 infection was largely asymptomatic, emphasizing the importance of active case finding and physical distancing. Virtually the entire population of China remains susceptible to SARS-CoV-2; vaccination will be needed for long-term protection. FUNDING: This study was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology (2020YFC0846900) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (82041026, 82041027, 82041028, 82041029, 82041030, 82041032, 82041033).

16.
Traditional Med.Res. ; 4(5): 216-228, 20200702.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-621398

ABSTRACT

Background: Anxiety is a common comorbidity associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but no well-recognized method can provide effective relief. Liuzijue Qigong (LQG) is a traditional Chinese fitness method, based on breath pronunciation. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of LQG to relieve anxiety in COPD patients and to explore the factors that influence anxiety, including whether LQG is effective during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Methods: We conducted an open-label, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. A total of 60 patients with stable COPD were randomly assigned to two groups. Both groups were given routine medical treatment, and the patients in the pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) group were given an extra intervention in the form of LQG, performed for 30 minutes each day for 12 weeks. Data collection was performed at baseline and 12 weeks (during the COVID-19 epidemic). The primary outcomes were the self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) scores, and the secondary outcomes were relevant information during the epidemic and analyses of the related factors that influenced SAS scores during the COVID-19 outbreak. Results: Compared with baseline, patients in both groups demonstrated varying degrees of improvements in their SAS scores (all P < 0.01). An analysis of covariance, adjusted for baseline scores, indicated that the SAS scores improved more dramatically in the PR group than in the control group (F = 9.539, P = 0.004). During the outbreak, the SAS scores for sleep disorder were higher than all other factors, reaching 1.38 ± 0.67, and the scores for “I can breathe in and out easily” for the PR group were lower than the scores for the control group (Z = −2.108, P = 0.035). Significant differences were identified between the two groups for the categories “How much has the outbreak affected your life”, “Do you practice LQG during the epidemic” and “Do you practice other exercises during the epidemic” (all P < 0.05). Compared with current reports, LQG had a relatively high adherence rate (80.95%). A multiple linear regression analysis revealed multiple predictors for SAS scores during the outbreak: group (b = −3.907, t = −3.824, P < 0.001), COPD assessment test score (b = 0.309, t = 2.876, P = 0.006), SAS score at baseline (b = 0.189, t = 3.074, P = 0.004), and living in a village (b = 4.886, t = 2.085, P = 0.043). Conclusion: LQG could effectively reduce the risks of anxiety among COPD patients, even during the COVID-19 outbreak. For those COPD patients with high COPD assessment test and high baseline SAS scores or who live in villages, we should reinforce the management and intervention of psychological factors during the epidemic.

17.
J Psychiatr Res ; 129: 1-7, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401838

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: An outbreak of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan (Hubei, China) in December, 2019. Facing this largescale infectious public health event, everyone is under great psychological pressure. The aim was to investigate the psychological status of people affected by the COVID-19 outbreak in China. METHODS: The online cross-sectional study involving 922 participants (656 medical staff and 266 general population) was conducted in China between February and March, 2020. The psychological status was evaluated using the Symptom Check List 90 Revised (SCL-90). Linear and logistic regression analysis were used to examine the effect in the study. RESULTS: Of the 922 participants, approximately 18.3% had psychological health problems. The score of the SCL-90 was significant higher in medical staff (mean = 1.49) than that in general population (mean = 1.36). In addition, the participants enrolled in March were less likely to have psychological health problems than in February (odds ratio = 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30 to 0.59). Female had a 1.44-fold risk of psychological health problems than male (95% CI = 1.01 to 2.03). CONCLUSIONS: In the study, 18.3% had psychological health problems during the outbreak of COVID-19 epidemic. With the remission of the epidemic, the psychological health status of participants has been improved. Medical staff were likely to have higher SCL-90 scores than general population and female had more psychological problems than male. Our findings can be used to formulate psychological interventions for improving the mental health of vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
18.
J Infect ; 81(1): e21-e23, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-45736

ABSTRACT

Lopinavir/ritonavir and arbidol have been previously used to treat acute respiratory syndrome- coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication in clinical practice; nevertheless, their effectiveness remains controversial. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral effects and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir and arbidol in patients with the 2019-nCoV disease (COVID-19). Fifty patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were divided into two groups: including lopinavir/ritonavir group (34 cases) and arbidol group (16 cases). Lopinavir/ritonavir group received 400 mg/100mg of Lopinavir/ritonavir, twice a day for a week, while the arbidol group was given 0.2 g arbidol, three times a day. Data from these patients were retrospectively analyzed. The cycle threshold values of open reading frame 1ab and nucleocapsid genes by RT-PCR assay were monitored during antiviral therapy. None of the patients developed severe pneumonia or ARDS. There was no difference in fever duration between the two groups (P=0.61). On day 14 after the admission, no viral load was detected in arbidol group, but the viral load was found in 15(44.1%) patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir. Patients in the arbidol group had a shorter duration of positive RNA test compared to those in the lopinavir/ritonavir group (P<0.01). Moreover, no apparent side effects were found in both groups. In conclusion, our data indicate that arbidol monotherapy may be superior to lopinavir/ritonavir in treating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Indoles/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Indoles/administration & dosage , Indoles/adverse effects , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 94: 68-71, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-8529

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical characteristics and the dynamics of viral load between imported and non-imported patients with COVID-19. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data from 51 laboratory-confirmed patients were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The incubation period in the tertiary group was longer than that in the imported and secondary groups (both p < 0.05). Fever was the most common symptom at the onset of illness (73.33%, 58.82%, and 68.42%, respectively), and half of the patients had a low-grade temperature (<38.0 °C) with a short duration of fever (<7 days). CT scans showed that most patients in the three groups had bilateral pneumonia (80.00%, 76.47%, and 73.68%, respectively). Ct values detected in the tertiary patients were similar to those for the imported and secondary groups at the time of admission (both p > 0.05). For the tertiary group, the viral load was undetectable in half of the patients (52.63%) on day 7, and in all patients on day 14. For one third of the patients in the imported and secondary groups, the viral load remained positive on day 14 after the admission. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 can present as pneumonia with a low onset of symptoms, and the infectivity of SARS-CoV2 may gradually decrease in tertiary patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Viral Load , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests
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