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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330362

ABSTRACT

Understanding the host pathways that define susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease are essential for the design of new therapies. Oxygen levels in the microenvironment define the transcriptional landscape, however the influence of hypoxia on virus replication and disease in animal models is not well understood. In this study, we identify a role for the hypoxic inducible factor (HIF) signalling axis to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection, epithelial damage and respiratory symptoms in Syrian hamsters. Pharmacological activation of HIF with the prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitor FG-4592 significantly reduced the levels of infectious virus in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Nasal and lung epithelia showed a reduction in SARS-CoV-2 RNA and nucleocapsid expression in treated animals. Transcriptomic and pathological analysis showed reduced epithelial damage and increased expression of ciliated cells. Our study provides new insights on the intrinsic antiviral properties of the HIF signalling pathway in SARS-CoV-2 replication that may be applicable to other respiratory pathogens and identifies new therapeutic opportunities.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309642

ABSTRACT

NP 105-113 -B*07:02 specific CD8 + T-cell responses are considered among the most dominant in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. We found strong association of this response with mild disease. Analysis of NP 105-113 -B*07:02 specific T-cell clones and single cell sequencing were performed concurrently, with functional avidity and anti-viral efficacy assessed using an in vitro SARS-CoV-2 infection system, and were correlated with TCR usage, transcriptome signature, and disease severity (acute N=77, convalescent N=52). We demonstrated a beneficial association of NP 105-113 -B*07:02 specific T-cells in COVID-19 disease progression, linked with expansion of T-cell precursors, high functional avidity and anti-viral effector function. Broad immune memory pools were narrowed post-infection but NP 105-113 -B*07:02 specific T-cells were maintained 6 months after infection with preserved anti-viral efficacy to the SARS-CoV-2 Victoria strain, as well as new Alpha, Beta and Gamma variants. Our data shows that NP 105-113 -B*07:02 specific T-cell responses associate with mild disease and high anti-viral efficacy, pointing to inclusion for future vaccine design.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324025

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is a global health issue with more than 1 million fatalities to date. Understanding how host factors modify the viral life cycle could inform susceptibility to viral infection and the design of new therapies. Viral replication is shaped by the cellular microenvironment and one important factor is local oxygen tension, where hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) regulates transcriptional responses to hypoxia. SARS-CoV-2 primarily infects cells of the respiratory tract, entering via its Spike glycoprotein binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2). We demonstrate that hypoxia and the HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor Roxadustat (FG-4592) reduce ACE2 expression and inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication in lung epithelial cells via a HIF-1α dependent signalling pathway. Further, hypoxia and Roxadustat inhibit viral replication in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells, showing that post-entry steps in the viral life cycle are oxygen-sensitive. This study highlights the importance of hypoxia and HIF signalling in regulating multiple aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection and raises the potential use of HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors in the prevention and/or treatment of COVID-19.Funding: The McKeating laboratory is funded by a Wellcome Investigator Award (IA) 200838/Z/16/Z, UK Medical Research Council (MRC) project grant MR/R022011/1 and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) Innovation Fund for Medical Science (CIFMS), China (grant number: 2018-I2M-2-002). The Ratcliffe laboratory is funded by the Oxford Branch of the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research;Wellcome IA 106241/Z/14/Z;the Francis Crick Institute, which receives core funding from Cancer Research UK (FC001501), UK MRC (FC001501) and Wellcome (FC001501);the Paradifference Foundation. PJR, EJH and TB are additionally funded by the COVID-19 Research Response Fund, University of Oxford. SK is funded by the Clarendon Scholarships Fund and the Christopher Welch Trust. The Davis laboratory is funded by Wellcome IA 209412/Z/17/Z and Wellcome Strategic Awards 091911/B/10/Z and 107457/Z/15/Z. JYL is funded by the Medial Sciences Graduate Studentship, University of Oxford. The Hinks laboratory is funded by grants from the Wellcome (104553/z/14/z, 211050/Z/18/z) and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Oxford Biomedical Research Centre;the views expressed are those of the authors and not those of the NHS or NIHR. Conflict of Interest: EJH is employed under the Cambridge Experimental Medicine Initiative, which is partly funded by AstraZeneca although they have not been involved in this project. The other authors declare no financial interests.Ethical Approval: The study was reviewed by the Oxford Research Ethics Committee B (18/SC/0361).

4.
Elife ; 112022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634530

ABSTRACT

Despite an unprecedented global research effort on SARS-CoV-2, early replication events remain poorly understood. Given the clinical importance of emergent viral variants with increased transmission, there is an urgent need to understand the early stages of viral replication and transcription. We used single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridisation (smFISH) to quantify positive sense RNA genomes with 95% detection efficiency, while simultaneously visualising negative sense genomes, subgenomic RNAs, and viral proteins. Our absolute quantification of viral RNAs and replication factories revealed that SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA is long-lived after entry, suggesting that it avoids degradation by cellular nucleases. Moreover, we observed that SARS-CoV-2 replication is highly variable between cells, with only a small cell population displaying high burden of viral RNA. Unexpectedly, the B.1.1.7 variant, first identified in the UK, exhibits significantly slower replication kinetics than the Victoria strain, suggesting a novel mechanism contributing to its higher transmissibility with important clinical implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops/genetics , RNA/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology
5.
Interface Focus ; 11(6): 20210043, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546115

ABSTRACT

Various aspects of our physiology and immune response to pathogens are under 24 h circadian control and its role in clinical and research practice is becoming increasingly recognized. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, the causative agent of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected millions of people to date. Cross-disciplinary approaches and collaborative efforts have led to an unprecedented speed in developing novel therapies and vaccines to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic. Circadian misalignment and sleep disruption have a profound impact on immune function and subsequently on the ability of individuals to combat infections. This review summarizes the evidence on the interplay between circadian biology, sleep and COVID-19 with the aim to identify areas of translational potentials that may inform diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in this pandemic.

6.
Nat Immunol ; 23(1): 50-61, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545628

ABSTRACT

NP105-113-B*07:02-specific CD8+ T cell responses are considered among the most dominant in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. We found strong association of this response with mild disease. Analysis of NP105-113-B*07:02-specific T cell clones and single-cell sequencing were performed concurrently, with functional avidity and antiviral efficacy assessed using an in vitro SARS-CoV-2 infection system, and were correlated with T cell receptor usage, transcriptome signature and disease severity (acute n = 77, convalescent n = 52). We demonstrated a beneficial association of NP105-113-B*07:02-specific T cells in COVID-19 disease progression, linked with expansion of T cell precursors, high functional avidity and antiviral effector function. Broad immune memory pools were narrowed postinfection but NP105-113-B*07:02-specific T cells were maintained 6 months after infection with preserved antiviral efficacy to the SARS-CoV-2 Victoria strain, as well as Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta variants. Our data show that NP105-113-B*07:02-specific T cell responses associate with mild disease and high antiviral efficacy, pointing to inclusion for future vaccine design.


Subject(s)
HLA-B7 Antigen/immunology , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Aged , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Affinity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Line, Transformed , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Vaccinia virus/immunology , Vaccinia virus/metabolism
7.
iScience ; 24(10): 103144, 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428079

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) coronavirus, is a global health issue with unprecedented challenges for public health. SARS-CoV-2 primarily infects cells of the respiratory tract via spike glycoprotein binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2). Circadian rhythms coordinate an organism's response to its environment and can regulate host susceptibility to virus infection. We demonstrate that silencing the circadian regulator Bmal1 or treating lung epithelial cells with the REV-ERB agonist SR9009 reduces ACE2 expression and inhibits SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication. Importantly, treating infected cells with SR9009 limits SARS-CoV-2 replication and secretion of infectious particles, showing that post-entry steps in the viral life cycle are influenced by the circadian system. Transcriptome analysis revealed that Bmal1 silencing induced interferon-stimulated gene transcripts in Calu-3 lung epithelial cells, providing a mechanism for the circadian pathway to limit SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study highlights alternative approaches to understand and improve therapeutic targeting of SARS-CoV-2.

8.
Cell Rep ; 35(3): 109020, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182447

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is a global health issue with more than 2 million fatalities to date. Viral replication is shaped by the cellular microenvironment, and one important factor to consider is oxygen tension, in which hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) regulates transcriptional responses to hypoxia. SARS-CoV-2 primarily infects cells of the respiratory tract, entering via its spike glycoprotein binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). We demonstrate that hypoxia and the HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor Roxadustat reduce ACE2 expression and inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication in lung epithelial cells via an HIF-1α-dependent pathway. Hypoxia and Roxadustat inhibit SARS-CoV-2 RNA replication, showing that post-entry steps in the viral life cycle are oxygen sensitive. This study highlights the importance of HIF signaling in regulating multiple aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection and raises the potential use of HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors in the prevention or treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Isoquinolines/pharmacology , Lung/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Hypoxia/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epithelial Cells/virology , Glycine/pharmacology , Humans , Lung/virology , Mice , Vero Cells
9.
J Biol Rhythms ; 36(1): 23-34, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044068

ABSTRACT

Circadian rhythms are evolutionarily conserved anticipatory systems that allow the host to prepare and respond to threats in its environment. This article summarizes a European Biological Rhythms Society (EBRS) workshop held in July 2020 to review current knowledge of the interplay between the circadian clock and viral infections to inform therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. A large body of work supports the role of the circadian clock in regulating various aspects of viral replication, host responses, and associated pathogenesis. We review the evidence describing the multifaceted role of the circadian clock, spanning host susceptibility, antiviral mechanisms, and host resilience. Finally, we define the most pressing research questions and how our knowledge of chronobiology can inform key translational research priorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Circadian Clocks/physiology , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Immune System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immune System/metabolism , Immune System/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/immunology
10.
J Biol Rhythms ; 36(1): 9-22, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916335

ABSTRACT

The circadian clock controls several aspects of mammalian physiology and orchestrates the daily oscillations of biological processes and behavior. Our circadian rhythms are driven by an endogenous central clock in the brain that synchronizes with clocks in peripheral tissues, thereby regulating our immune system and the severity of infections. These rhythms affect the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of therapeutic agents and vaccines. The core circadian regulatory circuits and clock-regulated host pathways provide fertile ground to identify novel antiviral therapies. An increased understanding of the role circadian systems play in regulating virus infection and the host response to the virus will inform our clinical management of these diseases. This review provides an overview of the experimental and clinical evidence reporting on the interplay between the circadian clock and viral infections, highlighting the importance of virus-clock research.


Subject(s)
CLOCK Proteins/genetics , Circadian Clocks/physiology , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Virus Diseases/genetics , Viruses/genetics , Animals , CLOCK Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Replication/genetics , Viruses/pathogenicity
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