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1.
Medical review (Berlin, Germany) ; 2(2):169-196, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1940097

ABSTRACT

Currently, people all over the world have been affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Fighting against COVID-19 is the top priority for all the countries and nations. The development of a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine is considered the optimal way of ending the pandemic. Three hundred and 44 vaccines were in development, with 149 undergoing clinical research and 35 authorized for emergency use as to March 15 of 2022. Many studies have shown the effective role of COVID-19 vaccines in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections as well as serious and fatal COVID-19 cases. However, tough challenges have arisen regarding COVID-19 vaccines, including long-term immunity, emerging COVID-19 variants, and vaccine inequalities. A systematic review was performed of recent COVID-19 vaccine studies, with a focus on vaccine type, efficacy and effectiveness, and protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants, breakthrough infections, safety, deployment and vaccine strategies used in the real-world. Ultimately, there is a need to establish a unified evaluation standard of vaccine effectiveness, monitor vaccine safety and effectiveness, along with the virological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 variants;and determine the most useful booster schedule. These aspects must be coordinated to ensure timely responses to beneficial or detrimental situations. In the future, global efforts should be directed toward effective and immediate vaccine allocations, improving vaccine coverage, SARS-CoV-2 new variants tracking, and vaccine booster development.

2.
Viral Immunol ; 35(3): 236-243, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815959

ABSTRACT

To investigate the clinical characteristic of domestic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients after vaccination campaign conducted in China. According to vaccination status and months from first vaccine dose to infection detection, patients were divided into unvaccinated, <3 months, 3-6 months, and >6 months groups. The information of demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory and thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid and IgM, IgG antibodies was retrospectively collected. Therapeutic approaches, temperature-normalizing and viral shedding times, outcomes were also summarized. SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were further analyzed based on the other following variables: time from second vaccine dose to infection, vaccine dose, the interval from the first to the second dose, and vaccine brand. Among 208 COVID-19 patients, 13 (6.28%) were unvaccinated. No significant differences in demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory and CT findings, and SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid loads were detected between groups (all p > 0.05). In comparison with the unvaccinated group, the median SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were noticeably increased in those vaccinated groups (0.603 in unvaccinated, 15.925 in <3 months, 14.04 in 3-6 months, and 4.94 in >6 months, respectively, p < 0.05). However, SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were not altered between groups divided based on the other variables. Vaccination does not affect the clinical characteristics in COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients with vaccination have high SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels. Underscore the necessity of rapid implementation of vaccination campaigns can be speculated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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