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1.
JAMA ; 328(12): 1252-1255, 2022 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2058979

ABSTRACT

This study screens more than 50 000 youths in diverse populations of Colorado and Bavaria to assess whether previous SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with autoimmunity, which predicts future type 1 diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adolescent , Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , Autoimmunity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Colorado/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Arch Dis Child ; 2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053162

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: INGR1D (INvestigating Genetic Risk for type 1 Diabetes) was a type 1 diabetes (T1D) genetic screening study established to identify participants for a primary prevention trial (POInT, Primary Oral Insulin Trial). METHODS: The majority of participants were recruited by research midwives in antenatal clinics from 18 weeks' gestation. Using the NHS Newborn Bloodspot Screening Programme (NBSP) infrastructure, participants enrolled in INGR1D had an extra sample taken from their day 5 bloodspot card sent for T1D genetic screening. Those at an increased risk of T1D were informed of the result, given education about T1D and the opportunity to take part in POInT. RESULTS: Between April 2018 and November 2020, 66% of women approached about INGR1D chose to participate. 15 660 babies were enrolled into INGR1D and 14 731 blood samples were processed. Of the processed samples, 157 (1%) had confirmed positive results, indicating an increased risk of T1D, of whom a third (n=49) enrolled into POInT (20 families were unable to participate in POInT due to COVID-19 lockdown restrictions). CONCLUSION: The use of prospective consent to perform personalised genetic testing on samples obtained through the routine NBSP represents a novel mechanism for clinical genetic research in the UK and provides a model for further population-based genetic studies in the newborn.

3.
Med (New York, N.Y.) ; 2(10):1120-1137, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602672

ABSTRACT

In this review, we bring our personal experiences to showcase insulin from its breakthrough discovery as a life-saving drug 100 years ago to its uncovering as the autoantigen and potential cause of type 1 diabetes and eventually as an opportunity to prevent autoimmune diabetes. The work covers the birth of insulin to treat patients, which is now 100 years ago, the development of human insulin, insulin analogues, devices, and the way into automated insulin delivery, the realization that insulin is the primary autoimmune target of type 1 diabetes in children, novel approaches of immunotherapy using insulin for immune tolerance induction, the possible limitations of insulin immunotherapy, and an outlook how modern vaccines could remove the need for another 100 years of insulin therapy. eTOC blurb Ziegler et al. showcase insulin from its breakthrough discovery as a life-saving drug 100 years ago to its uncovering as the autoantigen and potential cause of type 1 diabetes and eventually as a target of future immunotherapies to prevent autoimmune diabetes.

4.
Med (N Y) ; 2(2): 149-163.e4, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibody responses to virus reflect exposure and potential protection. METHODS: We developed a highly specific and sensitive approach to measuring antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 for population-scale immune surveillance. Antibody positivity was defined as a dual-positive response against both the receptor-binding domain and nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Antibodies were measured by immunoprecipitation assays in capillary blood from 15,771 children aged 1 to 18 years living in Bavaria, Germany, and participating in a public health type 1 diabetes screening program (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04039945), in 1,916 dried blood spots from neonates in a Bavarian screening study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03316261), and in 75 SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals. Virus positive incidence was obtained from the Bavarian health authority data. FINDINGS: Dual-antibody positivity was detected in none of the 3,887 children in 2019 (100% specificity) and 73 of 75 SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals (97.3% sensitivity). Antibody surveillance in children during 2020 resulted in frequencies of 0.08% in January to March, 0.61% in April, 0.74% in May, 1.13% in June, and 0.91% in July. Antibody prevalence from April 2020 was 6-fold higher than the incidence of authority-reported cases (156 per 100,000 children), showed marked variation between the seven Bavarian regions (p < 0.0001), and was not associated with age or sex. Transmission in children with virus-positive family members was 35%. 47% of positive children were asymptomatic. No association with type 1 diabetes autoimmunity was observed. Antibody frequency in newborns was 0.47%. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the value of population-based screening programs for pandemic monitoring. FUNDING: The work was supported by funding from the BMBF (FKZ01KX1818).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
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