Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 21
Filter
1.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 152: w30185, 2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be more severe in infants than in older children. To date, only a few case series have reported data on neonates with COVID-19, including mostly asymptomatic neonates who were tested because of exposure to maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study summarises nationwide epidemiological data, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of neonates presenting with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected through the Swiss Paediatric Surveillance Unit from hospitalised neonates with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (positive polymerase chain reaction on a respiratory sample) from 1 March 2020 to 31 September 2021. All 29 paediatric hospitals in Switzerland reported cases. RESULTS: In total, 73 neonates were included; 7 (10%) were preterm. The median age at presentation was 17 days (interquartile range [IQR] 11-23); 40 (55%) were female. The majority of neonates (64, 88%) were admitted from home. Nine (12%) had a pre-existing medical condition. Overall, the most common symptom recorded was fever in 52 (71%), followed by rhinorrhoea or nasal congestion in 32 (44%) and respiratory distress in 19 (26%). Twenty (27%) neonates presented with fever without a source. Seven (10%) neonates were admitted to an intensive care unit (5 for respiratory failure and 2 for monitoring). One (1%) neonate required inotropic support. The median length of hospital stay in term neonates was 4 days (IQR 3-5). Two (3%) were treated with corticosteroids and 1 (1%) with remdesivir. In total, 60 (82%) neonates had contact with a known or suspected SARS-CoV-2 index case. All of the 71 neonates for whom data were available were discharged to their homes without symptoms. CONCLUSION: In neonates, COVID-19 mainly presents with fever, and symptoms of upper and lower respiratory tract infection. The clinical course is mostly mild, requiring a short period of hospitalisation. COVID-19 needs to be added as a differential diagnosis in neonates who present with fever without a source. However, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 should not deter from the search for a serious bacterial infection. Further data from surveillance studies are needed to better understand COVID-19 in neonates, guide therapy and to evaluate whether the clinical spectrum is changing with new SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , Male , Prospective Studies
2.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 152: w30173, 2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, few data are available about severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence in young children and the role of early-life childcare arrangements in transmission of the virus. In this study, we assessed the SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in children less than 6 years of age in the canton of Fribourg and identified risk factors associated with seropositivity. METHODS: The COVPED study is a population-based cross-sectional study in children less than 6 years of age living in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland, who presented to a private paediatrician or the paediatric emergency department of the Fribourg Hospital during a 9-week period between 11 January and 14 March 2021. Immunoglobulin G antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 trimeric spike protein were measured in capillary blood samples using an in-house Luminex assay. A mean fluorescence intensity ratio of above 6 was considered as positive. Metadata was collected through electronic questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of seropositivity and associated factors. RESULTS: A total of 871 children, with a median age of 33 months (range 6 days to 5 years 11 months) were included; 412 (47%) were female. Overall, 180 (21%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 18-24%) children were seropositive. Age as continuous variable was not associated with seropositivity risk, apart from a higher rate in children less than 3 months of age. Univariable analysis showed that female sex was associated with a lower seropositivity risk (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.96; p = 0.03). Day-care attendance was also associated with a lower seropositivity risk (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.95; p = 0.03), whereas all other childcare arrangements were not associated with seropositivity. No association was found between the number of children and adults present in extra-familial care and seropositivity. Multivariable analysis identified the number of household members above the age of 12 years being positive for SARS-CoV-2 as the main risk factor for seropositivity in children (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 7.80, 95% CI 4.65-13.07; p <0.001 for one household member, aOR 22.07, 95% CI 13.49-36.11; p <0.001 for two household members and aOR 32.20, 95% CI 9.30-111.55; p <0.001 for three or more household members). CONCLUSION: The number of household members tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (PCR test) is the main exposure risk to seropositivity for children less than 6 years of age. But the family size is not associated with an increased risk of infection. In young children, extra-familial care does not increase the risk of becoming SARS-CoV-2 seropositive, neither does the number of contacts present in extra-familial care. As adults and children will be vaccinated and new virus variants will be circulating the risk of exposure for young children will likely change and needs further monitoring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Switzerland/epidemiology
3.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 905046, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879467

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In 2020, a new disease entitled Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS), or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), emerged, with thousands of children affected globally. There is no available evidence based on randomized controlled trials (RCT) to date on the two most commonly used immunomodulatory treatments, intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and corticosteroids. Therefore, the Swissped RECOVERY trial was conducted to assess whether intravenous (IV) methylprednisolone shortens hospital length of stay compared with IVIG. Methods and Analysis: Swissped RECOVERY is an ongoing investigator-initiated, open-label, multicenter two-arm RCT in children and adolescents <18 years hospitalized with a diagnosis of PIMS-TS. The trial is recruiting at 10 sites across Switzerland. Patients diagnosed with PIMS-TS are randomized 1:1 to methylprednisolone IV (10 mg/kg/day for 3 days) or IVIG (2 g/kg as a single dose). The primary outcome is hospital length of stay censored at day 28, death, or discharge (whichever is first). The target total sample size is ~80 patients 1:1 randomized to each study arm. Ancillary and exploratory studies on inflammation, vaccination acceptance and coverage, long-term outcomes, and healthcare costs are pre-planned. Significance: Currently, robust trial evidence for the treatment of PIMS-TS is lacking, with a controversy surrounding the use of corticosteroids vs. IVIG. This trial will provide evidence for the effectiveness and safety of these two treatments. Ethics and Dissemination: The study protocol, which was designed based on the U.K. RECOVERY trial, the patient information and consent forms, and other study-specific study documents were approved by the local ethics committees (Project ID: 2021-00362). Registration Details: The study is registered on the Swiss National Clinical Trials Portal (SNCTP000004720) and Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04826588).

4.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(5): 424-426, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788550

ABSTRACT

Accurately determining the risk of long COVID is challenging. Existing studies in children and adolescents have considerable limitations and distinguishing long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection-associated symptoms from pandemic-related symptoms is difficult. Over half of individuals in this age group, irrespective of COVID-19, report physical and psychologic symptoms, highlighting the impact of the pandemic. More robust data is needed to inform policy decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Research , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(2): e36-e45, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722659

ABSTRACT

Although there are many hypotheses for the age-related difference in the severity of COVID-19, differences in innate, adaptive and heterologous immunity, together with differences in endothelial and clotting function, are the most likely mechanisms underlying the marked age gradient. Children have a faster and stronger innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2, especially in the nasal mucosa, which rapidly controls the virus. In contrast, adults can have an overactive, dysregulated and less effective innate response that leads to uncontrolled pro-inflammatory cytokine production and tissue injury. More recent exposure to other viruses and routine vaccines in children might be associated with protective cross-reactive antibodies and T cells against SARS-CoV-2. There is less evidence to support other mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the age-related difference in outcome following SARS-CoV-2 infection, including pre-existing immunity from exposure to common circulating coronaviruses, differences in the distribution and expression of the entry receptors ACE2 and TMPRSS2, and difference in viral load.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Age Factors , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Heterologous , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Blood Coagulation/immunology , Child , Cross Protection , Cross Reactions , Endothelium/immunology , Humans , Patient Acuity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Viral Load/immunology
6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323069

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is usually less severe in children compared to adults. This study describes detailed clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of children with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in a non-hospitalised and hospitalised setting and quantifies factors associated with admission to hospital and intensive care unit in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection on a nationwide level.Methods: Data were collected through the Swiss Paediatric Surveillance Unit from children < 18 years with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. All 33 paediatric hospitals in Switzerland reported non-hospitalised and hospitalised cases from March 1 to October 31, 2020 during both pandemic peaks.Findings: In total, 678 children were included. The median age was 12.2 (IQR 5.0 – 14.6) years, 316 (47%) were female and 106 (16%) had comorbidities. Overall, 126 (18.6%) children were hospitalised of whom 16 (12.7%) required ICU admission. Comorbidities were the only factor associated with hospital admission in a multivariable regression analysis (odds ratio 3.23, 95%CI 1.89 to 5.50;p-value <0.01). Hospitalised children more often presented with fever (96 [76.2%] vs 209 [38.1%], p-value<0.01) and rash (16 [12.8%] vs 6 [1.1%], p-value<0.01). Anosmia/dysgeusia was more prevalent in non-hospitalised children (73 [13.3%] vs 3 [2.4%], p-value<0.01). In the hospitalised children, oxygen treatment was required in 34 (27.0%), inotropes in nine (7.3%) and mechanical ventilation in eight (6.3%). Complications were reported in 28 (4.1%) children with cardiovascular complications being most frequent (11 [1.6%]). Three deaths were recorded.Interpretation: This study confirms that COVID-19 is mostly a mild disease in children. Fever, rash, and comorbidities are associated with higher admission rates. Continuous observation is necessary to further understand paediatric COVID-19, guide therapy and evaluate the necessity for vaccination in children.Funding: The study is supported by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health and has received grants from the Swiss Society of Paediatrics and the Paediatric Infectious Disease Group of Switzerland.Declaration of Interest: None to declare.Ethical Approval: The study has received ethical approval by the Ethikkommission Nordwest- undZentralschweiz (EKNZ 2020-01130).

7.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30105, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When the periods of time during and after the first wave of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic in Europe are compared, the associated COVID-19 mortality seems to have decreased substantially. Various factors could explain this trend, including changes in demographic characteristics of infected persons and the improvement of case management. To date, no study has been performed to investigate the evolution of COVID-19 in-hospital mortality in Switzerland, while also accounting for risk factors. METHODS: We investigated the trends in COVID-19-related mortality (in-hospital and in-intermediate/intensive-care) over time in Switzerland, from February 2020 to June 2021, comparing in particular the first and the second wave. We used data from the COVID-19 Hospital-based Surveillance (CH-SUR) database. We performed survival analyses adjusting for well-known risk factors of COVID-19 mortality (age, sex and comorbidities) and accounting for competing risk. RESULTS: Our analysis included 16,984 patients recorded in CH-SUR, with 2201 reported deaths due to COVID-19 (13.0%). We found that overall in-hospital mortality was lower during the second wave of COVID-19 than in the first wave (hazard ratio [HR] 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63- 0.78; p <0.001), a decrease apparently not explained by changes in demographic characteristics of patients. In contrast, mortality in intermediate and intensive care significantly increased in the second wave compared with the first wave (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.49; p = 0.029), with significant changes in the course of hospitalisation between the first and the second wave. CONCLUSION: We found that, in Switzerland, COVID-19 mortality decreased among hospitalised persons, whereas it increased among patients admitted to intermediate or intensive care, when comparing the second wave to the first wave. We put our findings in perspective with changes over time in case management, treatment strategy, hospital burden and non-pharmaceutical interventions. Further analyses of the potential effect of virus variants and of vaccination on mortality would be crucial to have a complete overview of COVID-19 mortality trends throughout the different phases of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 808064, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649357

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pregnancy is associated with a higher risk for severe morbidity and mortality when compared with infection in non-pregnant women of childbearing age. An increasing number of countries recommend immunization against SARS-CoV-2 in pregnant women. Recent studies provide preliminary and supportive evidence on safety, immunogenicity and effectiveness of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in pregnant women; however, important knowledge gaps remain which warrant further studies. This collaborative consensus paper provides a review of the current literature on COVID-19 vaccines in pregnant women, identifies knowledge gaps and outlines priorities for future research to optimize protection against SARS-CoV-2 in the pregnant women and their infants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Maternal-Fetal Exchange/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /adverse effects , /adverse effects , Adoptive Transfer , /immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Milk, Human/immunology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , /statistics & numerical data
10.
BMJ ; 376: o143, 2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642845
11.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(3): 1245-1255, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540222

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is usually less severe in children compared to adults. This study describes detailed clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of children with COVID-19 in a non-hospitalised and hospitalised setting and quantifies factors associated with admission to hospital and intensive care unit in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection on a nationwide level. Data were collected through the Swiss Paediatric Surveillance Unit from children < 18 years with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. All 33 paediatric hospitals in Switzerland reported non-hospitalised and hospitalised cases from March 1 to October 31, 2020 during both pandemic peaks. In total, 678 children were included. The median age was 12.2 years (IQR 5.0-14.6), 316 (46.6%) were female and 106 (15.6%) had comorbidities. Overall, 126 (18.6%) children were hospitalised of whom 16 (12.7%) required ICU admission. Comorbidities were the only factor associated with hospital admission in a multivariable regression analysis (odds ratio 3.23, 95%CI 1.89 to 5.50; p-value < 0.01). Children with preexisting comorbidities did not require ICU admission more often. Hospitalised children more often presented with fever (96 [76.2%] vs 209 [38.1%], p-value < 0.01) and rash (16 [12.8%] vs 6 [1.1%], p-value < 0.01). Anosmia/dysgeusia was more prevalent in non-hospitalised children (73 [13.3%] vs 3 [2.4%], p-value < 0.01). In hospitalised children, oxygen treatment was required in 34 (27.0%), inotropes in nine (7.3%) and mechanical ventilation in eight (6.3%) cases. Complications were reported in 28 (4.1%) children with cardiovascular complications being most frequent (12 [1.8%]). Three deaths were recorded.Conclusion: This study confirms that COVID-19 is mostly a mild disease in children. Fever, rash and comorbidities are associated with higher admission rates. Continuous observation is necessary to further understand paediatric COVID-19, guide therapy and evaluate the necessity for vaccination in children. What is Known: • Clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children vary from asymptomatic to critical disease requiring intensive care unit admission. • Most studies are based on hospitalised children only; currently, there is limited data on non-hospitalised children. What is New: • The clinical spectrum and severity of COVID-19 is influenced by age: in children less than 2 years, fever, cough and rhinorrhoea are the most common symptoms and in adolescents, fever, cough and headache are more common. • Hospitalised children more often presented with fever and rash, while anosmia/dysgeusia is more prevalent in non-hospitalised children. • Children with pre-existing comorbidities are more frequently hospitalised but do not require ICU admission more often.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Care , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(12): e482-e487, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522379

ABSTRACT

In children, the risk of coronavirus disease (COVID) being severe is low. However, the risk of persistent symptoms following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is uncertain in this age group, and the features of "long COVID" are poorly characterized. We reviewed the 14 studies to date that have reported persistent symptoms following COVID in children and adolescents. Almost all the studies have major limitations, including the lack of a clear case definition, variable follow-up times, inclusion of children without confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection, reliance on self- or parent-reported symptoms without clinical assessment, nonresponse and other biases, and the absence of a control group. Of the 5 studies which included children and adolescents without SARS-CoV-2 infection as controls, 2 did not find persistent symptoms to be more prevalent in children and adolescents with evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This highlights that long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection-associated symptoms are difficult to distinguish from pandemic-associated symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , Child , Humans
13.
Arch Dis Child ; 107(3): e1, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501687

ABSTRACT

Whether all children under 12 years of age should be vaccinated against COVID-19 remains an ongoing debate. The relatively low risk posed by acute COVID-19 in children, and uncertainty about the relative harms from vaccination and disease mean that the balance of risk and benefit of vaccination in this age group is more complex. One of the key arguments for vaccinating healthy children is to protect them from long-term consequences. Other considerations include population-level factors, such as reducing community transmission, vaccine supply, cost, and the avoidance of quarantine, school closures and other lockdown measures. The emergence of new variants of concern necessitates continual re-evaluation of the risks and benefits. In this review, we do not argue for or against vaccinating children against COVID-19 but rather outline the points to consider and highlight the complexity of policy decisions on COVID-19 vaccination in this age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination , Age Factors , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Child , Drug Costs , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30057, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403974

ABSTRACT

In anticipation of an interseasonal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemic, a clinician-led reporting system was rapidly established to capture RSV infections in Swiss hospitals, starting in January 2021. Here, we present details of the reporting system and first results to June 2021. An unusual epidemiology was observed with an interseasonal surge of RSV infections associated with COVID-19-related non-pharmacological interventions. These data allowed real-time adjustment of RSV prophylaxis guidelines and consequently underscore the need for and continuation of systematic nationwide RSV surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Infant , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology
15.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w20547, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As clinical signs of COVID-19 differ widely among individuals, from mild to severe, the definition of risk groups has important consequences for recommendations to the public, control measures and patient management, and needs to be reviewed regularly. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore risk factors for in-hospital mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission for hospitalised COVID-19 patients during the first epidemic wave in Switzerland, as an example of a country that coped well during the first wave of the pandemic. METHODS: This study included all (n = 3590) adult polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed hospitalised patients in 17 hospitals from the hospital-based surveillance of COVID-19 (CH-Sur) by 1 September 2020. We calculated univariable and multivariable (adjusted) (1) proportional hazards (Fine and Gray) survival regression models and (2) logistic regression models for in-hospital mortality and admission to ICU, to evaluate the most common comorbidities as potential risk factors. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We found that old age was the strongest factor for in-hospital mortality after having adjusted for gender and the considered comorbidities (hazard ratio [HR] 2.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.33−2.59 and HR 5.6 95% CI 5.23−6 for ages 65 and 80 years, respectively). In addition, male gender remained an important risk factor in the multivariable models (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.41−1.53). Of all comorbidities, renal disease, oncological pathologies, chronic respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease (but not hypertension) and dementia were also risk factors for in-hospital mortality. With respect to ICU admission risk, the pattern was different, as patients with higher chances of survival might have been admitted more often to ICU. Male gender (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.58−2.31), hypertension (OR  1.3, 95% CI 1.07−1.59) and age 55–79 years (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.06−1.26) are risk factors for ICU admission. Patients aged 80+ years, as well as patients with dementia or with liver disease were admitted less often to ICU. CONCLUSION: We conclude that increasing age is the most important risk factor for in-hospital mortality of hospitalised COVID-19 patients in Switzerland, along with male gender and followed by the presence of comorbidities such as renal diseases, chronic respiratory or cardiovascular disease, oncological malignancies and dementia. Male gender, hypertension and age between 55 and 79 years are, however, risk factors for ICU admission. Mortality and ICU admission need to be considered as separate outcomes when investigating risk factors for pandemic control measures and for hospital resources planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology
16.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 667507, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268270

ABSTRACT

Background: Following the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic a new disease entity emerged, defined as Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS), or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). In the absence of trials, evidence for treatment remains scarce. Purpose: To develop best practice recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of children with PIMS-TS in Switzerland. It is acknowledged that the field is changing rapidly, and regular revisions in the coming months are pre-planned as evidence is increasing. Methods: Consensus guidelines for best practice were established by a multidisciplinary group of Swiss pediatric clinicians with expertise in intensive care, immunology/rheumatology, infectious diseases, hematology, and cardiology. Subsequent to literature review, four working groups established draft recommendations which were subsequently adapted in a modified Delphi process. Recommendations had to reach >80% agreement for acceptance. Results: The group achieved agreement on 26 recommendations, which specify diagnostic approaches and interventions across anti-inflammatory, anti-infectious, and support therapies, and follow-up for children with suspected PIMS-TS. A management algorithm was derived to guide treatment depending on the phenotype of presentation, categorized into PIMS-TS with (a) shock, (b) Kawasaki-disease like, and (c) undifferentiated inflammatory presentation. Conclusion: Available literature on PIMS-TS is limited to retrospective or prospective observational studies. Informed by these cohort studies and indirect evidence from other inflammatory conditions in children and adults, as well as guidelines from international health authorities, the Swiss PIMS-TS recommendations represent best practice guidelines based on currently available knowledge to standardize treatment of children with suspected PIMS-TS. Given the absence of high-grade evidence, regular updates of the recommendations will be warranted, and participation of patients in trials should be encouraged.

17.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w20475, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19, which emerged in China in late 2019, rapidly spread across the world with several million victims in 213 countries. Switzerland was severely hit by the virus, with 43,000 confirmed cases as of 1 September 2020. AIM: In cooperation with the Federal Office of Public Health, we set up a surveillance database in February 2020 to monitor hospitalised patients with COVID-19, in addition to their mandatory reporting system. METHODS: Patients hospitalised for more than 24 hours with a positive polymerase chain-reaction test, from 20 Swiss hospitals, are included. Data were collected in a customised case report form based on World Health Organisation recommendations and adapted to local needs. Nosocomial infections were defined as infections for which the onset of symptoms was more than 5 days after the patient’s admission date. RESULTS: As of 1 September 2020, 3645 patients were included. Most patients were male (2168, 59.5%), and aged between 50 and 89 years (2778, 76.2%), with a median age of 68 (interquartile range 54–79). Community infections dominated with 3249 (89.0%) reports. Comorbidities were frequently reported, with hypertension (1481, 61.7%), cardiovascular diseases (948, 39.5%) and diabetes (660, 27.5%) being the most frequent in adults; respiratory diseases and asthma (4, 21.1%), haematological and oncological diseases (3, 15.8%) were the most frequent in children. Complications occurred in 2679 (73.4%) episodes, mostly respiratory diseases (2470, 93.2% in adults; 16, 55.2% in children), and renal (681, 25.7%) and cardiac (631, 23.8%) complications for adults. The second and third most frequent complications in children affected the digestive system and the liver (7, 24.1%). A targeted treatment was given in 1299 (35.6%) episodes, mostly with hydroxychloroquine (989, 76.1%). Intensive care units stays were reported in 578 (15.8%) episodes. A total of 527 (14.5%) deaths were registered, all among adults. CONCLUSION: The surveillance system has been successfully initiated and provides a robust set of data for Switzerland by including about 80% (compared with official statistics) of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 hospitalised patients, with similar age and comorbidity distributions. It adds detailed information on the epidemiology, risk factors and clinical course of these cases and, therefore, is a valuable addition to the existing mandatory reporting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Population Surveillance , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
JAMA Pediatr ; 174(12): 1216, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979853
19.
Arch Dis Child ; 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952912

ABSTRACT

In contrast to other respiratory viruses, children have less severe symptoms when infected with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this review, we discuss proposed hypotheses for the age-related difference in severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).Factors proposed to explain the difference in severity of COVID-19 in children and adults include those that put adults at higher risk and those that protect children. The former include: (1) age-related increase in endothelial damage and changes in clotting function; (2) higher density, increased affinity and different distribution of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptors and transmembrane serine protease 2; (3) pre-existing coronavirus antibodies (including antibody-dependent enhancement) and T cells; (4) immunosenescence and inflammaging, including the effects of chronic cytomegalovirus infection; (5) a higher prevalence of comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19 and (6) lower levels of vitamin D. Factors that might protect children include: (1) differences in innate and adaptive immunity; (2) more frequent recurrent and concurrent infections; (3) pre-existing immunity to coronaviruses; (4) differences in microbiota; (5) higher levels of melatonin; (6) protective off-target effects of live vaccines and (7) lower intensity of exposure to SARS-CoV-2.

20.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(6): 469-477, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-244557

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has spread rapidly across the globe. In contrast to initial reports, recent studies suggest that children are just as likely as adults to become infected with the virus but have fewer symptoms and less severe disease. In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic and clinical features of children infected with SARS-CoV-2 reported in pediatric case series to date. We also summarize the perinatal outcomes of neonates born to women infected with SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy. We found 11 case series including a total of 333 infants and children. Overall, 83% of the children had a positive contact history, mostly with family members. The incubation period varied between 2 and 25 days with a mean of 7 days. The virus could be isolated from nasopharyngeal secretions for up to 22 days and from stool for more than 30 days. Co-infections were reported in up to 79% of children (mainly mycoplasma and influenza). Up to 35% of children were asymptomatic. The most common symptoms were cough (48%; range 19%-100%), fever (42%; 11%-100%) and pharyngitis (30%; 11%-100%). Further symptoms were nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, tachypnoea, wheezing, diarrhea, vomiting, headache and fatigue. Laboratory test parameters were only minimally altered. Radiologic findings were unspecific and included unilateral or bilateral infiltrates with, in some cases, ground-glass opacities or consolidation with a surrounding halo sign. Children rarely needed admission to intensive care units (3%), and to date, only a small number of deaths have been reported in children globally. Nine case series and 2 case reports described outcomes of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy in 65 women and 67 neonates. Two mothers (3%) were admitted to intensive care unit. Fetal distress was reported in 30% of pregnancies. Thirty-seven percent of women delivered preterm. Neonatal complications included respiratory distress or pneumonia (18%), disseminated intravascular coagulation (3%), asphyxia (2%) and 2 perinatal deaths. Four neonates (3 with pneumonia) have been reported to be SARS-CoV-2 positive despite strict infection control and prevention procedures during delivery and separation of mother and neonates, meaning vertical transmission could not be excluded.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough/virology , Feces/virology , Female , Fetal Distress , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pregnancy , Premature Birth , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL