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1.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626873

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines clinical trials did not include patients with immune-mediated conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to describe the implementation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among IBD patients, patients' concerns and side-effect profile of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines using real-world data. METHODS: An anonymous web-based self-completed survey was distributed in 36 European countries between June and July 2021. The results of the patient characteristics, concerns, vaccination status and side-effect profile were analysed. RESULTS: 3272 IBD patients completed the survey, 79.6% had received at least one dose of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, and 71.7% had completed the vaccination process. Patients over 60 years old had a significantly higher rate of vaccination (p<0.001). Patients' main concerns before vaccination were the possibility of having worse vaccine-related adverse events due to their IBD (24.6%), an IBD flare after vaccination (21.1%) and reduced vaccine efficacy due to IBD or associated immunosuppression (17.6%). After the first dose of the vaccine, 72.4% had local symptoms and 51.4% had systemic symptoms (5 patients had non-specified thrombosis). Adverse events were less frequent after the second dose of the vaccine and in older patients. Only a minority of the patients were hospitalized (0.3%), needed a consultation (3.6%) or had to change IBD therapy (13.4%) after anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. CONCLUSION: Although IBD patients raised concerns about the safety and efficacy of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, the implementation of vaccination in those responding to our survey was high and the adverse events were comparable to the general population, with minimal impact on their IBD.

2.
Clin Exp Gastroenterol ; 14: 451-456, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523534

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Celiac disease (CeD) diagnosis has worldwide shared protocols. Conversely, follow-up of patients is still an object of study. Gluten immunogenic peptide detection in the urine (GIP) appears to be a new and efficient method for dietary gluten control of patients. The present study aims to assess the clinical usefulness of the GIP point-of-care urine test in the follow-up of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with CeD before and during the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy. METHODS: Thirty adult CeD patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD) were enrolled before and during the COVID-19 lockdown through follow-up visits or remote consultation. Patients underwent anthropometrical evaluation, dietetic interview, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Then, two groups were formed: symptomatic and worried about gluten contamination. Each patient received 5 GIP point-of-care tests to perform a maximum of 5 times in the following 5 weeks in case of symptoms or anxiety state due to hypothesized gluten contamination. RESULTS: Sixteen symptomatic patients and 14 patients with concerns related to gluten contamination were included. There were no differences in age, BMI, compliance to GFD and GIP positive tests between the two groups. Worried group showed a borderline higher level of anxiety than symptomatic group (p = 0.06), with a significant minor percentage of patients reporting "no or low anxiety" (14.3% vs 50% p = 0.03). The symptomatic patients showed a higher rate of diarrhea than worried group (25% vs 0%, p = 0.04). Gluten in urine samples was globally found in 8 out of 30 cases (26.6%). CONCLUSION: The GIP test is a tool that can be used as a point of care test to assess adequate compliance with GFD and reassure symptomatic CeD patients from the feeling of anxiety for gluten contamination, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 54(11-12): 1432-1441, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older age and comorbidities are the main risk factors for adverse COVID-19 outcomes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The impact of IBD medications is still under investigation. AIMS: To assess risk factors for adverse outcomes of COVID-19 in IBD patients and use the identified risk factors to build risk indices. METHODS: Observational cohort study. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with pneumonia, hospitalisation, need for ventilatory support, and death. RESULTS: Of the 937 patients (446 with ulcerative colitis [UC]) evaluated, 128 (13.7%) had asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, 664 (70.8%) had a favourable course, and 135 (15.5%) had moderate or severe COVID-19. In UC patients, obesity, active disease and comorbidities were significantly associated with adverse outcomes. In patients with Crohn's disease (CD), age, obesity, comorbidities and an additional immune-mediated inflammatory disease were identified as risk factors. These risk factors were incorporated into two indices to identify patients with UC or CD with a higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. In multivariable analyses, no single IBD medication was associated with poor COVID-19 outcomes, but anti-TNF agents were associated with a lower risk of pneumonia in UC, and lower risks of hospitalisation and severe COVID-19 in CD. CONCLUSION: The course of COVID-19 in patients with IBD is similar to that in the general population. IBD patients with active disease and comorbidities are at greater risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. IBD medications do not pose additional risks. The risk indices may help to identify patients who should be prioritised for COVID-19 re-vaccination or for therapies for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Aged , Crohn Disease/complications , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors
4.
J Clin Med ; 10(15)2021 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325715

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, immunomodulatory therapies and hospital admission were suspected to increase the risk of infection. Nevertheless, patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) treated with intravenous (i.v.) biologics had to move to hospitals for drug infusion. We investigated the impact of hospitalisation in patients with IBD. We conducted a survey including consecutive IBD patients initially in clinical and biochemical remission treated with biologics at the end of the first lockdown period. Patients underwent the normally scheduled clinical visits, performed at hospital for i.v.-treated patients or at home for patients treated with s.c. drugs. We administered to all patients the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire and other 12 questions, specifically related to COVID-19 and its implications. A total of 189 IBD patients were recruited, 112 (59.3%) treated with i.v. drugs and 77 (40.7%) with s.c. ones. No relapses were recorded in either group (hospitalized vs. non-hospitalized, p = ns), as well as which, COVID-19 infections were not demonstrated in patients in contact with people with suspected symptoms or directly experiencing them. The total HADS score obtained by the sum of all items was also almost identical between groups (37.1 ± 2.8 vs. 37.2 ± 2.8; p = 0.98). In patients treated with i.v. drugs receiving a televisit (n = 17), the rate of satisfaction with telemedicine (58.8%) was significantly lower compared with those treated with s.c. drugs (94.8%; p < 0.0005). Our results suggest that hospitalisation during the COVID-19 outbreak does not increase the risk of COVID-19 infection as well as the risk of IBD relapse; moreover, the similar levels of anxiety in both groups could confirm that there is no need to convert patients from i.v. to s.c. therapy.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes not only severe illness but also detrimental effects associated with the lockdown measures. The present study aimed to evaluate reported lifestyle changes in a cohort of adults in Italy, including physical exercise, food choices, and psychological wellbeing, after two months of lockdown. METHODS: A web survey on social media (Facebook and LinkedIn) of 32 multiple-choice questions aiming to evaluate the impact of the national COVID-19 lockdown in a sample of Italian adults. RESULTS: We received 1378 complete responses (women 68.3%, mean age 39.5 ± 12.5 years). The percentage of participants reporting regular exercise decreased during lockdown (52 vs. 56.5%). The vast majority of people continued to consume the three traditional meals per day, but the consumption of meat, fish, and eggs significantly decreased. Women reported more frequent anxiety, sadness, fear, and feelings of insecurity than men. The factors predicting the worst outcome during the lockdown were being a woman, low education and income, gastrointestinal diseases. CONCLUSION: The lockdown has had a limited impact on food choices and physical exercise in Italian adults of our series, since most of them made an effort to improve their lifestyle. However, women with gastrointestinal diseases reported more frequent negative feelings and poor adaptation to the lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Emotions , Female , Humans , Italy , Life Style , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Social Isolation/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 8(1)2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102175

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although evidence suggests frequent gastrointestinal (GI) involvement during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), endoscopic findings are scarcely reported. AIMS: We aimed at registering endoscopic abnormalities and potentially associated risk factors among patients with COVID-19. METHODS: All consecutive patients with COVID-19 undergoing endoscopy in 16 institutions from high-prevalence regions were enrolled. Mann-Whitney U, χ2 or Fisher's exact test were used to compare patients with major abnormalities to those with negative procedures, and multivariate logistic regression to identify independent predictors. RESULTS: Between February and May 2020, during the first pandemic outbreak with severely restricted endoscopy activity, 114 endoscopies on 106 patients with COVID-19 were performed in 16 institutions (men=70.8%, median age=68 (58-74); 33% admitted in intensive care unit; 44.4% reporting GI symptoms). 66.7% endoscopies were urgent, mainly for overt GI bleeding. 52 (45.6%) patients had major abnormalities, whereas 13 bled from previous conditions. The most prevalent upper GI abnormalities were ulcers (25.3%), erosive/ulcerative gastro-duodenopathy (16.1%) and petechial/haemorrhagic gastropathy (9.2%). Among lower GI endoscopies, 33.3% showed an ischaemic-like colitis.Receiver operating curve analysis identified D-dimers >1850 ng/mL as predicting major abnormalities. Only D-dimers >1850 ng/mL (OR=12.12 (1.69-86.87)) and presence of GI symptoms (OR=6.17 (1.13-33.67)) were independently associated with major abnormalities at multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: In this highly selected cohort of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 requiring endoscopy, almost half showed acute mucosal injuries and more than one-third of lower GI endoscopies had features of ischaemic colitis. Among the hospitalisation-related and patient-related variables evaluated in this study, D-dimers above 1850 ng/mL was the most useful at predicting major mucosal abnormalities at endoscopy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrial.gov (ID: NCT04318366).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Colitis, Ischemic/etiology , Colitis, Ischemic/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Duodenum/pathology , Female , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/pathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stomach Ulcer/etiology , Stomach Ulcer/pathology
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e19574, 2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902245

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After the COVID-19 outbreak, the Italian Government stopped most regular health care activity. As a result, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) had limited access to outpatient clinics and hospitals. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the perception of the COVID-19 emergency among patients with IBD during the early weeks of the lockdown. METHODS: We invited adult patients with IBD from the University of Salerno (Campania, South Italy) and the University of Padua (Veneto, North Italy) by email to answer an ad hoc anonymous survey about COVID-19. We also collected data on demographic and disease characteristics. RESULTS: In total, 167 patients with IBD from Padua and 83 patients from Salerno answered the survey (age: mean 39.7 years, SD 13.9 years; female: n=116, 46.4%). We found that patients with IBD were particularly worried about the COVID-19 pandemic (enough: 77/250, 30.8%; much/very much: 140/250, 56.0%), as they felt more vulnerable to COVID-19 due to their condition (enough: 70/250, 28.0%; much/very much: 109/250, 43.6%). Patients with IBD from the red zone of Veneto were more worried than patients from Campania (P=.001), and men felt more susceptible to the virus than women (P=.05). Additionally, remote medicine was appreciated more by younger patients than older patients (P=.04). CONCLUSIONS: The results of our survey demonstrate that the lockdown had a significant impact on the psychological aspects of patients with IBD and suggest the need for increasing communication with patients with IBD (eg, through telemedicine) to ensure patients receive adequate health care, correct information, and proper psychological support.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/psychology , Outpatients/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Male
16.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622469

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGIDs) are chronic gastrointestinal conditions requiring corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy for disease control. Patients with EGIDs usually report impaired quality of life. We aimed to report the clinical and psychological impact of COVID-19 infection in EGID patients. In this prospective web-based study we invited all consecutive EGID patients attending the University Hospital of Salerno (Campania) and Padua (Veneto) to fill an ad hoc COVID-19 survey. Moreover, a telemedicine service for direct consultation was organized. Data regarding the occurrence and perception of COVID-19 infection as well as clinical information were recorded. The study population included 102 EGID patients (mean age 36.6 years, 34 females), of whom 89 had eosinophilic esophagitis, nine had gastroenteritis, and four had colitis. No patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 or had recurrence of his/her primary disease. All of them were adherent to therapy and preventive measures adoption. Most patients were worried because of COVID-19 and social preventing measures but did not consider themselves at major risk or susceptible to COVID-19 or other infections due to their chronic condition or therapy. Female gender and low education level were associated to a higher psychological perception of COVID-19 compared to lockdown status or other demographic and clinical factors (p < 0.05). Overall, COVID-19 had a limited clinical impact on patients with EGIDs. The degree of education and sex, but not the fact of living in a lockdown area, influenced the perception of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

17.
Dig Liver Dis ; 52(10): 1071-1075, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607975

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes severe complications and deaths all over the world. COVID-19 also has indirect effects from the lockdown and the possible lack of food. We aimed to evaluate the perception of this in Celiac Disease (CeD) patients who require a lifelong gluten-free diet as a therapy. Methods: We invited by e-mail CeD adult patients from the University of Salerno (Campania, South Italy) and the University of Padua (Veneto, North Italy) to answer an ad hoc COVID-19 survey. Results: We sent the web survey to 651 email addresses and we received 276 answers (42,4%). CeD patients did not feel more vulnerable because they had CeD (not at all 56.6%) and they did not worry much about the possible shortness of gluten-free food during the epidemic (not at all 48.5%). The most worried were the elderly patients, patients with other comorbidities and females. Finally, CeD patients were happy with remote consultations and explicitly asked to have them. Discussion: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted a proportion of patients with CeD; in particular, women, elderly patients, patients with other comorbidities. COVID-19, although a challenging experience from the medical and the psychological point of view, has offered an opportunity to practice, on a large-scale, a remote consultation approach for CeD healthcare.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Attitude to Health , Celiac Disease/diet therapy , Diet, Gluten-Free , Food Supply , Patient Preference , Telemedicine , Adult , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus , Boron Compounds , COVID-19 , Celiac Disease/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Methacrylates , Methylmethacrylates , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Perception , Pneumonia, Viral , Quality of Life , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Gut ; 69(7): 1213-1217, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155360

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 has rapidly become a major health emergency worldwide. Patients with IBD are at increased risk of infection, especially when they have active disease and are taking immunosuppressive therapy. The characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with IBD remain unclear. DESIGN: This Italian prospective observational cohort study enrolled consecutive patients with an established IBD diagnosis and confirmed COVID-19. Data regarding age, sex, IBD (type, treatments and clinical activity), other comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI)), signs and symptoms of COVID-19 and therapies were compared with COVID-19 outcomes (pneumonia, hospitalisation, respiratory therapy and death). RESULTS: Between 11 and 29 March 2020, 79 patients with IBD with COVID-19 were enrolled at 24 IBD referral units. Thirty-six patients had COVID-19-related pneumonia (46%), 22 (28%) were hospitalised, 7 (9%) required non-mechanical ventilation, 9 (11%) required continuous positive airway pressure therapy, 2 (3%) had endotracheal intubation and 6 (8%) died. Four patients (6%) were diagnosed with COVID-19 while they were being hospitalised for a severe flare of IBD. Age over 65 years (p=0.03), UC diagnosis (p=0.03), IBD activity (p=0.003) and a CCI score >1 (p=0.04) were significantly associated with COVID-19 pneumonia, whereas concomitant IBD treatments were not. Age over 65 years (p=0.002), active IBD (p=0.02) and higher CCI score were significantly associated with COVID-19-related death. CONCLUSIONS: Active IBD, old age and comorbidities were associated with a negative COVID-19 outcome, whereas IBD treatments were not. Preventing acute IBD flares may avoid fatal COVID-19 in patients with IBD. Further research is needed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Pandemics , Patient Care Management , Pneumonia, Viral , Age Factors , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Patient Acuity , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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