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1.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 2: 41, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860436

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of the Brazilian variant of concern, Gamma lineage (P.1), impacted the epidemiological profile of COVID-19 cases due to its higher transmissibility rate and immune evasion ability. Methods: We sequenced 305 SARS-CoV-2 whole-genomes and performed phylogenetic analyses to identify introduction events and the circulating lineages. Additionally, we use epidemiological data of COVID-19 cases, severe cases, and deaths to measure the impact of vaccination coverage and mortality risk. Results: Here we show that Gamma introduction in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, was followed by the displacement of seven circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants and a rapid increase in prevalence two months after its first detection in January 2021. Moreover, Gamma variant is associated with increased mortality risk and severity of COVID-19 cases in younger age groups, which corresponds to the unvaccinated population at the time. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the beneficial effects of vaccination indicated by a pronounced reduction of severe cases and deaths in immunized individuals, reinforcing the need for rapid and massive vaccination.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 637885, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399143

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can infect a broad range of human tissues by using the host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Individuals with comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19 display higher levels of ACE2 in the lungs compared to those without comorbidities, and conditions such as cell stress, elevated glucose levels and hypoxia may also increase the expression of ACE2. Here, we showed that patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) have a higher expression of ACE2 in BE tissues compared to normal squamous esophagus, and that the lower pH associated with BE may drive this increase in expression. Human primary monocytes cultured in reduced pH displayed increased ACE2 expression and higher viral load upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also showed in two independent cohorts of 1,357 COVID-19 patients that previous use of proton pump inhibitors is associated with 2- to 3-fold higher risk of death compared to those not using the drugs. Our work suggests that pH has a great influence on SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID-19 severity.

3.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1770-1775, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196472

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and dengue coinfection, presented as a fatal stroke in our hospital, in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, a Brazilian city hyperendemic for dengue viruses and other arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) and currently facing a surge of SARS-CoV-2 cases. This case is the first described in the literature and contributes to the better understanding of clinical presentations of two important diseases in a tropical setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Dengue/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/virology , Arboviruses/pathogenicity , Brazil , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/virology , Dengue/virology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1770-1775, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1001928

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and dengue coinfection, presented as a fatal stroke in our hospital, in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, a Brazilian city hyperendemic for dengue viruses and other arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) and currently facing a surge of SARS-CoV-2 cases. This case is the first described in the literature and contributes to the better understanding of clinical presentations of two important diseases in a tropical setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Dengue/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/virology , Arboviruses/pathogenicity , Brazil , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/virology , Dengue/virology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged
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