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Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci ; 58(8): 563-575, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300231


A novel coronavirus pneumonia first occurred in Wuhan, China in early December 2019; the causative agent was identified and named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the World Health Organization (WHO), and the resulting disease termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), according to the WHO coronavirus disease situation reports. This condition has spread rapidly all over the world and caused more than 125 million cases globally, with more than 2 million related deaths. Two previous outbreaks due to zoonotic coronaviruses have occurred in the last 20 years, namely the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), causing high morbidity and mortality in human populations upon crossing the species barriers. SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV show several similarities in pathogenicity and clinical presentations, the latter ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiorgan impairment. Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been commonly reported in patients with CoV infections; therefore, pathological analysis of renal parenchyma in these patients has been carried out in order to improve knowledge about underlying mechanisms. Viral infection has been demonstrated in the renal tubular epithelial cells by electron microscopy (EM), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and in situ hybridization (ISH), although with conflicting results. Light microscopy (LM) changes have been described in the renal parenchyma primarily in the form of acute renal tubular damage, possibly due to direct viral cytopathic effect and immune-mediated mechanisms such as cytokine storm syndrome. In this review, we describe and discuss the spectrum of histological, ultrastructural, and molecular findings in SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2-related renal pathology obtained from postmortem studies, as well as intrinsic limitations and pitfalls of current diagnostic techniques.

COVID-19 , Kidney Diseases , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , China , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
Updates Surg ; 73(2): 745-752, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002181


Since the beginning of the pandemic due to the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its related disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), several articles reported negative outcomes in surgery of infected patients. Aim of this study is to report results of patients with COVID-19-positive swab, in the perioperative period after surgery. Data of COVID-19-positive patients undergoing emergent or oncological surgery, were collected in a retrospective, multicenter study, which involved 20 Italian institutions. Collected parameters were age, sex, body mass index, COVID-19-related symptoms, patients' comorbidities, surgical procedure, personal protection equipment (PPE) used in operating rooms, rate of postoperative infection among healthcare staff and complications, within 30-postoperative days. 68 patients, who underwent surgery, resulted COVID-19-positive in the perioperative period. Symptomatic patients were 63 (92.5%). Fever was the main symptom in 36 (52.9%) patients, followed by dyspnoea (26.5%) and cough (13.2%). We recorded 22 (32%) intensive care unit admissions, 23 (33.8%) postoperative pulmonary complications and 15 (22%) acute respiratory distress syndromes. As regards the ten postoperative deaths (14.7%), 6 cases were related to surgical complications. One surgeon, one scrub nurse and two circulating nurses were infected after surgery due to the lack of specific PPE. We reported less surgery-related pulmonary complications and mortality in Sars-CoV-2-infected patients, than in literature. Emergent and oncological surgery should not be postponed, but it is mandatory to use full PPE, and to adopt preoperative screenings and strategies that mitigate the detrimental effect of pulmonary complications, mostly responsible for mortality.

COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/transmission , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
Panminerva Med ; 64(1): 80-95, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-875063


The ongoing global Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been posing challenges to proper patients' management. Lungs are the first, and often the most affected organ by SARS-CoV-2; viral infection involves and damages both epithelial and vascular compartments, sometimes leading to severe and even fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome. Histopathological findings, mainly from post-mortem examination of COVID-19 deceased patients, have been increasingly published in the last few months, helping to elucidate the sequence of events resulting in organ injury and the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of this novel disease. A multidisciplinary approach to autopsy, including light microscopy examination along with the detection of viral proteins and/or RNA in tissue samples through ancillary techniques, provided crucial information on the mechanisms underlying the often-heterogeneous clinical picture of COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans