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1.
mBio ; : e0214122, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001782

ABSTRACT

Examining the neutralizing capacity of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) used to treat COVID-19, as well as antibodies recovered from unvaccinated, previously vaccinated, and infected individuals, against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs) remains critical to study. Here, we report on a SARS-CoV-2 nosocomial outbreak caused by the SARS-CoV-2 R.1 variant harboring the E484K mutation in a 281-bed psychiatric facility in New Jersey among unvaccinated inpatients and health care professionals (HCPs). A total of 81 inpatients and HCPs tested positive for SARS-Cov-2 by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR from 29 October 9 to 30 November 2020. The R.1 variant exhibits partial or complete resistance to two MAbs in clinical use, as well as 2 receptor binding domain MAbs and 4 N-terminal domain (NTD) MAbs. NTD MAbs against pseudovirus harboring single characteristic R.1 mutations highlight the role of S255F in loss of activity. Additionally, we note dampened neutralization capacity by plasma from individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection or sera from vaccinated individuals. The relative resistance of the R.1 variant is likely lower than that of B.1.351 and closer to that of P.1 and B.1.526. The R.1 lineage has been reported in 47 states in the United States and 40 countries. Although high proportions exhibited symptoms (26% and 61% among patients and HCPs, respectively) and relative antibody resistance, we detected only 10 R.1 variants from over 2,900 samples (~0.34%) collected from January to October 2021. Among 3 vaccinated individuals previously infected with R.1, we observed robust neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 wild type and VOCs. IMPORTANCE The neutralizing capacities of monoclonal antibodies used to treat COVID-19 and of those recovered from previously infected and vaccinated individuals against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) remain important questions. We report on a nosocomial outbreak caused by a SARS-CoV-2 R.1 variant harboring an E484K mutation among 81 unvaccinated inpatients and health care professionals. We note high attack rates with symptoms in nearly 50% of infected individuals, in sharp contrast to an unrelated institutional outbreak caused by the R.1 variant among a vaccinated population. We found little evidence of significant community spillover. This variant exhibits partial or complete resistance to two monoclonal antibodies in clinical use and dampened the neutralization capacity of convalescent-phase plasma from individuals with previous infection or sera from vaccinated individuals. Among three vaccinated individuals previously infected with R.1, we observed robust neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 wild type and VOCs. These findings underscore the importance of vaccination for prevention of symptomatic COVID-19 disease.

2.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-296897

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has infected over 115 million people and caused over 2.5 million deaths worldwide. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical manifestations of COVID-19, as well as what distinguishes them from common seasonal influenza virus and other lung injury states such as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), remains poorly understood. To address these challenges, we combined transcriptional profiling of 646 clinical nasopharyngeal swabs and 39 patient autopsy tissues, matched with spatial protein and expression profiling (GeoMx) across 357 tissue sections. These results define both body-wide and tissue-specific (heart, liver, lung, kidney, and lymph nodes) damage wrought by the SARS-CoV-2 infection, evident as a function of varying viral load (high vs. low) during the course of infection and specific, transcriptional dysregulation in splicing isoforms, T cell receptor expression, and cellular expression states. In particular, cardiac and lung tissues revealed the largest degree of splicing isoform switching and cell expression state loss. Overall, these findings reveal a systemic disruption of cellular and transcriptional pathways from COVID-19 across all tissues, which can inform subsequent studies to combat the mortality of COVID-19, as well to better understand the molecular dynamics of lethal SARS-CoV-2 infection and other viruses.

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