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1.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997184

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic changed the time-dependent cardiac arrest network. This study aims to understand whether the rescue standards of CPR and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) were handled differently during pandemic compared to the previous year. METHODS: Data for the years 2019 and 2020 were provided by the records of the Lombardy office of the Regional Agency for Emergency and Urgency (AREU). We analysed where the cardiac arrest occurred, when CPR started and whether the bystanders used PAD. RESULTS: During 2020, there was a reduction in CPRs performed by bystanders (OR = 0.936 [CI95% 0.882-0.993], P = 0.029) and in the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) (OR = 0.621 [CI95% 0.563- 0.685], P < 0.0001), while there was no significant reduction in the use of PAD. Analysing only March, the period of the first wave in Lombardy, the comparison shows a reduction in bystanders CPRs (OR = 0.727 [CI95% 0.602- 0.877], P = 0.0008), use of PAD (OR = 0.441 [CI95% 0.272-0.716], P = 0.0009) and in ROSC (OR = 0.179 [CI95% 0.124-0.257], P < 0.0001). These phenomena could be influenced by the different setting in which the OHCAs occurred; in fact, those that occurred in public places with a mandatory PAD were strongly reduced (OR = 0.49 [CI95% , 0.44-0.55], P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 had a profound impact on the time-dependant OHCA network. During the first pandemic wave, CPR and PAD used by bystanders decreased. The different context in which OHCAs occurred may partially explain these differences.

2.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 70(3): 303-309, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841790

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Lombardy region, in Northern Italy, suffered a major outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the end of February 2020. The health system was rapidly overwhelmed by the pandemic. It became evident that patients suffering from time-sensitive medical emergencies like stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, trauma and acute myocardial infarction required timely, effective and safe pathways to be treated. The problem was addressed by a regional decree that created a hub-and-spoke system for time-sensitive medical emergencies. METHODS: We report the re-organizational changes adopted at a hub hospital (despite having already destined to COVID-19 patients most resources), and the number of emergent procedures for medical emergencies on the first 30-day of activity. These data were compared with the hospital activity in the same period of the previous year. RESULTS: Organizational changes were implemented in few hours. Dedicated pathways for non-COVID-19 patients affected by a medical emergency were set up in the emergency department, in the labs and in the operating theater. Ten intensive beds were implemented from a high-dependency unit; two operating rooms were reserved 24 h/day to neurosurgical or trauma emergencies. The number of emergent procedures was not different from that of the previous year, no admission refusal, no treatment delay and no viral transmission to the treated patients were recorded. No viral transmission to health care workers was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Re-organization of a hospital in order to adopt a hub-and-spoke model resulted feasible and allowed to face acute coronary syndrome and other time-sensitive medical emergencies timely and safely.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(5): 649-656, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Scarce information is available on the duration of the protective effect of COVID-19 vaccination against the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its severe clinical consequences. We investigated the effect of time since vaccine completion on the SARS-CoV-2 infection and its severe forms. METHODS: In this retrospective observational analysis using the vaccination campaign integrated platform of the Italian region of Lombardy, 5 351 085 individuals aged 12 years or older who received complete vaccination from Jan 17 to July 31, 2021, were followed up from 14 days after vaccine completion until Oct 20, 2021. Changes over time in outcome rates (ie, SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe illness among vaccinated individuals) were analysed with age-period-cohort models. Trends in vaccine effectiveness (ie, outcomes comparison in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals) were also measured. FINDINGS: Overall, 14 140 infections and 2450 severe illnesses were documented, corresponding to incidence rates of 6·7 (95% CI 6·6-6·8) and 1·2 (1·1-1·2) cases per 10 000 person-months, respectively. From the first to the ninth month since vaccine completion, rates increased from 4·6 to 10·2 infections, and from 1·0 to 1·7 severe illnesses every 10 000 person-months. These figures correspond to relative reduction of vaccine effectiveness of 54·9% (95% CI 48·3-60·6) for infection and of 40·0% (16·2-57·0) for severe illness. The increasing infection rate was greater for individuals aged 60 years or older who received adenovirus-vectored vaccines (from 4·0 to 23·5 cases every 10 000 person-months). The increasing severe illness rates were similar for individuals receiving mRNA-based vaccines (from 1·1 to 1·5 every 10 000 person-months) and adenovirus-vectored vaccines (from 0·5 to 0·9 every 10 000 person-months). INTERPRETATION: Although the risk of infection after vaccination, and even more of severe illness, remains low, the gradual increase in clinical outcomes related to SARS-CoV-2 infection suggests that the booster campaign should be accelerated and that social and individual protection measures against COVID-19 spread should not be abandoned. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination , mRNA Vaccines
4.
Acta Biomed ; 92(5): e2021486, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The incidence of Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) is estimated at 1/1000 persons/year. In the pre-Covid-19 era world, OHCA survival rate in Europe was 7-6%. The main objective is to analyze OHCA survival in the Lombardy region by highlighting the factors related to both the victims' characteristics and the chain of survival. METHODS: All OHCAs were grouped into four pre-established periods in 2019 (14-23 January; 15-24 April; 15-24 July; 14-23 October). Following the Utstein method, we selected witnessed OHCAs with presumed cardiac etiology. The outcome of each case was collected in four moments in time: Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), Emergency Department (ED), 24 hours and 30 days. The neurological outcome 30 days after OHCA was also investigated and stratified with the Cerebral Performance Category Score (CPC). RESULTS: We selected 456 cases of OHCA with witnessed cardiac etiology. ROSC was achieved in 121 cases (26.5%), survival in the Emergency Departments in 110 patients (24.1%), after 24 hours in 86 (18.86%) and after 30 days in 72 (15.8%). Male sex was shown to improve OHCA survival. A shockable presentation rhythm, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) performed by bystanders and the activation of Public Access Defibrillation (PAD) positively influenced OHCA outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Males are more predisposed to incur an OHCA event than females, but they have greater chances of survival. Factors most related to survival are: shockable rhythm, bystanders CPR and the activation of a PAD. (www.actabiomedica.it).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Female , Humans , Male , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/etiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
5.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 39, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: The COVID-19 pandemic drastically strained the health systems worldwide, obligating the reassessment of how healthcare is delivered. In Lombardia, Italy, a Regional Emergency Committee (REC) was established and the regional health system reorganized, with only three hospitals designated as hubs for trauma care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of this reorganization of regional care, comparing the distribution of patients before and during the COVID-19 outbreak and to describe changes in the epidemiology of severe trauma among the two periods. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted using retrospectively collected data from the Regional Trauma Registry of Lombardia (LTR). We compared the data of trauma patients admitted to three hub hospitals before the COVID-19 outbreak (September 1 to November 19, 2019) with those recorded during the pandemic (February 21 to May 10, 2020) in the same hospitals. Demographic data, level of pre-hospital care (Advanced Life Support-ALS, Basic Life Support-BLS), type of transportation, mechanism of injury (MOI), abbreviated injury score (AIS, 1998 version), injury severity score (ISS), revised trauma score (RTS), and ICU admission and survival outcome of all the patients admitted to the three trauma centers designed as hubs, were reviewed. Screening for COVID-19 was performed with nasopharyngeal swabs, chest ultrasound, and/or computed tomography. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, trauma patients admitted to the hubs increased (46.4% vs 28.3%, p < 0.001) with an increase in pre-hospital time (71.8 vs 61.3 min, p < 0.01), while observed in hospital mortality was unaffected. TRISS, ISS, AIS, and ICU admission were similar in both periods. During the COVID-19 outbreak, we observed substantial changes in MOI of severe trauma patients admitted to three hubs, with increases of unintentional (31.9% vs 18.5%, p < 0.05) and intentional falls (8.4% vs 1.2%, p < 0.05), whereas the pandemic restrictions reduced road- related injuries (35.6% vs 60%, p < 0.05). Deaths on scene were significantly increased (17.7% vs 6.8%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 outbreak affected the epidemiology of severe trauma patients. An increase in trauma patient admissions to a few designated facilities with high level of care obtained satisfactory results, while COVID-19 patients overwhelmed resources of most other hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Registries , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Adult , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
6.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; 25(1): 1-7, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780212

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Lombardy region was among the areas most affected by COVID-19 infection worldwide; the Lombardy Emergency Medical System (EMS) responded immediately to this emergency. We analyzed several critical aspects to understand what occurred in that region. METHODS: This retrospective study compares the events managed by the dispatch center and the characteristics of the patients transported to the hospital -age, sex, SpO2, deaths- managed by the EMS in Brescia and Bergamo provinces between March-April 2020 and March-April 2019. Ambulances' waiting time at the hospitals before discharging patients and the patients' severity at emergency department admission were also analyzed. RESULTS: EMS managed 37,340 events in March-April 2020, +51.5% versus 2019. "Breathing" or "Infective" events reported to the dispatch center increased more than ten-fold (OR 25.1, p < 0.0001) in March 2020 and two-fold in April 2020 compared to 2019 (OR 3, p < 0.0001). Deaths increased +246% (OR 1.7, p < 0.0001), and patients not transported to hospital +481% (OR 2.9, p < 0.0001) in March 2020 compared to 2019. In some hospitals, ambulances waited more than one hour before discharging the patients, and the emergency departments doubled the admission of critically ill patients. Transported patients for "Breathing" or "Infective" events were primarily males (OR 1.5, p < 0.0001). The patients had lower SpO2 in 2020 than in 2019 and they were younger. CONCLUSIONS: The Lombardy region experienced an unexpected outbreak in an extremely short timeframe and in a limited area. The EMS coped with this pandemic, covering an extremely higher number of requests, with a ten-fold increase in the number of events managed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ambulances , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Disease Outbreaks , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Acta Biomed ; 91(2): 39-44, 2020 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-320825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: On the 21st of February, the first patient was tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at Codogno hospital in the Lombardy region. From that date, the Regional Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Trust (AREU) of the Lombardy region decided to apply Business Intelligence (BI) to the management of EMS during the epidemic. The aim of the study is to assess in this context the impact of BI on EMS management outcomes. METHODS: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak, AREU is using BI daily to track the number of first aid requests received from 112. BI analyses the number of requests that have been classified as respiratory and/or infectious episodes during the telephone dispatch interview. Moreover, BI allows identifying the numerical trend of episodes in each municipality (increasing, stable, decreasing). RESULTS: AREU decides to reallocate in the territory the resources based on real-time data recorded and elaborated by BI. Indeed, based on that data, the numbers of vehicles and personnel have been implemented in the municipalities that registered more episodes and where the clusters are supposed to be. BI has been of paramount importance in taking timely decisions on the management of EMS during COVID-19 outbreak.  Conclusions: Even if there is little evidence-based literature focused on BI impact within the health care, this study suggests that BI can be usefully applied to promptly identify clusters and patterns of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic and, consequently, make informed decisions that can improve the EMS management response to the outbreak.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Emergency Medical Services , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Epidemics , Humans , Intelligence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
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