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Cell Syst ; 12(8): 780-794.e7, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267622


COVID-19 is highly variable in its clinical presentation, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe organ damage and death. We characterized the time-dependent progression of the disease in 139 COVID-19 inpatients by measuring 86 accredited diagnostic parameters, such as blood cell counts and enzyme activities, as well as untargeted plasma proteomes at 687 sampling points. We report an initial spike in a systemic inflammatory response, which is gradually alleviated and followed by a protein signature indicative of tissue repair, metabolic reconstitution, and immunomodulation. We identify prognostic marker signatures for devising risk-adapted treatment strategies and use machine learning to classify therapeutic needs. We show that the machine learning models based on the proteome are transferable to an independent cohort. Our study presents a map linking routinely used clinical diagnostic parameters to plasma proteomes and their dynamics in an infectious disease.

Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Progression , Proteome/physiology , Age Factors , Blood Cell Count , Blood Gas Analysis , Enzyme Activation , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Machine Learning , Prognosis , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(2): 158-165, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703974


BACKGROUND: A cytokine storm conceivably contributes to manifestations of corona virus disease (COVID-19). Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) cause acute liver injury while serum detectability indicates systemic inflammation. AIMS: We explored a link between systemic IL-6, related acute phase proteins and liver injury in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: 655 patients with suspected COVID-19 were screened in the emergency department at the University Hospital of Innsbruck, Austria, between February and April 2020. 96 patients (∼15%) were hospitalized with COVID-19. 15 patients required intensive-care treatment (ICT). Plasma aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and gamma glutamyl transferase, as well as IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined by standard clinical assays. RESULTS: Of all hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 41 (42%) showed elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentration. COVID-19 patients with elevated AST exhibited significantly higher IL-6 (p < 0.001), ferritin (p < 0.001), LDH (p < 0.001) and CRP (p < 0.05) serum concentrations compared to patients with normal AST. Liver injury correlated with systemic IL-6 (p < 0.001), CRP (p < 0.001), ferritin (p < 0.001) and LDH (p < 0.001) concentration. In COVID-19 patients requiring ICT, correlations were more pronounced. CONCLUSION: Systemic inflammation could be a fuel for hepatic injury in COVID-19.

Acute-Phase Proteins/analysis , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19 , Cytokines/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Liver Diseases , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Correlation of Data , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Diseases/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 7(1)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646328


OBJECTIVE: Severe liver damage is associated with worse outcome in COVID-19. Our aim was to explore the degree of liver damage, liver stiffness (LS) and severity of illness in patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: We investigated 32 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the University Hospital of Innsbruck in a prospective cross-sectional study. We performed laboratory testing, liver and spleen sonography and elastography to measure organ stiffness. RESULTS: 12 patients (38%) showed elevated aminotransferases and gamma-glutamyltransferase levels. LS was positively correlated with elevated aminotransferase levels in patients with COVID-19 compared with those without elevated enzymes. Even mild liver damage raised LS significantly in COVID-19 as it was in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. Furthermore, higher LS measurements were significantly associated with illness severity like pneumonia, need for mechanical ventilation, and even death. CONCLUSION: Transient elastography is a useful and non-invasive tool to assess onset and severity of acute liver injury in patients with COVID-19 patients. Increased LS seems to be predictive for a more severe and complicated course of disease.

Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , Biopsy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , DNA, Viral/analysis , Female , Humans , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Function Tests , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index