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PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263140, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854993


BACKGROUND: Infection by the SARS-Cov-2 virus produces in humans a disease of highly variable and unpredictable severity. The presence of frequent genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the population might lead to a greater susceptibility to infection or an exaggerated inflammatory response. SARS-CoV-2 requires the presence of the ACE2 protein to enter in the cell and ACE2 is a regulator of the renin-angiotensin system. Accordingly, we studied the associations between 8 SNPs from AGTR1, ACE2 and ACE genes and the severity of the disease produced by the SARS-Cov-2 virus. METHODS: 318 (aged 59.6±17.3 years, males 62.6%) COVID-19 patients were grouped based on the severity of symptoms: Outpatients (n = 104, 32.7%), hospitalized on the wards (n = 73, 23.0%), Intensive Care Unit (ICU) (n = 84, 26.4%) and deceased (n = 57, 17.9%). Comorbidity data (diabetes, hypertension, obesity, lung disease and cancer) were collected for adjustment. Genotype distribution of 8 selected SNPs among the severity groups was analyzed. RESULTS: Four SNPs in ACE2 were associated with the severity of disease. While rs2074192 andrs1978124showed a protector effectassuming an overdominant model of inheritance (G/A vs. GG-AA, OR = 0.32, 95%CI = 0.12-0.82; p = 0.016 and A/G vs. AA-GG, OR = 0.37, 95%CI: 0.14-0.96; p = 0.038, respectively); the SNPs rs2106809 and rs2285666were associated with an increased risk of being hospitalized and a severity course of the disease with recessive models of inheritance (C/C vs. T/C-T/T, OR = 11.41, 95% CI: 1.12-115.91; p = 0.012) and (A/A vs. GG-G/A, OR = 12.61, 95% CI: 1.26-125.87; p = 0.0081). As expected, an older age (OR = 1.47), male gender (OR = 1.98) and comorbidities (OR = 2.52) increased the risk of being admitted to ICU or death vs more benign outpatient course. Multivariable analysis demonstrated the role of the certain genotypes (ACE2) with the severity of COVID-19 (OR: 0.31, OR 0.37 for rs2074192 and rs1978124, and OR = 2.67, OR = 2.70 for rs2106809 and rs2285666, respectively). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in hospitalized group for I/D SNP in ACE was not showed (p<0.05), which might be due to the association with the disease. No association between COVID-19 disease and the different AGTR1 SNPs was evidenced on multivariable, nevertheless the A/A genotype for rs5183 showed an higher hospitalization risk in patients with comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Different genetic variants in ACE2 were associated with a severe clinical course and death groups of patients with COVID-19. ACE2 common SNPs in the population might modulate severity of COVID-19 infection independently of other known markers like gender, age and comorbidities.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Female , Genotype , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 759119, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497034


Arrhythmogenic left ventricular cardiomyopathy (ALVC) is a rare heritable heart-muscle disorder characterized by a progressive loss of left ventricular myocardium and its replacement by fibrofatty tissue. Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the heart that may occur secondary to infections, immune system activation or exposure to drugs. Hot phases of ALVC present with chest pain and troponin rise, mimicking acute viral myocarditis and indicate a progression of the disease. Recently, myocarditis has also been described as an infrequent complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) mRNA vaccines. We herein report for the first time a case of probable myocarditis induced by Covid-19 vaccine in a patient with previous medical history of ALVC. We aim to highlight the common characteristics of ALVC and Covid-19 vaccine myocarditis and work through the differential diagnosis of these two entities.