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1.
Contemp Clin Trials ; : 107085, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2177074

ABSTRACT

Randomized controlled trials with a pretest-posttest design frequently yield ordered categorical outcome data. Focusing on the estimation of the win probability that a treated participant would have a better score than (or win over) a control participant, we developed methods for analysis and sample size planning for such trials. We exploited the analysis of covariance framework with the dependent variable being individual participants' win fractions at posttest and the covariate being the win fractions at pretest. The win fractions were obtained using the mid-ranks of the ordinal data. Simulation evaluation based on a recent randomized trial on COVID-19 suggests that the methods perform very well. A sample SAS code for data analysis is presented.

2.
Chest ; 162(4):A585-A586, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060638

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 1 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 patients requiring admission to an ICU have a higher risk of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) with a reported incidence of 19.6%-33.3%. CASE PRESENTATION: A 63-year-old male presented with progressively worsening dyspnea for one week. He has a past medical history of atrial fibrillation, hypertension, and obesity. He was tested positive for COVID about two weeks prior. He did receive a single dose of Moderna vaccine. Initial chest x-ray(CXR) showed diffuse ground-glass opacities. He was initiated on Remdesivir and decadron, and later received a dose of tocilizumab. He was intubated on hospital day 3 for worsened hypoxemia. Repeat CXR suggested some improvement but a new left lower lobe airspace haziness. He also had new-onset leukocytosis with elevated procalcitonin level. He was started on cefepime for concern of superimposed hospital-acquired pneumonia. A second dose of tocilizumab was administered. No clinical improvement was seen, and additional workups were obtained. Serial CXRs revealed increasing diffuse airspace opacities concerning for ARDS. Tracheal aspirate culture grew coagulase-negative staphylococcus and Aspergillosis Fumigatus. Cefepime was changed to vancomycin, and voriconazole and caspofungin were added. Unfortunately, the patient's respiratory status worsened with increasing ventilation requirement. He also developed septic shock and acute renal failure requiring CVVH. He became even more hypotensive after CVVH initiation, and multiple vasopressors were required to maintain his hemodynamics. Unfortunately, he continued to deteriorate and he also developed profound respiratory acidosis. He died shortly afterwards after family decided to withdraw care. DISCUSSION: In this case, in addition to superimposed bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary aspergillosis likely also contributed to his clinical deterioration. The mechanism by which fungal infections develop in COVID-19 infection is not well-understood. Severe COVID-related immune dysregulation, ARDS, and high-dose steroids use are potential culprits for the increased risk of IPA. Tocilizumab, an IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody used in patients with severe COVID-19 infection, may also predispose the patient to IPA according to post-marketing data. The mortality rate from current case reports is as high as 64.7%. Diagnosis and treatment in such a scenario remain a challenge. Sputum culture, serum Beta-galactomannan, Beta-D glucan, and aspergillosis PCR have low sensitivity. Tissue biopsy and CT scan in critically ill patients are often not feasible. Voriconazole is usually considered the first-line treatment in IPA. CYP3A4-mediated drug interactions between azoles and antiviral agents require further investigation. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should be aware that severe COVID-19 patients are at higher risk of IPA. The prognosis is poor. Early detection and treatment in clinically deteriorated patients are warranted. Reference #1: Borman, A.M., Palmer, M.D., Fraser, M., Patterson, Z., Mann, C., Oliver, D., Linton, C.J., Gough, M., Brown, P., Dzietczyk, A. and Hedley, M., 2020. COVID-19-associated invasive aspergillosis: data from the UK National Mycology Reference Laboratory. Journal of clinical microbiology, 59(1), pp.e02136-20. Reference #2: Lai CC, Yu WL. COVID-19 associated with pulmonary aspergillosis: A literature review. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2021;54(1):46-53. doi:10.1016/j.jmii.2020.09.004 Reference #3: Thompson Iii GR, Cornely OA, Pappas PG, et al. Invasive Aspergillosis as an Under-recognized Superinfection in COVID-19. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2020;7(7):ofaa242. Published 2020 Jun 19. doi:10.1093/ofid/ofaa242 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Jason Chang No relevant relationships by Jason Chang No relevant relationships by kaiqing Lin No relevant relationships by Guangchen Zou

3.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:371, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009157

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on methotrexate have reduced vaccine responses. Temporary discontinuation has improved immuno-genicity of anti-infuenza vaccine, but this strategy has not been evaluated in anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Objectives: To evaluate the effect on immunogenicity and safety of 2-week methotrexate (MTX) discontinuation after each dose of the Sinovac-CoronaVac vaccine versus MTX maintenance in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods: This was a single-center, prospective, randomized, investigator-blinded, intervention study (#NCT04754698, CoronavRheum), including adult RA patients (stable CDAI≤10, prednisone ≤7.5mg/day), randomized (1:1) to withdraw MTX (MTX-hold) for 2 weeks after each vaccine dose or maintain MTX (MTX-maintain), evaluated at D0, D28 and D69. Co-primary outcomes were anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG seroconversion(SC) and neutralizing antibody (NAb) positivity at D69. Secondary outcomes were geometric mean titers (GMT) and fare rates. For immunogenicity analyses, we excluded patients with baseline positive IgG/NAb, and, for safety reasons, those who fared at D28 (CDAI>10) and did not withdraw MTX twice. Results: Randomization included 138 patients with 9 exclusions (5 COVID-19, 4 protocol violations). Safety evaluation included 60 (MTX-hold) and 69 (MTX-maintain) patients. Further exclusions: 27 patients [13 (21.7%) vs. 14 (20.3%), p=0.848] with positive baseline IgG/NAb and 10 patients (21.3%) in MTX-hold with CDAI>10 at D28. At D69, MTX-hold (n=37) had a higher rate of seroconversion than MTX-maintain (n=55) group [29 (78.4%) vs 30 (54.5%), p=0.019], with parallel augmentation in GMT [34.2 (25.2-46.4) vs 16.8 (11.9-23.6), p=0.006]. No differences were observed for NAb positivity [23 (62.2%) vs 27 (49.1%), p=0.217]. At D28 fare, rates were comparable in both groups (CDAI, p=0.122;DAS28-CRP, p=0.576), whereas CDAI>10 was more frequent in MTX-hold at D69 (p=0.024). Conclusion: We provide novel data that 2-week MTX withdrawal after each Sinovac-CoronaVac vaccine dose improves anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG response. The increased fare rates after second MTX withdrawal may be attributed to the short-term interval between vaccine doses. This strategy requires close surveillance and shared decision making due to the possibility of fares.

4.
Diabetologia ; 64(SUPPL 1):362-362, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1431597
5.
AHFE Conference on Human Factors in Architecture, Sustainable Urban Planning and Infrastructure, 2021 ; 272:115-124, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1359883

ABSTRACT

Due to the changes of lifestyles brought by COVID-19, people have spent most of their time in residential communities for the past about one year, which makes people pay more attention to their psychological feelings and emotional needs in their living environments. This study aimed to explore the relationship between multiple influencing factors and residential well-being under COVID-19. By collecting 172 valid online questionnaires, this study explored the aspects of the residential community which would cause more attention after experiencing COVID-19. Based on previous research, the paper analysed the influence of six environmental factors and five emotional factors on residential well-being by SPSS and discussed the reasons for the differences between the results of correlation analysis and attitude analysis. The results of the study contribute to propose strategies for the transformation of residential communities to improve people’s residential well-being when facing an epidemic in the future. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

6.
Journal of Xiangya Medicine ; 6(March), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1350599

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) may affect the cardiovascular system in multiple ways causing acute cardiac injury, cardiac ischemia, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac deaths. Fulminant SARS-CoV-2 viral myocarditis have been reported, though it is likely relatively rare. In both children and adults, COVID-19 may also cause a Kawasaki-like multisystem inflammatory syndrome with heart involvement being a prominent feature. Possible mechanisms of cardiovascular injury in COVID-19 include hypoxia from lung disease, direct viral infection of cells in the cardiovascular system, down-regulation of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), dysregulated immune response, endothelial dysfunction, and thrombosis. Medications used to treat COVID-19 may also have cardiac side effects including QT-prolongation and arrhythmias. Troponin elevation or acute cardiac injury may be used to risk-stratify patients with severe COVID-19. The dysregulated immune response in COVID-19 can be targeted with glucocorticoids and possibly immunomodulators. Anticoagulation may be indicated in select COVID-19 patients to prevent or treat thrombotic complications. The relationship between angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) and COVID-19 is not completely understood and major societies have recommended that patients who were otherwise benefiting from ACEIs or ARBs continue to take it. © Journal of Xiangya Medicine. All rights reserved.

7.
Protein & Cell ; 09:09, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915250

ABSTRACT

In the original publication the author's name 'Dimitri Lavillete' is published incorrectly. The correct author name should be spelt as 'Dimitri Lavillette' is provided in this correction.

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