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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 652296, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268656

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has significantly caused socioeconomic impacts. However, little is known about the psychological effect of COVID-19 on home-quarantined nursing students. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence and major determinants of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in Chinese nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic quarantine period. An online survey was conducted on a sample of 6,348 home-quarantined nursing students. Mental health status was assessed by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale (GAD-7), the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-Item Scale (PHQ-9) and the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Check List-Civilian version (PCL-C), respectively. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors of anxiety, depression and PTSS. The overall prevalence of anxiety was 34.97%, and the rates of "mild," "moderate," and "severe" anxiety were 26.24, 7.04, and 1.69%, respectively. Depression was detected in 40.22% of the nursing students, and the prevalence of "mild," "moderate," "moderately severe," and "severe" depression was 27.87, 7.18, 4.08, and 1.09%, respectively. The overall prevalence of PTSS was 14.97%, with the prevalence of "mild" and "moderate-to-severe" PTSS reported at 7.04 and 7.93%, respectively. Male gender and insufficient social support were common risk factors for anxiety, depression and PTSS. In conclusion, about one-third, two-fifths, and one-seventh of Chinese nursing students had anxiety, depression and PTSS during the period of home quarantine, respectively. Timely and appropriate psychological interventions for nursing students should be implemented to reduce the psychological harm caused by COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Transp Res Part A Policy Pract ; 170: 103625, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261422

ABSTRACT

An examination is conducted of airline strategies during the covid-19 pandemic using data from the United States. Our findings show that airlines pursued diverse strategies in terms of route entry and retention, pricing, and load factors. At the route level, a more detailed examination is conducted of the performance of a middle-seat blocking strategy designed to increase the safety of air travel. We show that this strategy (i.e., not making middle seats available to passengers) likely resulted in revenue losses for carriers, an estimated US $3,300 per flight. This revenue loss provides an indication as to why the middle seat blocking strategy was discontinued by all US airlines despite ongoing safety concerns.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(5)2023 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258713

ABSTRACT

This article analyzes the representation of women in Chinese news reports about COVID-19 in order to examine the consequences of the pandemic on gender relations in China. It draws on the linguistic framework of appraisal theory for identifying evaluative language and takes Chinese news reports on the COVID-19 frontline in 2020 as the major data sources. The study finds that while the narrative about women's capacity in combating the virus, resolution in the face of adversity, and sense of responsibility help build a shared feeling of community to reconstruct the disturbed social order, the descriptions about the evaluation and feelings of female characters lead to undesirable outcomes in gender relations in China. Specifically, the newspapers' reports on COVID-19 mainly focus on group interests and accomplishments and overlook women's contributions in containing the pandemic. Meanwhile, the news reports devoted to constructing model female characters that highlight transcendent qualities place considerable pressure on everyday women. Furthermore, journalists tend to infuse their reports with gender bias when depicting women, including aesthetic appreciation of appearance and a focus on emotional reactions and domestic roles, which hinders the professional identity of women. This article sheds light on gender relations in China amid the pandemic, as well as the study of gender equality in media discourse.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Male , East Asian People , Sexism , Interpersonal Relations , Language
4.
Viral Immunol ; 36(3): 153-162, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268724

ABSTRACT

We investigated the persistence of SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies in serum (CoV-2-SNAb) against the "WH-Human 1" coronavirus in 57 convalescent persons from January 2020 to January 2021. The CoV-2-SNAb response against authentic "WH-Human 1" showed a significant (p < 0.01) neutralizing high effect (≥95%) in the following manner: by 94.7% neutralization for up to 6 months, by 73.1% for up to 8 months, and by 31.7% for up to 10 months in correlation with a significant decrease in the concentration of the virus determined by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein extracellular domain and spike-receptor-binding domain (S-RBD). There was neutralizing effect (<95%) when the S-RBD optical density (OD) value was more than 1.0, showing a suitable threshold of S-RBD = 1.0 (antibody-tittering, OD). However, in some convalescent persons, no neutralizing effect (<95%) was observed although the SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies were bound to the S-RBD (OD >1.0). The neutralization of the virus in these cases may not involve S-RBD, but rather B- and T cell memory responses in overall immunity, using the threshold value (OD = 1.0) of S-RBD as a simple and effective method to determine the neutralization effect of the antibody efficacy and use of vaccination in combination with a standard pseudovirus neutralizing assay. We suggest that convalescent persons should contact their physicians 6-month postinfection to test the function of their serum neutralizing antibodies and determine whether administering a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is necessary to prevent the development of severe illness in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Neutralization Tests
5.
J Affect Disord ; 327: 416-424, 2023 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236926

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the context of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, research on personal-job fit and physical and mental health was inadequate. We aimed to explore the relationship between personal-job fit and physical and mental health among medical staff during the two years after COVID-19 pandemic and verify emotional labor and burnout as mediators. METHODS: A total of 2868 medical staff from two general hospitals, were included from July 3 to July 27, 2022, in Wuhan, China. SPSS was used for statistical description, and AMOS was used for structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the mediating effect of emotional labor and burnout. RESULTS: In the SEM, the total effect of personal-job fit on physical and mental health was significant (ß = 0.855, 95 % CI: 0.748-0.972). The mediating effect of surface acting between personal-job fit and physical and mental health was significant (ß = 0.078, 95 % CI: 0.053-0.110). The mediating effect of burnout was significant (ß = 0.220, 95 % CI: 0.175-0.274), but the mediating effect of deep acting was not significant (ß = 0.006, 95 % CI: -0.013-0.025). The chain mediating effect of surface acting or deep acting and burnout between personal-job fit and physical and mental health was significant (ß = 0.082, 95 % CI: 0.059-0.108; ß = 0.049, 95 % CI: 0.038-0.063). LIMITATIONS: Owing to the cross-sectional study, causal relationship, and direction of effects among variables could not be determined. CONCLUSIONS: Personal-job fit has significant direct and indirect effects on physical and mental health. Monitoring and intervening in personal-job fit, emotional labor, and burnout might be effective ways to promoting physical and mental health among medical staff during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Burnout, Psychological , Medical Staff , Job Satisfaction
6.
ANQ ; 35(4):360, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2106792
7.
J Affect Disord ; 321: 126-133, 2023 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082562

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence on the relationship between burnout and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is limited. We aimed to evaluate the association between burnout and PTSD symptoms among medical staff two years after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Wuhan, China, and explore the mediating roles of social support and psychological resilience. METHODS: A multicenter survey was conducted online from January to March 2022 among healthcare professionals from six general hospitals. Hierarchical linear regression was used to detect the predictors of PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the pathways from burnout to PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: Hierarchical linear regression showed that burnout, social support, and psychological resilience were significant predictors of PTSD symptoms among medical staff. In the SEM, the standardized total effect of burnout on PTSD symptoms was 0.336(bias-corrected 95 % confidence interval [0.303, 0.367], P < 0.001). Social support and psychological resilience partially mediated the relationship between burnout and PTSD symptoms (indirect effects accounted for 22.3 % of the total effect). LIMITATIONS: Owing to the cross-sectional design, only clues to causal explanations can be provided. CONCLUSIONS: Burnout has significant direct and indirect effects on PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, social support and psychological resilience might be effective ways to reduce the impact of burnout on PTSD symptoms in medical staff after a major public health outbreak.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Social Support , Burnout, Psychological , China/epidemiology , Medical Staff
8.
Brain Behav ; 12(11): e2785, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074926

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first reported in Wuhan, China, and has had a negative psychological impact on the medical staff. However, the long-term psychological effects of COVID-19 were still unclear. We aimed to assess the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among medical staff 2 years after COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan, China. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter study in five general hospitals in Wuhan, China. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-5. Depression was measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Multivariate adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association among demographic variables, depressive indicators, and PTSD. RESULTS: In a sample of 1795 medical staff, 295 (16.40%) participants reported PTSD and 329 (18.30%) reported depression. After multivariate adjusted logistic regression analyses, participants involved in COVID-19 clinical work, unsafe working environment, poor doctor-patient relationship, unhealth status, work dissatisfaction, and low family support were at a high risk for PTSD and depression 2 years after the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Although it has been more than 2 years after the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, the mental health of medical staff remains a concern. In particular, medical staff involved in the clinical care of COVID-19 patients showed a higher risk of PTSD and depression 2 years after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study may provide some useful suggestions for psychological interventions for medical staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Physician-Patient Relations , Anxiety/psychology , Medical Staff , China/epidemiology
9.
Transp Policy (Oxf) ; 127: 22-30, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996596

ABSTRACT

We investigate the impact of air travel mobility and global connectivity on viral transmission by tracing the announced arrival time of COVID-19 and its major variants in countries around the world. We find that air travel intensity to a country, "effective distance" as measured by international air traffic, is generally a significant predictor for the announced viral arrival time. The level of healthcare infrastructure in a country is less important at predicting the initial transmission and detection time of a virus. A policy variable, notably the percentage reduction of total inbound seats in response to a viral outbreak, is largely ineffective at delaying viral transmission and discovery time. These findings suggest that air network connectivity is a major contributor to the speed of viral transmission. However, government attempts to delay viral transmission by reducing air network connectivity after the virus is first discovered are largely ineffective.

10.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 823480, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979069

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety among university teachers 1 year after the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and provide empirical evidence of psychological intervention. Methods: A multicenter study was conducted to examine the prevalence of anxiety among 10,302 teachers in 21 Chinese universities from February 12 to April 23, 2021. The generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale (GAD-7) was used to assess symptoms of anxiety. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relationship between potential influence and anxiety symptoms. Results: The overall prevalence of anxiety was 40.0% 1 year after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, which was found to be higher in women than in men (41.32% vs. 38.22%; p < 0.0001). The multivariate logistic regression showed that being the female (OR = 1.207; 95%CI: 1.103-1.318), age ≥60 years (OR = 2.004; 95%CI: 1.128-3.560), being married (OR = 1.319; 95%CI: 1.150-1.513), and poor family economic status (OR = 1.580; 95%CI: 1.321-1.891) were significantly associated with anxiety. Participants with moderate, slight, or no impact of COVID-19 on life (OR for moderate, 0.557; 95%CI, 0.508-0.611; OR for slight/no, 0.377; 95%CI, 0.323-0.439) showed a reduced risk of anxiety compared to those who reported a significant effect. Conclusions: Symptoms of anxiety were found in about two-fifths of Chinese university teachers 1 year after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings suggest that the government should improve the dynamic tracking of mental health and adopt long-term intervention strategies.

13.
Seizure ; 99: 71-74, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852058

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the safety of inactivated coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) vaccine in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) patients with epilepsy. METHODS: All patients with epilepsy were selected from Efficacy and Safety of Sirolimus in Pediatric Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis (ESOSPIT) project and younger than 17 years old. The patients were treated with mTOR inhibitors (rapamycin). A total of 44 patients who completed the two-dose inactivated COVID-19 vaccine between July 7, 2021, and January 1, 2022, were enrolled. RESULTS: The median age of seizure onset was 23 months. About two-thirds of patients have focal seizures. Thirty-three patients use antiseizure medications. The mean duration of rapamycin treatment was 55.59 ± 18.42 months. Adverse reactions within 28 days after injection occurred in 11 patients (25%), all were under 12 years old. Injection site pain was the most reported event (20.45%), which was mild in severity and improved within one day. All patients had no seizure-related changes after vaccination. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was well tolerated and safe in TSC patients with epilepsy, as well as for those treated with mTOR inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Tuberous Sclerosis , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Epilepsy/chemically induced , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Humans , Infant , MTOR Inhibitors , Seizures/drug therapy , Sirolimus/adverse effects , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , Tuberous Sclerosis/complications , Tuberous Sclerosis/drug therapy
14.
World J Psychiatry ; 11(11): 1106-1115, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated that childhood exposure to domestic violence is a common factor in posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but it is unclear whether PTG and PTSD share a common/different underlying mechanism. AIM: To explore the common/different underlying mechanism of PTG and PTSD. METHODS: Between February 12 and 17, 2020, a nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted in China among 2038 university students, and a self-administered questionnaire was used for the data collection. The data included demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, and subjective social economic status, and childhood exposure to domestic violence scale that was selected from the Chinese version of revised Adverse Childhood Experiences Question, Self-compassion Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and the Abbreviated PTSD Checklist-Civilian version. A structural equation model was used to test the hypotheses. RESULTS: Exposure to domestic violence was significantly associated with PTG and PTSD via a 1-step indirect path of self-compassion (PTG: ß = -0.023, 95%CI: -0.44 to -0.007; PTSD: ß = 0.008, 95%CI: 0.002, 0.014) and via a 2-step indirect path from self-compassion to resilience (PTG: ß = -0.008, 95%CI: -0.018 to -0.002; PTSD: ß = 0.013, 95%CI: 0.004-0.024). However, resilience did not mediate the relationship between exposure to domestic violence and PTG and PTSD. CONCLUSION: PTG and PTSD are common results of childhood exposure to domestic violence, which may be influenced by self-compassion and resilience.

16.
Matern Fetal Med ; 2(2): 68-71, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410267

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, as obstetricians, we also face great challenges. We need to identify pregnant patients with 2019 coronavirus disease infection timely, and give them appropriate treatment in order to obtain a good maternal and infant prognosis. Here, we would like to share a case and provide some suggestions on how to screen, diagnose and treat pregnant women with 2019 coronavirus disease infection during the outbreak.

17.
Matern Fetal Med ; 3(1): 24-32, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288126

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pregnancy and neonatal outcomes of women who recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that developed in early pregnancy. METHODS: This case series analyzed five pregnant women (26-33 years) whom recovered from COVID-19 which were developed in early pregnancy (6-27 weeks) and admitted at the Wuhan Union Hospital from January 15, 2020 to April 30, 2020. The clinical manifestation, laboratory examinations, treatment, pregnancy outcomes, maternal and neonatal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) throat swab reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test results, and SARS-CoV-2 antibody test results in neonates were reviewed. The placental pathology, placental angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression were studied by hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry staining, SARS-CoV-2 presence was examined by QT-PCR. We also followed up the infants at 3-6 months. RESULTS: Three pregnant women were diagnosed with COVID-19 in early pregnancy (Cases 1-3), and two were serum immunoglobulin G positive asymptomatic cases (Cases 4 and 5). Cases 1-3 showed complete recovery after severe COVID-19. Case 3 was infected at 6 weeks of gestation during the first trimester and had induced medical abortion at 12 weeks of gestation. All neonates had no pneumonia, SARS-CoV-2 mRNA reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and serum immunoglobulin M were negative, and immunoglobulin G were positive. All placental samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2 in the nucleic acid test. Placental pathology showed chronic ischemia changes. ACE-2 expressed in both placenta and decidua. The follow-up showed that the infants were healthy and asymptomatic at 3-6 months. CONCLUSION: No adverse outcomes was observed in our case series. However, systemic inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection may cause placental injury. At the time of delivery after recovery from COVID-19, no SARS-CoV-2 positive results was found in the placenta in this case series.

18.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 43(4): 1072-1081, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285959

ABSTRACT

Jingyin granules, a marketed antiviral herbal medicine, have been recommended for treating H1N1 influenza A virus infection and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. To fight viral diseases in a more efficient way, Jingyin granules are frequently co-administered in clinical settings with a variety of therapeutic agents, including antiviral drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, and other Western medicines. However, it is unclear whether Jingyin granules modulate the pharmacokinetics of Western drugs or trigger clinically significant herb-drug interactions. This study aims to assess the inhibitory potency of the herbal extract of Jingyin granules (HEJG) against human drug-metabolizing enzymes and to clarify whether HEJG can modulate the pharmacokinetic profiles of Western drug(s) in vivo. The results clearly demonstrated that HEJG dose-dependently inhibited human CES1A, CES2A, CYPs1A, 2A6, 2C8, 2C9, 2D6, and 2E1; this herbal medicine also time- and NADPH-dependently inhibited human CYP2C19 and CYP3A. In vivo tests showed that HEJG significantly increased the plasma exposure of lopinavir (a CYP3A-substrate drug) by 2.43-fold and strongly prolonged its half-life by 1.91-fold when HEJG (3 g/kg) was co-administered with lopinavir to rats. Further investigation revealed licochalcone A, licochalcone B, licochalcone C and echinatin in Radix Glycyrrhizae, as well as quercetin and kaempferol in Folium Llicis Purpureae, to be time-dependent CYP3A inhibitors. Collectively, our findings reveal that HEJG modulates the pharmacokinetics of CYP substrate-drug(s) by inactivating CYP3A, providing key information for both clinicians and patients to use herb-drug combinations for antiviral therapy in a scientific and reasonable way.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors , Herb-Drug Interactions , Humans , Microsomes, Liver , Rats
19.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(2): 228-235, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193157

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with unknown origin spread rapidly to 222 countries, areas or territories. To investigate the genomic evolution and variation in the early phase of COVID-19 pandemic in Guangdong, 60 specimens of SARS-CoV-2 were used to perform whole genome sequencing, and genomics, amino acid variation and Spike protein structure modeling analyses. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the early variation in the SARS-CoV-2 genome was still intra-species, with no evolution to other coronaviruses. There were one to seven nucleotide variations (SNVs) in each genome and all SNVs were distributed in various fragments of the genome. The Spike protein bound with human receptor, an amino acid salt bridge and a potential furin cleavage site were found in the SARS-CoV-2 using molecular modeling. Our study clarified the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 genomic evolution, variation and Spike protein structure in the early phase of local cases in Guangdong, which provided reference for generating prevention and control strategies and tracing the source of new outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Furin/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Protein Binding/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
20.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 562700, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993364

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic infectious disease. Whether SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted through breast milk is unknown. Here, we report a breastfeeding woman with COVID-19 presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms and persistent SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity in both her oropharyngeal swabs and feces, but negativity in her breastmilk. After appearance of serum SARS-CoV-2-IgG, she began to bottle feed her baby with breastmilk without transmission. This report facilitates the understanding of breastfeeding-related risks in COVID-19.

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