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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310723

ABSTRACT

Objectives: : To assess the mental status of Chinese teachers during the COVID-19 epidemic, and to provide theoretical evidences for psychological intervention. Methods: : From October 23, 2020 to December 12, 2020, we conducted the online survey. Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale (GAD-7) was used to assess anxiety symptoms. Classified and continuous data were reported as numbers, percentages, and Mean ± SD, respectively. Multivariate Logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between different factors and anxiety symptoms. Results: : A total of 10302 university teachers participated in this study, 4416 of them (40.0%) showed anxiety symptoms. Female gender ( OR =1.207) and the age of ≥60 years old ( OR =2.004) were associated with anxiety. Being married ( OR =1.319) was the risk factor for anxiety;being neutral ( OR =1.292), or not-support on returning school ( OR =1.620) was common risk factors for anxiety. Conclusions: : About two-fifths of Chinese university teachers reported anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 epidemic. The government should pay more attention to the mental health of teachers, take timely and appropriate psychological intervention measures, improve the psychological adjustment ability of teachers, and reduce the psychological harm of COVID-19 epidemic to teachers.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325512

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 isspreading all over the world.The main symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough,fatigue, and myalgia. However, there are few reports onolfactoryand gustatory dysfunctions in patients with COVID-19. Objective: To investigate the incidence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions in patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection, in Wuhan, China. Methods: : In this retrospective study,we collected 81 confirmed cases of COVID-19 from the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, from February 2020 to March 2020, and analyzed the demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations (including olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions), laboratory findings,and comorbidities. Results: : A total of 81 confirmed COVID-19 patients were enrolledin this study (38 males). The most prevalent symptoms include cough, myalgia, and loss of appetite. On admission, 25 (30.9%) of all patients reported either olfactory dysfunction (OD) or gustatory dysfunction (GD), and 7 (8.6%) reported both OD and GD. 13.6% and 25.9% of allpatients reported OD and GD, respectively. OD and GD were not associated with disease severity. Pearson correlation analysisidentified some factors are positively correlated with OD and GD, including headache or dizziness (r = 0.342, P = 0.002), dark urine (r = 0.256, P = 0.021), IgM titer (r = 0.305, P = 0.01), and diabetes (r = 0.275, P = 0.013). In 81.8% of the cases with OD and 28.6% of the cases with GD, the symptomslasted for at least 1 month after discharge.3.6% of inpatients without OD developed OD after discharge. Conclusion: OD and GDare common in COVID-19.These symptoms appear early during thecourse of disease, and may last for at least 1 month.The incidence of OD and GDisrelated to neurological manifestations, diabetics, and IgM titers.

3.
World J Psychiatry ; 11(11): 1106-1115, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated that childhood exposure to domestic violence is a common factor in posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but it is unclear whether PTG and PTSD share a common/different underlying mechanism. AIM: To explore the common/different underlying mechanism of PTG and PTSD. METHODS: Between February 12 and 17, 2020, a nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted in China among 2038 university students, and a self-administered questionnaire was used for the data collection. The data included demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, and subjective social economic status, and childhood exposure to domestic violence scale that was selected from the Chinese version of revised Adverse Childhood Experiences Question, Self-compassion Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and the Abbreviated PTSD Checklist-Civilian version. A structural equation model was used to test the hypotheses. RESULTS: Exposure to domestic violence was significantly associated with PTG and PTSD via a 1-step indirect path of self-compassion (PTG: ß = -0.023, 95%CI: -0.44 to -0.007; PTSD: ß = 0.008, 95%CI: 0.002, 0.014) and via a 2-step indirect path from self-compassion to resilience (PTG: ß = -0.008, 95%CI: -0.018 to -0.002; PTSD: ß = 0.013, 95%CI: 0.004-0.024). However, resilience did not mediate the relationship between exposure to domestic violence and PTG and PTSD. CONCLUSION: PTG and PTSD are common results of childhood exposure to domestic violence, which may be influenced by self-compassion and resilience.

4.
European Review ; 29(6):794-804, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1521675

ABSTRACT

This article analyses Chongqing Daily’s narratives about the front-line workers during the pandemic outbreak and their role in containing the Covid-19. These narratives foreground the disruption of filial connections and family life of those on the front lines as well as the physical toll their work takes on the bodies of these workers. By highlighting the suffering of front-line workers through familiar experiences relating to the body and family connections, this article argues that these narratives enabled inter-subjective connections between the front-line workers and the rest of the population and, therefore, helped foster a feeling of solidarity among the population in controlling the virus. The descriptions about the practices of front-line workers in the quarantined areas and their social moral meaning also functioned as action models and explanatory frameworks for the public to rationalize and assign meaning to the behaviour required of them during the lockdown period, and thus encouraged a shared commitment to combating the virus. Thus, the Chongqing Daily narratives strengthened the social cohesion in Chongqing and helped unite the population for a total war against the pandemic.

5.
Matern Fetal Med ; 2(2): 68-71, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410267

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, as obstetricians, we also face great challenges. We need to identify pregnant patients with 2019 coronavirus disease infection timely, and give them appropriate treatment in order to obtain a good maternal and infant prognosis. Here, we would like to share a case and provide some suggestions on how to screen, diagnose and treat pregnant women with 2019 coronavirus disease infection during the outbreak.

6.
Matern Fetal Med ; 3(1): 24-32, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288126

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pregnancy and neonatal outcomes of women who recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that developed in early pregnancy. METHODS: This case series analyzed five pregnant women (26-33 years) whom recovered from COVID-19 which were developed in early pregnancy (6-27 weeks) and admitted at the Wuhan Union Hospital from January 15, 2020 to April 30, 2020. The clinical manifestation, laboratory examinations, treatment, pregnancy outcomes, maternal and neonatal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) throat swab reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test results, and SARS-CoV-2 antibody test results in neonates were reviewed. The placental pathology, placental angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression were studied by hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry staining, SARS-CoV-2 presence was examined by QT-PCR. We also followed up the infants at 3-6 months. RESULTS: Three pregnant women were diagnosed with COVID-19 in early pregnancy (Cases 1-3), and two were serum immunoglobulin G positive asymptomatic cases (Cases 4 and 5). Cases 1-3 showed complete recovery after severe COVID-19. Case 3 was infected at 6 weeks of gestation during the first trimester and had induced medical abortion at 12 weeks of gestation. All neonates had no pneumonia, SARS-CoV-2 mRNA reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and serum immunoglobulin M were negative, and immunoglobulin G were positive. All placental samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2 in the nucleic acid test. Placental pathology showed chronic ischemia changes. ACE-2 expressed in both placenta and decidua. The follow-up showed that the infants were healthy and asymptomatic at 3-6 months. CONCLUSION: No adverse outcomes was observed in our case series. However, systemic inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection may cause placental injury. At the time of delivery after recovery from COVID-19, no SARS-CoV-2 positive results was found in the placenta in this case series.

7.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 43(4): 1072-1081, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285959

ABSTRACT

Jingyin granules, a marketed antiviral herbal medicine, have been recommended for treating H1N1 influenza A virus infection and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. To fight viral diseases in a more efficient way, Jingyin granules are frequently co-administered in clinical settings with a variety of therapeutic agents, including antiviral drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, and other Western medicines. However, it is unclear whether Jingyin granules modulate the pharmacokinetics of Western drugs or trigger clinically significant herb-drug interactions. This study aims to assess the inhibitory potency of the herbal extract of Jingyin granules (HEJG) against human drug-metabolizing enzymes and to clarify whether HEJG can modulate the pharmacokinetic profiles of Western drug(s) in vivo. The results clearly demonstrated that HEJG dose-dependently inhibited human CES1A, CES2A, CYPs1A, 2A6, 2C8, 2C9, 2D6, and 2E1; this herbal medicine also time- and NADPH-dependently inhibited human CYP2C19 and CYP3A. In vivo tests showed that HEJG significantly increased the plasma exposure of lopinavir (a CYP3A-substrate drug) by 2.43-fold and strongly prolonged its half-life by 1.91-fold when HEJG (3 g/kg) was co-administered with lopinavir to rats. Further investigation revealed licochalcone A, licochalcone B, licochalcone C and echinatin in Radix Glycyrrhizae, as well as quercetin and kaempferol in Folium Llicis Purpureae, to be time-dependent CYP3A inhibitors. Collectively, our findings reveal that HEJG modulates the pharmacokinetics of CYP substrate-drug(s) by inactivating CYP3A, providing key information for both clinicians and patients to use herb-drug combinations for antiviral therapy in a scientific and reasonable way.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors , Herb-Drug Interactions , Humans , Microsomes, Liver , Rats
8.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 652296, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202086

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has significantly caused socioeconomic impacts. However, little is known about the psychological effect of COVID-19 on home-quarantined nursing students. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence and major determinants of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in Chinese nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic quarantine period. An online survey was conducted on a sample of 6,348 home-quarantined nursing students. Mental health status was assessed by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale (GAD-7), the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-Item Scale (PHQ-9) and the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Check List-Civilian version (PCL-C), respectively. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors of anxiety, depression and PTSS. The overall prevalence of anxiety was 34.97%, and the rates of "mild," "moderate," and "severe" anxiety were 26.24, 7.04, and 1.69%, respectively. Depression was detected in 40.22% of the nursing students, and the prevalence of "mild," "moderate," "moderately severe," and "severe" depression was 27.87, 7.18, 4.08, and 1.09%, respectively. The overall prevalence of PTSS was 14.97%, with the prevalence of "mild" and "moderate-to-severe" PTSS reported at 7.04 and 7.93%, respectively. Male gender and insufficient social support were common risk factors for anxiety, depression and PTSS. In conclusion, about one-third, two-fifths, and one-seventh of Chinese nursing students had anxiety, depression and PTSS during the period of home quarantine, respectively. Timely and appropriate psychological interventions for nursing students should be implemented to reduce the psychological harm caused by COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(2): 228-235, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193157

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with unknown origin spread rapidly to 222 countries, areas or territories. To investigate the genomic evolution and variation in the early phase of COVID-19 pandemic in Guangdong, 60 specimens of SARS-CoV-2 were used to perform whole genome sequencing, and genomics, amino acid variation and Spike protein structure modeling analyses. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the early variation in the SARS-CoV-2 genome was still intra-species, with no evolution to other coronaviruses. There were one to seven nucleotide variations (SNVs) in each genome and all SNVs were distributed in various fragments of the genome. The Spike protein bound with human receptor, an amino acid salt bridge and a potential furin cleavage site were found in the SARS-CoV-2 using molecular modeling. Our study clarified the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 genomic evolution, variation and Spike protein structure in the early phase of local cases in Guangdong, which provided reference for generating prevention and control strategies and tracing the source of new outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Furin/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Protein Binding/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 562700, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993364

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic infectious disease. Whether SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted through breast milk is unknown. Here, we report a breastfeeding woman with COVID-19 presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms and persistent SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity in both her oropharyngeal swabs and feces, but negativity in her breastmilk. After appearance of serum SARS-CoV-2-IgG, she began to bottle feed her baby with breastmilk without transmission. This report facilitates the understanding of breastfeeding-related risks in COVID-19.

12.
Mil Med Res ; 7(1): 49, 2020 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874097

ABSTRACT

The effects of coronaviruses on the respiratory system are of great concern, but their effects on the digestive system receive much less attention. Coronaviruses that infect mammals have shown gastrointestinal pathogenicity and caused symptoms such as diarrhea and vomiting. Available data have shown that human coronaviruses, including the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2, mainly infect the respiratory system and cause symptoms such as cough and fever, while they may generate gastrointestinal symptoms. However, there is little about the relation between coronavirus and digestive system. This review specifically addresses the effects of mammalian and human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, on the digestive tract, helping to cope with the new virus infection-induced disease, COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 532, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739251

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the clinical manifestations and outcomes of COVID-19, and explore the risk factors of deterioration and death of the disease. Methods: In this retrospective study, we collected data from 121 COVID-19 cases confirmed by RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 30, 2019, to March 23, 2020, and conducted statistical analysis. Results: A total of 121 patients were included in our study, the median age was 65 years (IQR, 55.0-71.5 years), and 54.5% cases were men. Among those cases, 52 (43.0%) cases progressed to severe, and 14 (11.6%) died. Overall, the most common manifestations were fever (78.5%) and respiratory symptoms (77.7%), while neurological symptoms were found in only 9.9% of the patients. 70.2% of all the cases had comorbidities, including hypertension (40.5%) and diabetes (20.7%). On admission, cases usually show elevated levels of neutrophils (27.3%), D-dimer (72.6%), Interleukin-6 (35.2%), Interleukin-10 (64.4%), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (82.6%), and lactate dehydrogenase (62.0%), and decreased levels of lymphocytes (66.9%), CD3 cells (67.2%), and CD4 cells (63.0%). The proportional hazard Cox models showed that the risk factors for severity progression and death included comorbidities (HR: 4.53, 95% CI: 1.78-11.55 and HR: 7.81, 95% CI: 1.02-59.86), leukocytosis (HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.05-1.22 and HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.10-1.42), neutrophilia (HR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.07-1.13 and HR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.13-1.46, and elevated LDH (HR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.12-1.15 and HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.10-1.12). Elevated D-dimer (HR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03), IL-6 (HR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.02) and IL-10 levels (HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.07) were also risk factors for the progression of disease severity. Meanwhile, lymphopenia and wake immune responses [e.g., lower CD3, CD4, or CD19 counts (all HR < 1)] were associated with disease deterioration and death. Conclusions: Severe cases and death of COVID-19 are associated with older age, comorbidities, organ dysfunction, lymphopenia, high cytokines, and weak immune responses.

14.
Arch Pharm Res ; 43(8): 765-772, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692878

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus, later named SARS-CoV-2, was first reported in China in December 2019 and subsequently widely identified in the United States, Japan, South Korea, France, India, and other countries. The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection was called COVID-19. The high fatality and morbidity rates of COVID-19 make it the third largest global epidemic in this century. However, there are currently no approved antiviral drugs for the COVID-19 treatment. Recently, two old antimalarial drugs, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, have been found to exert anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects both in vitro and in vivo. Preliminary clinical evidence suggests these drugs may have an effect on the treatment of COVID-19. Herein, we review the pharmacokinetics characteristics and antiviral effects of these drugs, in addition to their side effects and clinical evidence of their use for the COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antimalarials , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics
15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 225, 2020 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640026

ABSTRACT

To understand Wuhan residents' psychological reactions to the COVID-19 epidemic and offer a reference point for interventions, an online questionnaire survey was conducted. It included the Disorder 7-Item Scale (GAD-7), the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-Item Scale (PHQ-9), Athens Insomnia Scale, and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire. Categorical data were reported as numbers and percentages. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between demographic factors and anxiety, depression, sleep disorder, and passive coping style. A total of 1242 Wuhan residents investigated, 27.5% had anxiety, 29.3% had depression, 30.0% had a sleep disorder, and 29.8% had a passive response to COVID-19. Being female was the risk factor for anxiety (OR = 1.62) and sleep disorder (OR = 1.36); being married was associated with anxiety (OR = 1.75); having a monthly income between 1000 and 5000 CNY (OR = 1.44, OR = 1.83, OR = 2.61) or >5000 CNY (OR = 1.47, OR = 1.45, OR = 2.14) was a risk factor for anxiety, depression, and sleep disorder; not exercising (OR = 1.45, OR = 1.71, OR = 1. 85, OR = 1.71) was a common risk factor for anxiety, depression, sleep disorder, and passive coping style; and having a higher education level (bachelor's degree and above) (OR = 1.40) was associated with having a sleep disorder. Wuhan residents' psychological status and sleep quality were relatively poorer than they were before the COVID-19 epidemic; however, the rate of passive coping to stress was relatively higher.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Epidemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/psychology , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(4): 1851-1858, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The application of factor analysis in the study of the clinical symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was investigated, to provide a reference for basic research on COVID-19 and its prevention and control. METHODS: The data of 60 patients with COVID-19 in Jingzhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the Second People's Hospital of Longgang District in Shenzhen were extracted using principal component analysis. Factor analysis was used to investigate the factors related to symptoms of COVID-19. Based on the combination of factors, the clinical types of the factors were defined according to our professional knowledge. Factor loadings were calculated, and pairwise correlation analysis of symptoms was performed. RESULTS: Factor analysis showed that the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 cases could be divided into respiratory-digestive, neurological, cough-wheezing, upper respiratory, and digestive symptoms. Pairwise correlation analysis showed that there were a total of eight pairs of symptoms: fever-palpitation, coughexpectoration, expectoration-wheezing, dry mouth-bitter taste in the mouth, poor appetite-fatigue, fatiguedizziness, diarrhea-palpitation, and dizziness-headache. CONCLUSIONS: The symptoms and syndromes of COVID-19 are complex. Respiratory symptoms dominate, and digestive symptoms are also present. Factor analysis is suitable for studying the characteristics of the clinical symptoms of COVID-19, providing a new idea for the comprehensive analysis of clinical symptoms.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Digestive System Diseases/etiology , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Young Adult
18.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 149(2): 130-136, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-11527

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To provide clinical management guidelines for novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in pregnancy. METHODS: On February 5, 2020, a multidisciplinary teleconference comprising Chinese physicians and researchers was held and medical management strategies of COVID-19 infection in pregnancy were discussed. RESULTS: Ten key recommendations were provided for the management of COVID-19 infections in pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Currently, there is no clear evidence regarding optimal delivery timing, the safety of vaginal delivery, or whether cesarean delivery prevents vertical transmission at the time of delivery; therefore, route of delivery and delivery timing should be individualized based on obstetrical indications and maternal-fetal status.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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