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1.
Gut Microbes ; 15(1): 2223340, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242837

ABSTRACT

The antibiotic resistome is the collection of all antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) present in an individual. Whether an individual's susceptibility to infection and the eventual severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is influenced by their respiratory tract antibiotic resistome is unknown. Additionally, whether a relationship exists between the respiratory tract and gut ARGs composition has not been fully explored. We recruited 66 patients with COVID-19 at three disease stages (admission, progression, and recovery) and conducted a metagenome sequencing analysis of 143 sputum and 97 fecal samples obtained from them. Respiratory tract, gut metagenomes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) transcriptomes are analyzed to compare the gut and respiratory tract ARGs of intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU (nICU) patients and determine relationships between ARGs and immune response. Among the respiratory tract ARGs, we found that Aminoglycoside, Multidrug, and Vancomycin are increased in ICU patients compared with nICU patients. In the gut, we found that Multidrug, Vancomycin, and Fosmidomycin were increased in ICU patients. We discovered that the relative abundances of Multidrug were significantly correlated with clinical indices, and there was a significantly positive correlation between ARGs and microbiota in the respiratory tract and gut. We found that immune-related pathways in PBMC were enhanced, and they were correlated with Multidrug, Vancomycin, and Tetracycline ARGs. Based on the ARG types, we built a respiratory tract-gut ARG combined random-forest classifier to distinguish ICU COVID-19 patients from nICU patients with an AUC of 0.969. Cumulatively, our findings provide some of the first insights into the dynamic alterations of respiratory tract and gut antibiotic resistome in the progression of COVID-19 and disease severity. They also provide a better understanding of how this disease affects different cohorts of patients. As such, these findings should contribute to better diagnosis and treatment scenarios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Vancomycin , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Respiratory System , Patient Acuity
3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(27): e2200956, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1913747

ABSTRACT

The role of respiratory tract microbes and the relationship between respiratory tract and gut microbiomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain uncertain. Here, the metagenomes of sputum and fecal samples from 66 patients with COVID-19 at three stages of disease progression are sequenced. Respiratory tract, gut microbiome, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples are analyzed to compare the gut and respiratory tract microbiota of intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU (nICU) patients and determine relationships between respiratory tract microbiome and immune response. In the respiratory tract, significantly fewer Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Atopobium, and Bacteroides are found in ICU than in nICU patients, while Enterococcus and Candida increase. In the gut, significantly fewer Bacteroides are found in ICU patients, while Enterococcus increases. Significant positive correlations exist between relative microbiota abundances in the respiratory tract and gut. Defensin-related pathways in PBMCs are enhanced, and respiratory tract Streptococcus is reduced in patients with COVID-19. A respiratory tract-gut microbiota model identifies respiratory tract Streptococcus and Atopobium as the most prominent biomarkers distinguishing between ICU and nICU patients. The findings provide insight into the respiratory tract and gut microbial dynamics during COVID-19 progression, considering disease severity, potentially contributing to diagnosis, and treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Biomarkers , Defensins , Enterococcus , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Respiratory System
4.
Clin Chim Acta ; 524: 132-138, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576025

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe disease of COVID-19 and mortality occur more frequently in male patients than that in female patients may be related to testosterone level. However, the diagnostic value of changes in the level of testosterone in predicting severe disease of male COVID-19 patients has not been determined yet. METHODS: Sixty-one male COVID-19 patients admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine were enrolled. Serum samples at different stages of the patients after admission were collected and testosterone levels were detected to analyze the correlation between testosterone level and disease severity. Transcriptome analysis of PBMC was performed in 34 patients. RESULTS: Testosterone levels at admission in male non-ICU COVID-19 patients (3.7 nmol/L, IQR: 1.5 âˆ¼ 4.7) were significantly lower than those in male ICU COVID-19 patients (6.7 nmol/L, IQR: 4.2 âˆ¼ 8.7). Testosterone levels in the non-ICU group increased gradually during the progression of the disease, while those in the ICU group remained low. In addition, testosterone level of enrolled patients in the second week after onset was significantly correlated with the severity of pneumonia, and ROC curve showed that testosterone level in the second week after onset was highly effective in predicting the severity of COVID-19. Transcriptome studies have found that testosterone levels of COVID-19 patients were associated with immune response, including T cell activation and regulation of lymphocyte activation. In addition, CD28 and Inositol Polyphosphate-4-Phosphatase Type II B (INPP4B) were found positively correlated with testosterone. CONCLUSIONS: Serum testosterone is an independent risk factor for predicting the severity of COVID-19 in male patients, and the level of serum testosterone in the second week after onset is valuable for evaluating the severity of COVID-19. Testosterone level is associated with T cell immune activation. The monitoring of serum testosterone should be highlighted in clinical treatment and the related mechanism should be further studied.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Testosterone , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immunity , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes
5.
Clin Chim Acta ; 511: 177-180, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385202

ABSTRACT

To clarify the effect of different respiratory sample types on SARS-CoV-2 detection, we collected throat swabs, nasal swabs and hock-a-loogie saliva or sputum, and compared their detection rates and viral loads. The detection rates of sputum (95.65%, 22/23) and hock-a-loogie saliva (88.09%, 37/42) were significantly higher than those in throat swabs (41.54%, 27/65) and nasal swabs (72.31%, 47/65) (P < 0.001). The Ct Values of sputum, hock-a-loogie saliva and nasal swabs were significantly higher than that in throat swabs, whereas no significant difference was observed between sputum and saliva samples. Hock-a-loogie saliva are reliable sample types that can be used to detect SARS-CoV-2, and worthy of clinical promotion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/virology , Specimen Handling/standards , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , Sputum/virology , Viral Load/methods , Viral Load/standards
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 685640, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282378

ABSTRACT

Background: Viral nucleic acid detection is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, unsuitable sample types and laboratory detection kits/methods lead to misdiagnosis, which delays the prevention and control of the pandemic. Methods: We compared four nucleic acid detection methods [two kinds of reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR A: ORF1ab and N testing; RT-PCRB: only ORF1ab testing), reverse transcription recombinase aided amplification (RT-RAA) and droplet digital RT-PCR (dd-RT-PCR)] using 404 samples of 72 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, including oropharyngeal swab (OPS), nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and saliva after deep cough, to evaluate the best sample type and method for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Results: Among the four methods, dd-RT-PCR exhibited the highest positivity rate (93.0%), followed by RT-PCR B (91.2%) and RT-RAA (91.2%), while the positivity rate of RT-PCR A was only 71.9%. The viral load in OPS [24.90 copies/test (IQR 15.58-129.85)] was significantly lower than that in saliva [292.30 copies/test (IQR 20.20-8628.55)] and NPS [274.40 copies/test (IQR 33.10-2836.45)]. In addition, if OPS samples were tested alone by RT-PCR A, only 21.4% of the COVID-19 patients would be considered positive. The accuracy of all methods reached nearly 100% when saliva and NPS samples from the same patient were tested simultaneously. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection methods should be fully evaluated before use. High-positivity rate methods such as RT-RAA and dd-RT-PCR should be considered when possible. Furthermore, saliva after deep cough and NPS can greatly improve the accuracy of the diagnosis, and testing OPS alone is not recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Humans , Nasopharynx , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , Specimen Handling
7.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 22(4): 330-340, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175476

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological evidence suggests that patients with hypertension infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are at increased risk of acute lung injury. However, it is still not clear whether this increased risk is related to the usage of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers. We collected medical records of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients from the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine (Hangzhou, China), and evaluated the potential impact of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) on the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hypertension. A total of 30 hypertensive COVID-19 patients were enrolled, of which 17 were classified as non-ARB group and the remaining 13 as ARB group based on the antihypertensive therapies they received. Compared with the non-ARB group, patients in the ARB group had a lower proportion of severe cases and intensive care unit (ICU) admission as well as shortened length of hospital stay, and manifested favorable results in most of the laboratory testing. Viral loads in the ARB group were lower than those in the non-ARB group throughout the disease course. No significant difference in the time of seroconversion or antibody levels was observed between the two groups. The median levels of soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (sACE2) in serum and urine samples were similar in both groups, and there were no significant correlations between serum sACE2 and biomarkers of disease severity. Transcriptional analysis showed 125 differentially expressed genes which mainly were enriched in oxygen transport, bicarbonate transport, and blood coagulation. Our results suggest that ARB usage is not associated with aggravation of COVID-19. These findings support the maintenance of ARB treatment in hypertensive patients diagnosed with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Viral Load , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , China , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Transcriptome
8.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(1): e23604, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence and rapid spread of the deadly novel coronavirus disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a swiftly evolving public health crisis worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by the development and progression of inflammatory responses. Hematological parameters, such as white blood cells (WBCs) and their subpopulations, red cell distribution width, platelet count, mean platelet volume, plateletcrit, and derived markers such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio, are established biomarkers of inflammatory responses. We aimed to investigate associations between hematological parameters and disease severity in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 68 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Twenty-two patients had mild illness, and 46 had moderate or severe illness at the time of admission. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to identify correlates of disease severity. The areas under receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated to estimate and compare the predictive values of different diagnostic markers. RESULTS: Mean lymphocyte and monocyte counts were lower while WBC counts, neutrophil counts, NLR, and PLR were higher in patients with severe disease compared with those with mild disease (all P < .01). Univariate analysis revealed that older age, high WBC counts, high neutrophil counts, high NLR, high PLR, low monocyte counts, and low lymphocyte counts were independent correlates of severe illness. Multivariate analysis identified high NLR as the only independent correlate of severe illness. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that NLR had the highest area under curve of all hematological parameters. CONCLUSION: Among hematological parameters, the NLR showed superior prediction of disease severity in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, the NLR could be a valuable parameter to complement conventional measures for identification of patients at high risk for severe disease.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , ROC Curve , Risk Factors
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 402: 123771, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728695

ABSTRACT

Understanding the transmission mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 is a prerequisite to effective control measures. To investigate the potential modes of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, 21 COVID-19 patients from 12-47 days after symptom onset were recruited. We monitored the release of SARS-CoV-2 from the patients' exhaled breath and systematically investigated environmental contamination of air, public surfaces, personal necessities, and the drainage system. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 0 of 9 exhaled breath samples, 2 of 8 exhaled breath condensate samples, 1 of 12 bedside air samples, 4 of 132 samples from private surfaces, 0 of 70 samples from frequently touched public surfaces in isolation rooms, and 7 of 23 feces-related air/surface/water samples. The maximum viral RNA concentrations were 1857 copies/m3 in the air, 38 copies/cm2 in sampled surfaces and 3092 copies/mL in sewage/wastewater samples. Our results suggest that nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can occur via multiple routes. However, the low detection frequency and limited quantity of viral RNA from the breath and environmental specimens may be related to the reduced viral load of the COVID-19 patients on later days after symptom onset. These findings suggest that the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 differ from those of SARS-CoV in healthcare settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Feces/virology , Female , Fomites/virology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sputum/virology
10.
The European respiratory journal ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-324353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Timely diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is a prerequisite for treatment and prevention. The serology characteristics and complement diagnosis value of the antibody test to RNA test need to be demonstrated. METHOD: Serial sera of 80 patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 were collected at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, China. Total antibody (Ab), IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected, and the antibody dynamics during the infection were described. RESULTS: The seroconversion rates for Ab, IgM and IgG were 98.8%, 93.8% and 93.8%, respectively. The first detectible serology marker was Ab, followed by IgM and IgG, with a median seroconversion time of 15, 18 and 20 days post exposure (d.p.e) or 9, 10 and 12 days post onset (d.p.o), respectively. The antibody levels increased rapidly beginning at 6 d.p.o. and were accompanied by a decline in viral load. For patients in the early stage of illness (0-7 d.p.o), Ab showed the highest sensitivity (64.1%) compared to IgM and IgG (33.3% for both, p<0.001). The sensitivities of Ab, IgM and IgG increased to 100%, 96.7% and 93.3% 2 weeks later, respectively. When the same antibody type was detected, no significant difference was observed between enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and other forms of immunoassays. CONCLUSIONS: A typical acute antibody response is induced during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Serology testing provides an important complement to RNA testing in the later stages of illness for pathogenic specific diagnosis and helpful information to evaluate the adapted immunity status of patients.

11.
BMJ ; 369: m1443, 2020 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-99975

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate viral loads at different stages of disease progression in patients infected with the 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the first four months of the epidemic in Zhejiang province, China. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A designated hospital for patients with covid-19 in Zhejiang province, China. PARTICIPANTS: 96 consecutively admitted patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection: 22 with mild disease and 74 with severe disease. Data were collected from 19 January 2020 to 20 March 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ribonucleic acid (RNA) viral load measured in respiratory, stool, serum, and urine samples. Cycle threshold values, a measure of nucleic acid concentration, were plotted onto the standard curve constructed on the basis of the standard product. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics and treatment and outcomes data were obtained through data collection forms from electronic medical records, and the relation between clinical data and disease severity was analysed. RESULTS: 3497 respiratory, stool, serum, and urine samples were collected from patients after admission and evaluated for SARS-CoV-2 RNA viral load. Infection was confirmed in all patients by testing sputum and saliva samples. RNA was detected in the stool of 55 (59%) patients and in the serum of 39 (41%) patients. The urine sample from one patient was positive for SARS-CoV-2. The median duration of virus in stool (22 days, interquartile range 17-31 days) was significantly longer than in respiratory (18 days, 13-29 days; P=0.02) and serum samples (16 days, 11-21 days; P<0.001). The median duration of virus in the respiratory samples of patients with severe disease (21 days, 14-30 days) was significantly longer than in patients with mild disease (14 days, 10-21 days; P=0.04). In the mild group, the viral loads peaked in respiratory samples in the second week from disease onset, whereas viral load continued to be high during the third week in the severe group. Virus duration was longer in patients older than 60 years and in male patients. CONCLUSION: The duration of SARS-CoV-2 is significantly longer in stool samples than in respiratory and serum samples, highlighting the need to strengthen the management of stool samples in the prevention and control of the epidemic, and the virus persists longer with higher load and peaks later in the respiratory tissue of patients with severe disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load
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