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1.
China Tropical Medicine ; 23(4):338-341, 2023.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-20245452

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the vaccination status of SARS-CoV-2 in children, and explore the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and COVID-19 in children. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the clinical data of 335 cases of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection from February 15, 2022 to March 18, 2022 in Shenzhen Third People's Hospital. Results: Among 335 children with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 174(51.9%) cases were vaccinated with the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine;33(31.4%) cases were vaccinated in the 3-<6 years old group;141(61.3%) cases were vaccinated in the 6-<14 years old group. There was a statistically significant difference in the proportion of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination between the 6-<14 years old group and the 3-<6 years old group (X2=26.1, P < 0.05). In the study cohort, 3-<6 years old group and 6-<14 years old group, there was no significant difference in the incidence of COVID-19 in the vaccinated group compared with the unvaccinated group (P > 0.05). In the study cohort, the proportion of confirmed cases of 1 dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and 2 doses or more of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine was 89.5% (68 cases) and 77.6% (76 cases), respectively;in the 6~<14 years old group, the proportion of confirmed cases of 1 dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and 2 doses or more of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine was 90.0% (54 cases) and 76.5% (62 cases), respectively;the differences were statistically significant (X2=4.264, P < 0.05;X2=4.279, P < 0.05). The IgG levels of 18.28 (6.61, 55.2) AU/mL and 58.3 (25.85, 131.41) AU/mL in the study cohort who were vaccinated for 1 dose, 2 doses and more, respectively;the IgG levels of 20.13 (8.33, 44.33) AU/mL and 56.57 (25.85, 150.07) AU/mL in the 6~<14 years old group who were vaccinated for 1 dose, 2 doses and more, respectively;and the differences were statistically significant (Z=-4.37, P < 0.05;Z=-3.96, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Children who received 2 doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine have a lower incidence of COVID-19 and higher levels of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies compared with who received 1 dose. It is recommended that children are advised to be vaccinated against the COVID-19.

2.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 939573, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928445

ABSTRACT

Background: The rapid worldwide spread of the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 has unleashed a new wave of COVID-19 outbreaks. The efficacy of molnupiravir, an approved drug, is still unknown in patients infected with the Omicron variant. Objective: Evaluated the antiviral efficacy and safety of molnupiravir in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, with symptom duration within 5 days. Methods: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial involving patients with mild or moderate COVID-19. Patients were randomized to orally receive molnupiravir (800 mg) plus basic treatment or only basic treatment for 5 days (BID). The antiviral efficacy of the drug was evaluated using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: Results showed that the time of viral RNA clearance (primary endpoint) was significantly decreased in the molnupiravir group (median, 9 days) compared to the control group (median, 10 days) (Log-Rank p = 0.0092). Of patients receiving molnupiravir, 18.42% achieved viral RNA clearance on day 5 of treatment, compared to the control group (0%) (p = 0.0092). On day 7, 40.79%, and 6.45% of patients in the molnupiravir and control groups, respectively, achieved viral RNA clearance (p = 0.0004). In addition, molnupiravir has a good safety profile, and no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Molnupiravir significantly accelerated the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron RNA clearance in patients with COVID-19. Clinical Trial Registration: [chictr.org.cn], identifier [ChiCTR2200056817].

3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 816745, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662588

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients show heterogeneous and dynamic immune features which determine the clinical outcome. Here, we built a single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) dataset for dissecting these complicated immune responses through a longitudinal survey of COVID-19 patients with various categories of outcomes. The data reveals a highly fluctuating peripheral immune landscape in severe COVID-19, whereas the one in asymptomatic/mild COVID-19 is relatively steady. Then, the perturbed immune landscape in peripheral blood returned to normal state in those recovered from severe COVID-19. Importantly, the imbalance of the excessively strong innate immune response and delayed adaptive immunity in the early stage of viral infection accelerates the progression of the disease, indicated by a transient strong IFN response and weak T/B-cell specific response. The proportion of abnormal monocytes appeared early and rose further throughout the severe disease. Our data indicate that a dynamic immune landscape is associated with the progression and recovery of severe COVID-19, and have provided multiple immune biomarkers for early warning of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Interferons/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
4.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 203, 2021 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thousands of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been discharged from hospitals Persistent follow-up studies are required to evaluate the prevalence of post-COVID-19 fibrosis. METHODS: This study involves 462 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to Shenzhen Third People's Hospital from January 11, 2020 to April 26, 2020. A total of 457 patients underwent thin-section chest CT scans during the hospitalization or after discharge to identify the pulmonary lesion. A total of 287 patients were followed up from 90 to 150 days after the onset of the disease, and lung function tests were conducted about three months after the onset. The risk factors affecting the persistence of pulmonary fibrosis were identified through regression analysis and the prediction model of the persistence of pulmonary fibrosis was established. RESULTS: Parenchymal bands, irregular interfaces, reticulation and traction bronchiectasis were the most common CT features in all COVID-19 patients. During the 0-30, 31-60, 61-90, 91-120 and > 120 days after onset, 86.87%, 74.40%, 79.56%, 68.12% and 62.03% patients developed with pulmonary fibrosis and 4.53%, 19.61%, 18.02%, 38.30% and 48.98% patients reversed pulmonary fibrosis, respectively. It was observed that Age, BMI, Fever, and Highest PCT were predictive factors for sustaining fibrosis even after 90 days from onset. A predictive model of the persistence with pulmonary fibrosis was developed based-on the Logistic Regression method with an accuracy, PPV, NPV, Sensitivity and Specificity of the model of 76%, 71%, 79%, 67%, and 82%, respectively. More than half of the COVID-19 patients revealed abnormal conditions in lung function after 90 days from onset, and the ratio of abnormal lung function did not differ on a statistically significant level between the fibrotic and non-fibrotic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent pulmonary fibrosis was more likely to develop in patients with older age, higher BMI, severe/critical condition, fever, a longer viral clearance time, pre-existing disease and delayed hospitalization. Fibrosis developed in COVID-19 patients could be reversed in about a third of the patients after 120 days from onset. The pulmonary function of less than half of COVID-19 patients could turn to normal condition after three months from onset. An effective prediction model with an average area under the curve (AUC) of 0.84 was established to predict the persistence of pulmonary fibrosis in COVID-19 patients for early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Lung/virology , Patient Discharge , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , China , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , Respiratory Function Tests , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
5.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 2269-2277, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282356

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic with sharp rises in the number of confirmed cases and rapid spread across the world. Here, we looked at the effects of geographic differences on clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. METHODS: A total of 114 confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in this study. The epidemiological, demographic, clinical, as well as laboratory findings were extracted from the electronic medical records of these patients. RESULTS: We report the observation that patients from overseas residents diagnosed with COVID-19 were mildly symptomatic with cough and presented with lower inflammatory response and attenuated virus clearance rate, as well as correspondingly prolonged days of hospital stay than local Chinese patients. Moreover, the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, performed to provide a measure of the difference between two groups, showed that serum albumin had the highest area under the curve value (0.81, p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: Our results suggested that blood albumin level acted as a predictive value in distinguishing clinical features between local and overseas Chinese. This work underscores the need to identify distinguishably prognostic factors of geographical dissimilarity in COVID-19 patients.

6.
J Inflamm Res ; 13: 985-993, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952959

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Novel coronavirus disease has become such an escalating epidemic that the exponential growth of infected patients has overloaded the health-care systems in many countries. Determination of early assessments for patients with a risk of clinical deterioration would benefit the management of COVID-19 outbreaks. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 214 confirmed COVID-19 patients were enrolled from January 11th to February 11th 2020. Medical records including laboratory parameters, clinical outcomes and other characteristics of the admitted patients were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: The critical patients experienced a significantly prolonged onset-admission interval and presented with lymphopenia (r=-0.547, p=0.015) and lower albumin level (p<0.001) 6 days after symptom onset. Early admission of critical patients significantly reduced the duration of hormone therapy. Starting from 9 days of hospital stay, the reduced lymphocyte counts exhibited linear growth. Furthermore, on days 9 and 12, significant correlations were demonstrated between immunological manifestations and duration of hormone therapy in critical patients, and length of hospital stay in severe patients. In addition, the virus negative conversion rate was more significantly correlated with increased lymphocytes in critical patients. CONCLUSION: Early intervention, within 6 days of symptom onset, benefited patients' recovery from critical illness. The 9-12 days of hospital care represented a valuable window during which to evaluate the therapeutic effects on physical recovery and virus clearance.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 799-806, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is becoming a public health emergency. Data are limited on the duration and host factors related to viral shedding. METHODS: In this retrospective study, risk factors associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA shedding were evaluated in a cohort of 113 symptomatic patients from 2 hospitals outside Wuhan. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range) duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection was 17 (13-22) days as measured from illness onset. When comparing patients with early (<15 days) and late (≥15 days after illness onset) viral RNA clearance, prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding was associated with male sex (P = .009), old age (P = .033), concomitant hypertension (P = .009), delayed admission to hospital after illness onset (P = .001), severe illness at admission (P = .049), invasive mechanical ventilation (P = .006), and corticosteroid treatment (P = .025). Patients with longer SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding duration had slower recovery of body temperature (P < .001) and focal absorption on radiograph images (P < .001) than patients with early SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance. Male sex (OR, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.31-8.02), delayed hospital admission (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.10-1.54), and invasive mechanical ventilation (OR, 9.88; 95% CI, 1.11-88.02) were independent risk factors for prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding. CONCLUSIONS: Male sex, delayed admission to hospital after illness onset, and invasive mechanical ventilation were associated with prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding. Hospital admission and general treatments should be started as soon as possible in symptomatic COVID-19 patients, especially male patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Virus Shedding , Adult , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment
8.
Infect Dis Ther ; 9(4): 943-952, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-804570

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In December, 2019, an outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was caused by a novel coronavirus, started in Wuhan, China. So far, there is limited clinical evidence on the effect of corticosteroid therapy for this disease. This study aims to investigate the association between corticosteroid therapy and the duration of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) clearance among patients with mild COVID-19. METHODS: Patients with mild COVID-19 were enrolled from two medical centers in China between January 13, 2020 and February 29, 2020. Baseline characteristics and durations of RNA clearance were compared between the corticosteroid and non-corticosteroid therapy groups. The independent effects of corticosteroid therapy on the duration of RNA clearance were estimated by generalized linear models. RESULTS: Of 82 patients with a mild infection, 40 patients were male (48.8%), with a median age of 49 years (interquartile range, IQR 36-61). Among those patients, 36 patients (43.9%) received corticosteroid therapy. The adjusted multivariate models showed that the effects of corticosteroids were non-significant on the durations of onset to first RNA clearance [ß 2.48, 95% CI (95% confidence interval) - 0.42 to 5.38, P = 0.0926] and to persistent RNA clearance (ß 1.54, 95% CI - 1.41 to 4.48, P = 0.3016), and durations of therapy to first RNA clearance (ß 2.16, 95% CI - 0.56 to 4.89, P = 0.1184) and to persistent RNA clearance (ß 1.22, 95% CI - 1.52 to 3.95, P = 0.3787). CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroid therapy in patients with mild COVID-19 was not associated with the duration of SARS-CoV-2 clearance, suggesting that the use of corticosteroids may not be beneficial for patients with mild COVID-19 and should be prudently recommended in clinical practice. However, further studies are needed to verify the findings.

9.
Physiol Meas ; 41(8): 085008, 2020 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690496

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) often have airway secretions that severely compromise ventilation. This study investigates electrical impedance tomography (EIT) monitoring of a therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in a patient with COVID-19. APPROACH: A patient with COVID-19 developed acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation. He received regional BAL to remove mucus in the small airways (20 ml × 5). Regional ventilation changes before BAL, 30 min after and in the following days, were monitored with EIT. MAIN RESULTS: Regional ventilation worsened shortly after BAL and improved in the following days. The improvement of the oxygenation did not exactly match the ventilation improvement, which indicated a possible ventilation/perfusion mismatch. SIGNIFICANCE: Therapeutic BAL might improve regional ventilation for COVID-19 and EIT could be a useful tool at the bedside to monitor the ventilation treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/methods , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Electric Impedance/therapeutic use , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography/methods
10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(1): 119-127.e4, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-170708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was first reported in Wuhan, December 2019, and continuously poses a serious threat to public health, highlighting the urgent need of identifying biomarkers for disease severity and progression. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify biomarkers for disease severity and progression of COVID-19. METHODS: Forty-eight cytokines in the plasma samples from 50 COVID-19 cases including 11 critically ill, 25 severe, and 14 moderate patients were measured and analyzed in combination with clinical data. RESULTS: Levels of 14 cytokines were found to be significantly elevated in COVID-19 cases and showed different expression profiles in patients with different disease severity. Moreover, expression levels of IFN-γ-induced protein 10, monocyte chemotactic protein-3, hepatocyte growth factor, monokine-induced gamma IFN, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha, which were shown to be highly associated with disease severity during disease progression, were remarkably higher in critically ill patients, followed by severe and then the moderate patients. Serial detection of the 5 cytokines in 16 cases showed that continuously high levels were associated with deteriorated progression of disease and fatal outcome. Furthermore, IFN-γ-induced protein 10 and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 were excellent predictors for the progression of COVID-19, and the combination of the 2 cytokines showed the biggest area under the curve of the receiver-operating characteristics calculations with a value of 0.99. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we report biomarkers that are highly associated with disease severity and progression of COVID-19. These findings add to our understanding of the immunopathologic mechanisms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, and provide potential therapeutic targets and strategies.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Chemokine CCL7/blood , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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