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1.
mBio ; 12(3)2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225698

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) polypeptide of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) consists of the S1 and S2 subunits and is processed by cellular proteases at the S1/S2 boundary that contains a furin cleavage site (FCS), 682RRAR↓S686 Various deletions surrounding the FCS have been identified in patients. When SARS-CoV-2 propagated in Vero cells, it acquired deletions surrounding the FCS. We studied the viral transcriptome in Vero cell-derived SARS-CoV-2-infected primary human airway epithelia (HAE) cultured at an air-liquid interface (ALI) with an emphasis on the viral genome stability of the FCS. While we found overall the viral transcriptome is similar to that generated from infected Vero cells, we identified a high percentage of mutated viral genome and transcripts in HAE-ALI. Two highly frequent deletions were found at the FCS region: a 12 amino acid deletion (678TNSPRRAR↓SVAS689) that contains the underlined FCS and a 5 amino acid deletion (675QTQTN679) that is two amino acids upstream of the FCS. Further studies on the dynamics of the FCS deletions in apically released virions from 11 infected HAE-ALI cultures of both healthy and lung disease donors revealed that the selective pressure for the FCS maintains the FCS stably in 9 HAE-ALI cultures but with 2 exceptions, in which the FCS deletions are retained at a high rate of >40% after infection of ≥13 days. Our study presents evidence for the role of unique properties of human airway epithelia in the dynamics of the FCS region during infection of human airways, which is likely donor dependent.IMPORTANCE Polarized human airway epithelia at an air-liquid interface (HAE-ALI) are an in vitro model that supports efficient infection of SARS-CoV-2. The spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 contains a furin cleavage site (FCS) at the boundary of the S1 and S2 domains which distinguishes it from SARS-CoV. However, FCS deletion mutants have been identified in patients and in vitro cell cultures, and how the airway epithelial cells maintain the unique FCS remains unknown. We found that HAE-ALI cultures were capable of suppressing two prevalent FCS deletion mutants (Δ678TNSPRRAR↓SVAS689 and Δ675QTQTN679) that were selected during propagation in Vero cells. While such suppression was observed in 9 out of 11 of the tested HAE-ALI cultures derived from independent donors, 2 exceptions that retained a high rate of FCS deletions were also found. Our results present evidence of the donor-dependent properties of human airway epithelia in the evolution of the FCS during infection.


Subject(s)
Bronchi/virology , Furin/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Transcriptome , Animals , Bronchi/cytology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , RNA-Seq , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Sequence Deletion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
2.
Shengwu Gongcheng Xuebao ; - (10):1970, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1217319

ABSTRACT

At present, SARS-CoV-2 is raging, and novel coronavirus pneumonia(COVID-19) has caused more than 35 million confirmed patients and more than 500 000 cases death, which seriously endanger human health, socioeconomic development, as well as global medical and public health systems. COVID-19 is highly contagious, has a long incubation period, and causes many death cases due to lack of effective specific treatment. Mesenchymal stem cells have powerful anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory functions, and can effectively reduce the cytokine storm caused by coronavirus in patients, and improve the pulmonary fibrosis of patients, promote the repair of damaged lung tissue, and reduce the mortality. Currently, a number of related clinical trials of mesenchymal stem cell treatment of COVID-19 have been conducted, and have confirmed the safety and efficacy, suggesting a good clinical application prospect. While progress has been made in mesenchymal stem cell therapy for COVID-19, we should also catch sight of the problems and challenges faced by mesenchymal stem cell clinical trials under severe epidemic situation, including clinical trials design, stem cell quality management, and ethics in treatment. Only by paying attention to these can we guarantee the safe and effective development of mesenchymal stem cell clinical trials in the treatment of COVID-19.

3.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4098

ABSTRACT

A review. Since Sept., 2019, COVID-19 spreads all over 26 countries, and more than 70 000 people got infected till Feb. 22th, 2020. COVID-19 has strong infectivity and can result in acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure. These severe complications are believed to be the consequence of cytokine storm caused by the virus infection. In the "diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia", glucocorticoid is recommended as the immunosuppressive agents to prevent acute immune reaction. But the usage of glucocorticoid may bring risks such as superinfection, prolonged course of disease or severe residual effects. Traditional Chinese Medicine might have advantages in the moderation of immune system. Actually, Traditional Chinese Medicine is now applied in the treatment of COVID-19 clin., and exhibits excellent therapeutic effects. In this review, the potential usage of Traditional Chinese drugs or Traditional prescriptions in inhibiting cytokine storm and acute lung injury are analyzed, which would be an effective strategy for the treatment of COVID-19.

4.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(10): 1970-1978, 2020 Oct 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-903032

ABSTRACT

At present, SARS-CoV-2 is raging, and novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) has caused more than 35 million confirmed patients and more than 500 000 cases death, which seriously endanger human health, socioeconomic development, as well as global medical and public health systems. COVID-19 is highly contagious, has a long incubation period, and causes many death cases due to lack of effective specific treatment. Mesenchymal stem cells have powerful anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory functions, and can effectively reduce the cytokine storm caused by coronavirus in patients, and improve the pulmonary fibrosis of patients, promote the repair of damaged lung tissue, and reduce the mortality. Currently, a number of related clinical trials of mesenchymal stem cell treatment of COVID-19 have been conducted, and have confirmed the safety and efficacy, suggesting a good clinical application prospect. While progress has been made in mesenchymal stem cell therapy for COVID-19, we should also catch sight of the problems and challenges faced by mesenchymal stem cell clinical trials under severe epidemic situation, including clinical trials design, stem cell quality management, and ethics in treatment. Only by paying attention to these can we guarantee the safe and effective development of mesenchymal stem cell clinical trials in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Chin. Trad. Herbal Drugs ; 6(51): 1375-1385, 20200328.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-380619

ABSTRACT

At the end of December, 2019, a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak was found in China. COVID-19 spreads all over 268 countries, and more than 70 000 people got infected till February 23th, 2020. COVID-19 can result in acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure due to its strong infectivity and extensive spread. These severe complications are believed to be the consequence of cytokine storm caused by the virus infection. In the “Diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia”, glucocorticoid is recommended as the immunosuppressive agents to prevent acute immune reaction in critical patients. However, the usage of glucocorticoid may bring severe residual effects such as superinfection risks, prolonged course of disease. Traditional Chinese medicine might have advantages in the moderation of immune system. Actually, TCM is now applied in the treatment of COVID-19 clinically, and exhibits excellent therapeutic effects. In this review, the potential usage of TCM or traditional prescriptions in inhibiting cytokine storm and treating in acute lung injury were analyzed, which would be an effective strategy for the treatment of COVID-19.

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