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2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 753659, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556286

ABSTRACT

Background: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening complication in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), but risk factors for COVID-19-associated IPA (CAPA) have not been fully characterized. The aim of the current study was to identify factors associated with CAPA, and assess long-term mortality. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of adult COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs from six hospitals was conducted in Hubei, China. CAPA was diagnosed via composite clinical criteria. Demographic information, clinical variables, and 180-day outcomes after the diagnosis of CAPA were analyzed. Results: Of 335 critically ill patients with COVID-19, 78 (23.3%) developed CAPA within a median of 20.5 days (range 13.0-42.0 days) after symptom onset. Compared to those without CAPA, CAPA patients were more likely to have thrombocytopenia (50 vs. 19.5%, p < 0.001) and secondary bacterial infection prior to being diagnosed with CAPA (15.4 vs. 6.2%, p = 0.013), and to receive vasopressors (37.2 vs. 8.6%, p < 0.001), higher steroid dosages (53.9 vs. 34.2%, p = 0.002), renal replacement therapy (37.2 vs. 13.6%, p < 0.001), and invasive mechanical ventilation (57.7 vs. 35.8%, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis incorporating hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs), thrombocytopenia (HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.16-3.37, p = 0.012), vasopressor use (HR 3.57, 95% CI 1.80-7.06, p < 0.001), and methylprednisolone use at a daily dose ≥ 40 mg (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.02-2.79, p = 1.02-2.79) before CAPA diagnosis were independently associated with CAPA. Patients with CAPA had longer median ICU stays (17 days vs. 12 days, p = 0.007), and higher 180-day mortality (65.4 vs. 33.5%, p < 0.001) than those without CAPA. Conclusions: Thrombocytopenia, vasopressor use, and corticosteroid treatment were significantly associated with increased risk of incident IPA in COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs. The occurrence of CAPA may increase the likelihood of long-term COVID-19 mortality.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 713333, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472389

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), a life-saving technique for patients with severe respiratory and cardiac diseases, is being increasingly utilized worldwide, particularly during the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) pandemic, and there has been a sharp increase in the implementation of ECMO. However, due to the presence of various complications, the survival rate of patients undergoing ECMO remains low. Among the complications, the neurologic morbidity significantly associated with venoarterial and venovenous ECMO has received increasing attention. Generally, failure to recognize neurologic injury in time is reportedly associated with poor outcomes in patients on ECMO. Currently, multimodal monitoring is increasingly utilized in patients with devastating neurologic injuries and has been advocated as an important approach for early diagnosis. Here, we highlight the prevalence and outcomes, risk factors, current monitoring technologies, prevention, and treatment of neurologic complications in adult patients on ECMO. We believe that an improved understanding of neurologic complications presumably offers promising therapeutic solutions to prevent and treat neurologic morbidity.

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 611460, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389196

ABSTRACT

Background: The data on long-term outcomes of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in China are merely available. Methods: A retrospective study included 73 patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and treated with ECMO in 21 intensive care units in Hubei, China. Data on demographic information, clinical features, laboratory tests, ECMO durations, complications, and living status were collected. Results: The 73 ECMO-treated patients had a median age of 62 (range 33-78) years and 42 (63.6%) were males. Before ECMO initiation, patients had severe respiratory failure on mechanical ventilation with a median PO2/FiO2 of 71.9 [interquartile range (IQR), 58.6-87.0] mmHg and a median PCO2 of 62 [IQR, 43-84] mmHg on arterial blood analyses. The median duration from symptom onset to invasive mechanical ventilation, and to ECMO initiation was19 [IQR, 15-25] days, and 23 [IQR, 19-31] days. Before and after ECMO initiation, the proportions of patients receiving prone position ventilation were 58.9 and 69.9%, respectively. The median duration of ECMO support was 18.5 [IQR 12-30] days. During the treatments with ECMO, major hemorrhages occurred in 31 (42.5%) patients, and oxygenators were replaced in 21 (28.8%) patients. Since ECMO initiation, the 30-day mortality and 60-day mortality were 63.0 and 80.8%, respectively. Conclusions: In Hubei, China, the ECMO-treated patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 were of a broad age range and with severe hypoxemia. The durations of ECMO support, accompanied with increased complications, were relatively long. The long-term mortality in these patients was considerably high.

5.
Crit Care Med ; 49(1): e108, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254880
6.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(3): 1380-1395, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175846

ABSTRACT

Background: Most evidence regarding the risk factors for early in-hospital mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 focused on laboratory data at the time of hospital admission without adequate adjustment for confounding variables. A multicenter, age-matched, case-control study was therefore designed to explore the dynamic changes in laboratory parameters during the first 10 days after admission and identify early risk indicators for in-hospital mortality in this patient cohort. Methods: Demographics and clinical data were extracted from the medical records of 93 pairs of patients who had been admitted to hospital with severe COVID-19. These patients had either been discharged or were deceased by March 3, 2020. Data from days 1, 4, 7, and 10 of hospital admission were compared between survivors and non-survivors. Univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses were employed to identify early risk indicators of in-hospital death in this cohort. Results: On admission, in-hospital mortality was associated with five risk indicators (ORs in descending order): aspartate aminotransferase (AST, >32 U/L) 43.20 (95% CI: 2.63, 710.04); C-reactive protein (CRP) greater than 100 mg/L 13.61 (1.78, 103.941); lymphocyte count lower than 0.6×109/L 9.95 (1.30, 76.42); oxygen index (OI) less than 200 8.23 (1.04, 65.15); and D-dimer over 1 mg/L 8.16 (1.23, 54.34). Sharp increases in D-dimer at day 4, accompanied by decreasing lymphocyte counts, deteriorating OI, and persistent remarkably high CRP concentration were observed among non-survivors during the early stages of hospital admission. Conclusions: The potential risk factors of high D-dimer, CRP, AST, low lymphocyte count and OI could help clinicians identify patients at high risk of death early in the hospital admission. This might assist with rationalization of health care resources.

7.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 10(1): 6-15, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096511

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To investigate the association between levels of highly sensitive troponin I (hs-troponin I) and mortality in novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with cardiac injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all COVID-19 patients with increased levels of hs-troponin I from two hospitals in Wuhan, China. Demographic information, laboratory test results, cardiac ultrasonographic findings, and electrocardiograms were collected, and their predictive value on in-hospital mortality was explored using multivariable logistic regression. Of 1500 patients screened, 242 COVID-19 patients were enrolled in our study. Their median age was 68 years, and (48.8%) had underlying cardiovascular diseases. One hundred and seventy-six (72.7%) patients died during hospitalization. Multivariable logistic regression showed that C-reactive protein (>75.5 mg/L), D-dimer (>1.5 µg/mL), and acute respiratory distress syndrome were risk factors of mortality, and the peak hs-troponin I levels (>259.4 pg/mL) instead of the hs-troponin I levels at admission was predictor of death. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the peak levels of hs-troponin I for predicting in-hospital mortality was 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.86; sensitivity, 0.80; specificity, 0.72; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that the risk of in-hospital death among COVID-19 patients with cardiac injury can be predicted by the peak levels of hs-troponin I during hospitalization and was significantly associated with oxygen supply-demand mismatch, inflammation, and coagulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Troponin I/blood , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Heart Diseases/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 600989, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021898

ABSTRACT

SARS-coronavirus-2-induced immune dysregulation and inflammatory responses are involved in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, very little is known about immune cell and cytokine alterations in specific organs of COVID-19 patients. Here, we evaluated immune cells and cytokines in postmortem tissues, i.e., lungs, intestine, liver, kidneys, and spleen of three patients with COVID-19. Imaging mass cytometry revealed monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell (DC) infiltration in the lung, intestine, kidney, and liver tissues. Moreover, in patients with COVID-19, natural killer T cells infiltrated the liver, lungs, and intestine, whereas B cells infiltrated the kidneys, lungs, and intestine. CD11b+ macrophages and CD11c+ DCs also infiltrated the lungs and intestine, a phenomenon that was accompanied by overproduction of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. However, CD11b+ macrophages and CD11c+ DCs in the lungs or intestine of COVID-19 patients did not express human leukocyte antigen DR isotype. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression was higher in the lungs, intestine, liver, and kidneys, but not in the spleen, of all COVID-19 patients (compared to levels in controls). Collectively, these findings suggested that IL-10 and TNF-α as immunosuppressive and pro-inflammatory agents, respectively,-might be prognostic and could serve as therapeutic targets for COVID-19.

9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 615845, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016068

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to a large and increasing number of patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy. The indication and optimal timing of tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients are still unclear, and the outcomes about tracheostomy have not been extensively reported. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia who underwent elective tracheostomies. Methods: The multi-center, retrospective, observational study investigated all the COVID-19 patients who underwent elective tracheostomies in intensive care units (ICUs) of 23 hospitals in Hubei province, China, from January 8, 2020 to March 25, 2020. Demographic information, clinical characteristics, treatment, details of the tracheostomy procedure, successful weaning after tracheostomy, and living status were collected and analyzed. Data were compared between early tracheostomy patients (tracheostomy performed within 14 days of intubation) and late tracheostomy patients (tracheostomy performed after 14 days). Results: A total of 80 patients were included. The median duration from endotracheal intubation to tracheostomy was 17.5 [IQR 11.3-27.0] days. Most tracheotomies were performed by ICU physician [62 (77.5%)], and using percutaneous techniques [63 (78.8%)] at the ICU bedside [76 (95.0%)]. The most common complication was tracheostoma bleeding [14 (17.5%)], and major bleeding occurred in 4 (5.0%) patients. At 60 days after intubation, 31 (38.8%) patients experienced successful weaning from ventilator, 17 (21.2%) patients discharged from ICU, and 43 (53.8%) patients had died. Higher 60 day mortality [22 (73.3%) vs. 21 (42.0%)] were identified in patients who underwent early tracheostomy. Conclusions: In patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, tracheostomies were feasible to conduct by ICU physician at bedside with few major complications. Compared with tracheostomies conducted after 14 days of intubation, tracheostomies within 14 days were associated with an increased mortality rate.

10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 607821, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000106

ABSTRACT

Background: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) has been recommended as a suitable choice for the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure before mechanical ventilation (MV); however, delaying MV with HFNC therapy is still a dilemma between the technique and clinical management during the ongoing pandemic. Methods: Retrospective analysis of COVID-19 patients treated with HFNC therapy from four hospitals of Wuhan, China. Demographic information and clinical variables before, at, and shortly after HFNC initiation were collected and analyzed. A risk-stratification model of HFNC failure (the need for MV) was developed with the 324 patients of Jin Yin-tan Hospital and validated its accuracy with 69 patients of other hospitals. Results: Among the training cohort, the median duration of HFNC therapy was 6 (range, 3-11), and 147 experienced HFNC failure within 7 days of HFNC initiation. Early predictors of HFNC failure on the basis of a multivariate regression analysis included age older than 60 years [odds ratio (OR), 1.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08-3.44; p = 0.027; 2 points], respiratory rate-oxygenation index (ROX) <5.31 (OR, 5.22; 95% CI, 2.96-9.20; p < 0.001; 5 points) within the first 4 h of HFNC initiation, platelets < 125 × 109/L (OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.46-6.35; p = 0.003; 3 points), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) >7.0 pg/mL (OR, 3.34; 95% CI, 1.79-6.23; p < 0.001; 3 points) at HFNC initiation. A weighted risk-stratification model of these predictors showed sensitivity of 80.3%, specificity of 71.2% and a better predictive ability than ROX index alone [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.807 vs. 0.779, p < 0.001]. Six points were used as a cutoff value for the risk of HFNC failure stratification. The HFNC success probability of patients in low-risk group (84.2%) was 9.84 times that in the high-risk group (34.8%). In the subsequent validation cohort, the AUC of the model was 0.815 (0.71-0.92). Conclusions: Aged patients with lower ROX index, thrombocytopenia, and elevated IL-6 values are at increased risk of HFNC failure. The risk-stratification models accurately predicted the HFNC failure and early stratified COVID-19 patients with HFNC therapy into relevant risk categories.

11.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(3): 597-603, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major global health threat. We aimed to describe the characteristics of liver function in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection. METHODS: We enrolled all adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 and chronic HBV coinfection admitted to Tongji Hospital from February 1 to February 29, 2020. Data of demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, treatments, and clinical outcomes were collected. The characteristics of liver function and its association with the severity and prognosis of disease were described. RESULTS: Of the 105 patients with SARS-CoV-2 and chronic HBV coinfection, elevated levels of liver test were observed in several patients at admission, including elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (22, 20.95%), aspartate aminotransferase (29, 27.62%), total bilirubin (7, 6.67%), gamma-glutamyl transferase (7, 6.67%), and alkaline phosphatase (1, 0.95%). The levels of the indicators mentioned above increased substantially during hospitalization (all P < .05). Fourteen (13.33%) patients developed liver injury. Most of them (10, 71.43%) recovered after 8 (range 6-21) days. Notably the other, 4 (28.57%) patients rapidly progressed to acute-on-chronic liver failure. The proportion of severe COVID-19 was higher in patients with liver injury (P = .042). Complications including acute-on-chronic liver failure, acute cardiac injury and shock happened more frequently in patients with liver injury (all P < .05). The mortality was higher in individuals with liver injury (28.57% vs 3.30%, P = .004). CONCLUSION: Liver injury in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and chronic HBV coinfection was associated with severity and poor prognosis of disease. During the treatment of COVID-19 in chronic HBV-infected patients, liver function should be taken seriously and evaluated frequently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Liver/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , China , Coinfection/blood , Coinfection/mortality , Female , Hepatitis B, Chronic/blood , Hepatitis B, Chronic/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
12.
Hong Kong Journal of Emergency Medicine ; : 1024907920969326, 2020.
Article | Sage | ID: covidwho-903988

ABSTRACT

Background:An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) took place in Wuhan, China, by the end of 2019, and the disease continues to spread all over the world. The number of patients is increasing rapidly, a large number of infected patients is critically ill, and the mortality is high. However, information on COVID-19 patients is limited, and its clinical characteristics have not been fully studied.Objectives:To compare the performances of point-of-care lung ultrasound (LUS) and bedside chest X-ray in assessing the condition of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).Methods:This observational study enrolled 42 COVID-19 patients with ARDS who were admitted to the Department of Critical Care Medicine of the Wuhan Union Hospital from February to April 2020. The point-of-care LUS characteristics of the COVID-19 patients with ARDS were summarized, and the performances of LUS and bedside chest X-ray in assessing the patient?s condition were compared.Results:Most of the 42 patients were elderly individuals with chronic clinical diseases. The proportion of patients older than 60?years old was 85.7%. All patients were given invasive mechanical ventilation;eight (19.0%) of them received venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. LUS has evident advantages in detecting lung consolidation, patchy shadows, and pleural thickening, and pleural line changes in particular. The receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that the sensitivity, Youden index, and kappa value for detecting COVID-19 patients with ARDS were higher for LUS than the chest X-ray.Conclusion:LUS has better diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity in COVID-19 patients with ARDS than the chest X-ray.

13.
Immunity ; 53(5): 1108-1122.e5, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880509

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global public health crisis. However, little is known about the pathogenesis and biomarkers of COVID-19. Here, we profiled host responses to COVID-19 by performing plasma proteomics of a cohort of COVID-19 patients, including non-survivors and survivors recovered from mild or severe symptoms, and uncovered numerous COVID-19-associated alterations of plasma proteins. We developed a machine-learning-based pipeline to identify 11 proteins as biomarkers and a set of biomarker combinations, which were validated by an independent cohort and accurately distinguished and predicted COVID-19 outcomes. Some of the biomarkers were further validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a larger cohort. These markedly altered proteins, including the biomarkers, mediate pathophysiological pathways, such as immune or inflammatory responses, platelet degranulation and coagulation, and metabolism, that likely contribute to the pathogenesis. Our findings provide valuable knowledge about COVID-19 biomarkers and shed light on the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Plasma/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/classification , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Female , Humans , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/classification , Pneumonia, Viral/classification , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Proteomics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 13: 1965-1975, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-858665

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection activates coagulation and stimulates innate immune system. Little is known about coagulopathy and response of inflammation and infection in ICU patients with COVID-19. Derangement of coagulation and markers of infection and inflammation induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as their correlations were elucidated. Methods: One hundred eight ICU patients with COVID-19 (28 survivors and 80 non-survivors) in Tongji hospital and Wuhan Jinyintan hospital, in Wuhan, China were included. Coagulation parameters, infectious and inflammatory markers were dynamically analysed. The correlation between coagulopathy of patients and infectious and inflammatory markers was verified. Results: SARS-CoV-2-associated coagulopathy occurred in most cases of critical illness. Raised values of d-dimer and FDP were measured in all patients, especially in non-survivors, who had longer PT, APTT, INR, as well as TT, and lower PTA and AT compared to survivors. SIC and DIC mostly occurred in non-survivors. CRP, ESR, serum ferritin, IL-8, and IL-2R increased in all patients, and were much higher in non-survivors who had significantly higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10. D-dimer was positively associated with CRP, serum ferritin (p = 0.02), PCT (p < 0.001), and IL-2R (p = 0.007). SIC scores were positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.006), PCT (p = 0.0007), IL-1ß (p = 0.048), and IL-6 (p = 0.009). DIC scores were positively associated with CRP (p < 0.0001), ESR (p = 0.02), PCT (p < 0.0001), serum ferritin (p < 0.0001), IL-10 (p = 0.02), and IL-2R (p = 0.0005). Conclusion: Prothrombotic state, SIC, and DIC are the characteristics of coagulation in ICU patients with COVID-19. CRP, ESR, serum ferritin, IL-8, IL-2R, IL-6, and PCT were stimulated by SARS-CoV-2 infection. CRP, PCT, serum ferritin, and IL-2R indicate the coagulopathy severity of patients with COVID-19.

15.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 26: 1076029620953217, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733074

ABSTRACT

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is prevalent in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the risk factors and incidence rate of DVT remains elusive. Here, we aimed to assess the incidence rate and risk factors of DVT. All patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and performed venous ultrasound by ultrasound deparment between December 2019 and April 2020 in Wuhan Jin Yin-tan hospital were enrolled. Demographic information and clinical features were retrospectively collected. Notably, a comparison between the DVT and the non-DVT groups was explored. The incidence rate of venous thrombosis was 35.2% (50 patients out of 142). Moreover, the location of thrombus at the proximal extremity veins was 5.6% (n = 8), while at distal extremity veins was 35.2% (n = 50) of the patients. We also noted that patients with DVT exhibited a high level of D-dimer (OR 10.9 (95% CI, 3.3-36.0), P < 0.001), were admitted to the intensive care unit (OR 6.5 (95% CI, 2.1-20.3), P = 0.001), a lower usage of the anticoagulant drugs (OR 3.0 (95% CI, 1.1-7.8), P < 0.001). Finally, this study revealed that a high number of patients with COVID-19 developed DVT. This was observed particularly in critically ill patients with high D-dimer levels who required no anticoagulant medication.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Preexisting Condition Coverage , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
17.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 394, 2020 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-655489

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global numbers of confirmed cases and deceased critically ill patients with COVID-19 are increasing. However, the clinical course, and the 60-day mortality and its predictors in critically ill patients have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study is to identify the clinical course, and 60-day mortality and its predictors in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Critically ill adult patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) from 3 hospitals in Wuhan, China, were included. Data on demographic information, preexisting comorbidities, laboratory findings at ICU admission, treatments, clinical outcomes, and results of SARS-CoV-2 RNA tests and of serum SARS-CoV-2 IgM were collected including the duration between symptom onset and negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. RESULTS: Of 1748 patients with COVID-19, 239 (13.7%) critically ill patients were included. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in 164 (68.6%) patients, coagulopathy in 150 (62.7%) patients, acute cardiac injury in 103 (43.1%) patients, and acute kidney injury (AKI) in 119 (49.8%) patients, which occurred 15.5 days, 17 days, 18.5 days, and 19 days after the symptom onset, respectively. The median duration of the negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was 30 (range 6-81) days in 49 critically ill survivors that were identified. A total of 147 (61.5%) patients deceased by 60 days after ICU admission. The median duration between ICU admission and decease was 12 (range 3-36). Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis revealed that age older than 65 years, thrombocytopenia at ICU admission, ARDS, and AKI independently predicted the 60-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Severe complications are common and the 60-day mortality of critically ill patients with COVID-19 is considerably high. The duration of the negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and its association with the severity of critically ill patients with COVID-19 should be seriously considered and further studied.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
18.
Crit Care Med ; 48(8): e657-e665, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-197936

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 has emerged as a major global health threat with a great number of deaths in China. We aimed to assess the association between Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and hospital mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019, and to compare the predictive ability of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and Confusion, Urea, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure, Age 65 (CURB65) score. DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort. SETTING: Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. SUBJECTS: Confirmed patients with coronavirus disease 2019 hospitalized in the ICU of Tongji hospital from January 10, 2020, to February 10, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 178 potentially eligible patients with symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019, 23 patients (12.92%) were diagnosed as suspected cases, and one patient (0.56%) suffered from cardiac arrest immediately after admission. Ultimately, 154 patients were enrolled in the analysis and 52 patients (33.77%) died. Mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (23.23 ± 6.05) was much higher in deaths compared with the mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 10.87 ± 4.40 in survivors (p < 0.001). Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was independently associated with hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.13). In predicting hospital mortality, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score demonstrated better discriminative ability (area under the curve, 0.966; 95% CI, 0.942-0.990) than Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (area under the curve, 0.867; 95% CI, 0.808-0.926) and CURB65 score (area under the curve, 0.844; 95% CI, 0.784-0.905). Based on the cut-off value of 17, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score could predict the death of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 with a sensitivity of 96.15% and a specificity of 86.27%. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the survivor probability of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score less than 17 was notably higher than that of patients with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score greater than or equal to 17 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was an effective clinical tool to predict hospital mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 compared with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and CURB65 score. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score greater than or equal to 17 serves as an early warning indicator of death and may provide guidance to make further clinical decisions.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , APACHE , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Causality , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Predictive Value of Tests , Proportional Hazards Models , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Survivors/statistics & numerical data
19.
Ocul Surf ; 18(3): 360-362, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-45794

ABSTRACT

This is a cross-sectional study of patients who received a COVID-19 diagnosis between December 30, 2019 and February 7, 2020 at Tongji Hospital. A total of 102 patients (48 Male [47%] and 54 Female [53%]) with clinical symptoms, Rt, and chest Computed Tomography (CT) abnormalities were identified with a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19. Patients had a mean [SD] gestational age of 57.63 [14.90] years. Of a total of 102 patients identified, 72 patients (36 men [50%] and 36 women [50%]; mean [SD] age, 58.68 [14.81] years) were confirmed to have COVID-19 by laboratory diagnosis with a SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assay. Only two patients (2.78%) with conjunctivitis were identified from 72 patients with a laboratory confirmed COVID-19. Of those two patients, SARS-CoV-2 RNA fragments were found in ocular discharges by SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in only one patient. Our findings suspect the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection through the ocular surface is extremely low, while the nosocomial infection of SARS-CoV-2 through the eyes after occupational exposure is a potential route. To lower the SARS-CoV-2 nosocomial infection, all health care professionals should wear protective goggles. The inefficient diagnostic method and the sampling time lag may contribute to the lower positive rate of conjunctival swab samples of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(5): 475-481, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An ongoing outbreak of pneumonia associated with the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in December, 2019, in Wuhan, China. Information about critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection is scarce. We aimed to describe the clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. METHODS: In this single-centered, retrospective, observational study, we enrolled 52 critically ill adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Wuhan Jin Yin-tan hospital (Wuhan, China) between late December, 2019, and Jan 26, 2020. Demographic data, symptoms, laboratory values, comorbidities, treatments, and clinical outcomes were all collected. Data were compared between survivors and non-survivors. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality, as of Feb 9, 2020. Secondary outcomes included incidence of SARS-CoV-2-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the proportion of patients requiring mechanical ventilation. FINDINGS: Of 710 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 52 critically ill adult patients were included. The mean age of the 52 patients was 59·7 (SD 13·3) years, 35 (67%) were men, 21 (40%) had chronic illness, 51 (98%) had fever. 32 (61·5%) patients had died at 28 days, and the median duration from admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) to death was 7 (IQR 3-11) days for non-survivors. Compared with survivors, non-survivors were older (64·6 years [11·2] vs 51·9 years [12·9]), more likely to develop ARDS (26 [81%] patients vs 9 [45%] patients), and more likely to receive mechanical ventilation (30 [94%] patients vs 7 [35%] patients), either invasively or non-invasively. Most patients had organ function damage, including 35 (67%) with ARDS, 15 (29%) with acute kidney injury, 12 (23%) with cardiac injury, 15 (29%) with liver dysfunction, and one (2%) with pneumothorax. 37 (71%) patients required mechanical ventilation. Hospital-acquired infection occurred in seven (13·5%) patients. INTERPRETATION: The mortality of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is considerable. The survival time of the non-survivors is likely to be within 1-2 weeks after ICU admission. Older patients (>65 years) with comorbidities and ARDS are at increased risk of death. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia poses great strain on critical care resources in hospitals, especially if they are not adequately staffed or resourced. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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