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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873926

ABSTRACT

Isolated reports of new-onset diabetes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have led researchers to hypothesize that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects human exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cells ex vivo and in vivo. However, existing research lacks experimental evidence indicating that SARS-CoV-2 can infect pancreatic tissue. Here, we found that cats infected with a high dose of SARS-CoV-2 exhibited hyperglycemia. We also detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in pancreatic tissues of these cats, and immunohistochemical staining revealed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP) in islet cells. SARS-CoV-2 NP and spike proteins were primarily detected in glucagon-positive cells, and most glucagon-positive cells expressed ACE2. Additionally, immune protection experiments conducted on cats showed that blood glucose levels of immunized cats did not increase postchallenge. Our data indicate cat pancreas as a SARS-CoV-2 target and suggest that the infection of glucagon-positive cells could contribute to the metabolic dysregulation observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected cats.

2.
The Journal of infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824578

ABSTRACT

Isolated reports of new-onset diabetes in patients with COVID-19 have led researchers to hypothesise that SARS-CoV-2 infects the human exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cells ex vivo and in vivo. However, existing research lacks experimental evidence indicating that SARS-CoV-2 can infect pancreatic tissue. Here, we found that cats infected with a high dose of SARS-CoV-2 exhibited hyperglycaemia. We also detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the pancreatic tissues of these cats, and immunohistochemical staining revealed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP) in the islet cells. SARS-CoV-2 NP and Spike proteins were primarily detected in Glu+ cells, and most Glu+ cells expressed ACE2. Additionally, immune protection experiments conducted on cats showed that the blood glucose levels of immunised cats did not increase post-challenge. Our data indicate the cat pancreas as a SARS-CoV-2 target and suggest that the infection of Glu+ cells could contribute to the metabolic dysregulation observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected cats.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313436

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients can recover with a median SARS-CoV-2 clearance of 20 days post initial symptoms (PIS). However, we observed some COVID-19 patients with existing SARS-CoV-2 for more than 50 days PIS. This study aimed to investigate the cause of viral clearance delay and the infectivity in these patients. Demographic data and clinical characteristics of 22 long-term COVID-19 patients were collected. SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, peripheral lymphocyte count, and functionality were assessed. SARS-CoV-2-specific and neutralization antibodies were detected, followed by virus isolation and genome sequencing. The median age of the studied cohort was 59.83±12.94 years. All patients were clinically cured after long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection ranging from 53 to 112 days PIS. Peripheral lymphocytes counts were normal. Interferon gamma (IFN-ƴ)-generated CD4+ and CD8+ cells were normal as 24.68±9.60% and 66.41±14.87%. However, the number of IFN-ƴ-generated NK cells diminished (58.03±11.78%). All patients presented detectable IgG, which positively correlated with mild neutralizing activity (ID50=157.2, P=0.05). SARS-CoV-2 was not isolated, and a cytopathic effect was lacking. Only three synonymous variants were identified in spike protein coding regions. In conclusion, decreased IFN-γ production by NK cells and low neutralizing antibodies might favor SARS-CoV-2 long-term existence. Further, low viral load and weak viral pathogenicity was observed in COVID-19 patients with long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312713

ABSTRACT

Background: An ideal animal model to study SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogenesis and evaluate therapies and vaccines should reproduce SARS-CoV-2 infection and recapitulate lung disease like those seen in humans. The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2, but mice are resistant to the infection because their ACE2 is incompatible with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Methods: We generated a mouse-adapted strain SARS-CoV-2 by serial passages in the lung of BALB/c mice. Complete genome deep sequencing of different generations of viruses was performed to characterize the dynamics of the adaptive mutations in SARS-CoV-2. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis and Biolayer interferometry experiments demonstrated that two mutations in RBD significantly increased its binding affinity towards mouse ACE2. Significantly, TLR7/8 agonist Resiquimod block SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and in vivo. Findings: We adapted a wild-type SARS-CoV-2 by serial passages in the lung of BALB/c mice. The mouse-adapted strain WBP-1 showed increased infectivity in BALB/c mice and led to severe interstitial pneumonia. We characterized the dynamics of the adaptive mutations in SARS-CoV-2 and demonstrated that Q493K and Q498H in RBD significantly increased its binding affinity towards mouse ACE2. Additionally, The TLR7/8 agonist Resiquimod was able to protect mice against WBP-1 challenge, demonstrating this mouse-adapted strain is a useful tool to investigate COVID-19 and develop new therapies. Interpretation: We found for the first time that the Q493K and Q498H mutations in the RBD of WBP-1 enhanced its interactive affinities with mACE2. The mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 provides a valuable tool for the evaluation of novel antiviral and vaccine strategies, especially in determining the immunopathological consequences of any intervention. This study also verified the antiviral activity of TLR7/8 agonist Resiquimod against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and in vivo.Funding Statement: This research was funded by Emergency Science and Technology Project of Hubei Province(2020FCA046)and Independent Science and Technology Innovation Fund of Huazhong Agricultural University in 2020 (2662020PY002).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: The animal experiments were approved by the Research Ethics Committee, Huazhong Agricultural University, Hubei, China (HZAUMO-2020-0007). All the animal experiments were conducted in accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals from the Research Ethics Committee, Huazhong Agricultural University, Hubei, China.

5.
Environ Res ; 206: 112624, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587833

ABSTRACT

China's unprecedented lockdown to contain the spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in early 2020, provided a tragic natural experiment to investigate the responses of atmospheric pollution to emission reduction at regional scale. Primarily driven by primary emissions, particulate trace elements is vitally important due to their disproportionally adverse impacts on human health and ecosystem. Here 14 trace elements in PM2.5 were selected for continuous measurement hourly in urban representative site of Shanghai, for three different phases: pre-control period (1-23 January 2020), control period (24 January-10 February 2020; overlapped with Chinese Lunar New Year holiday) and post control period (11-26 February 2020) the city's lockdown measures. The results show that all meteorological parameters (including temperature, RH, mixing layer height et al.) were generally consistent among different periods. Throughout the study period, the concentrations of most species displayed a "V-shaped" trend, suggesting significant effects by the restriction measures imposed during the lockdown period. While this is not the case for species like K, Cu and Ba, indicating their unusual origins. As a case study, the geographical origins of Cu were explored. Seven major sources, i.e., Vehicle-related emission (including road dust; indicative of Ca, Fe, Ba, Mn, Zn, Cu; accounting for 30.1%), shipping (Ni; 5.0%), coal combustion (As, Pb; 4.2%), Se and Cr industry (24.9%), nonferrous metal smelting (Au, Hg; 7.5%) and fireworks burning (K, Cu, Ba; 28.3%) were successfully pinpointed based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis. Our source apportionment results also highlight fireworks burning was one of the dominant source of trace elements during the Chinese Lunar New Year holiday. It is worth noting that 56% of the total mass vehicular emissions are affiliated with non-exhaust sources (tire wear, brake wear, and road surface abrasion).


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Trace Elements , Air Pollutants/analysis , China , Communicable Disease Control , Dust/analysis , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Trace Elements/analysis , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5695, 2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442780

ABSTRACT

The dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 RNA structure and their functional relevance are largely unknown. Here we develop a simplified SPLASH assay and comprehensively map the in vivo RNA-RNA interactome of SARS-CoV-2 genome across viral life cycle. We report canonical and alternative structures including 5'-UTR and 3'-UTR, frameshifting element (FSE) pseudoknot and genome cyclization in both cells and virions. We provide direct evidence of interactions between Transcription Regulating Sequences, which facilitate discontinuous transcription. In addition, we reveal alternative short and long distance arches around FSE. More importantly, we find that within virions, while SARS-CoV-2 genome RNA undergoes intensive compaction, genome domains remain stable but with strengthened demarcation of local domains and weakened global cyclization. Taken together, our analysis reveals the structural basis for the regulation of replication, discontinuous transcription and translational frameshifting, the alternative conformations and the maintenance of global genome organization during the whole life cycle of SARS-CoV-2, which we anticipate will help develop better antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
Frameshifting, Ribosomal/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , RNA-Seq , Transcription, Genetic , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/genetics
7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(8): 3644-3651, 2021 Aug 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328299

ABSTRACT

To study the evolution and sources of heavy metal elements in the urban atmosphere before, during (overlapped with Chinese Lunar New Year), and after China's COVID-19 shutdown, a multi-metal online analyzer was deployed to determine the trace elements in PM2.5 in Shanghai from January 1 to February 26, 2020. Meanwhile, source apportionment of the hourly measured heavy metal concentrations was performed using a PMF model, in which eight sources were identified. The results show that the concentrations of most elements presented a "V-shaped" trend, which was mainly influenced by emissions from fireworks (K, Cu, Ba as indicative elements), Se-related industry, road dust (Ca, Fe, Ba), and motor vehicles (Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu). However, during the COVID-19 shutdown period, the concentrations of K, Ba, and Cu were high. Case-specific analysis suggested that prior to the shutdown period, the high concentrations of Cu were significantly influenced by long-range transport, which shifted to a dominant contribution from local fireworks during the shutdown period.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Metals, Heavy , Trace Elements , Air Pollutants/analysis , China , Dust/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Trace Elements/analysis
8.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270129

ABSTRACT

Influenza is a highly known contagious viral infection that has been responsible for the death of many people in history with pandemics. These pandemics have been occurring every 10 to 30 years in the last century. The most recent global pandemic prior to COVID-19 was the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. A decade ago, the H1N1 virus caused 12,500 deaths in just 19 months globally. Now, again, the world has been challenged with another pandemic. Since December 2019, the first case of a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection was detected in Wuhan. This infection has risen rapidly throughout the world; even the World Health Organization (WHO) announced COVID-19 as a worldwide emergency to ensure human health and public safety. This review article aims to discuss important issues relating to COVID-19, including clinical, epidemiological, and pathological features of COVID-19 and recent progress in diagnosis and treatment approaches for the COVID-19 infection. We also highlight key similarities and differences between COVID-19 and influenza A to ensure the theoretical and practical details of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/pathogenicity , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , World Health Organization
9.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(2): 591-597, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241029

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in an unprecedented public health crisis and economic losses. Although several cases of cats and dogs infected with SARS-CoV-2 have been reported during this outbreak, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in dog and its transmission among other companion animals are still unknown. Here, we report an extensive serological study of SARS-CoV-2 infection in dogs in Wuhan and analyse the infection rates at different stages of the pandemic outbreak. A total of 946 dogs serum samples were collected from Wuhan, of which 36 samples were obtained prior to the pandemic outbreak. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that 16 sera collected during the outbreak were detected as positive through the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. Of these 16 sera, 10 exhibited measurable SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies whose titres ranged from 1/20 to 1/180. No serological cross-reactivity was detected between SARS-CoV-2 and canine coronavirus (CCV). Furthermore, with the effective control of the outbreak, a decrease in the SARS-CoV-2 seropositive dog number was observed. Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 has infected companion dogs during the outbreak, and that COVID-19 patient families have a higher risk of dog infection. Our findings deepen our understanding of the infection of SARS-CoV-2 in dogs and provide an important reference for prevention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
EBioMedicine ; 67: 103381, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228017

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An ideal animal model to study SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogenesis and evaluate therapies and vaccines should reproduce SARS-CoV-2 infection and recapitulate lung disease like those seen in humans. The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2, but mice are resistant to the infection because their ACE2 is incompatible with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein . METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 was passaged in BALB/c mice to obtain mouse-adapted virus strain. Complete genome deep sequencing of different generations of viruses was performed to characterize the dynamics of the adaptive mutations in SARS-CoV-2. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis and Biolayer interferometry experiments determined the binding affinity of mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 WBP-1 RBD to mouse ACE2 and human ACE2. Finally, we tested whether TLR7/8 agonist Resiquimod (R848) could also inhibit the replication of WBP-1 in the mouse model. FINDINGS: The mouse-adapted strain WBP-1 showed increased infectivity in BALB/c mice and led to severe interstitial pneumonia. We characterized the dynamics of the adaptive mutations in SARS-CoV-2 and demonstrated that Q493K and Q498H in RBD significantly increased its binding affinity towards mouse ACE2. Additionally, the study tentatively found that the TLR7/8 agonist Resiquimod was able to protect mice against WBP-1 challenge. Therefore, this mouse-adapted strain is a useful tool to investigate COVID-19 and develop new therapies. INTERPRETATION: We found for the first time that the Q493K and Q498H mutations in the RBD of WBP-1 enhanced its interactive affinities with mACE2. The mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 provides a valuable tool for the evaluation of novel antiviral and vaccine strategies. This study also tentatively verified the antiviral activity of TLR7/8 agonist Resiquimod against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and in vivo. FUNDING: This research was funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2020YFC0845600) and Emergency Science and Technology Project of Hubei Province (2020FCA046) and Robert A. Welch Foundation (C-1565).


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Imidazoles/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Adaptation, Physiological , Animals , Binding Sites , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serial Passage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects , Whole Genome Sequencing
11.
J Virol ; 2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127542

ABSTRACT

Age is a risk factor for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated morbidity and mortality in humans; hence, in this study, we compared the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in young and aged BALB/c mice. We found that SARS-CoV-2 isolates replicated in the respiratory tracts of 12-month-old (aged) mice and caused pathological features of pneumonia upon intranasal infection. In contrast, rapid viral clearance was observed 5 days following infection in 2-month-old (young) mice with no evidence of pathological changes in the lungs. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 elicited significantly upregulated production of cytokines, especially interleukin 6 and interferon gamma, in aged mice; whereas this response was much weaker in young mice. Subsequent challenge of infected aged BALB/c mice with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in neutralized antibody responses, a significantly reduced viral burden in the lungs, and inflammation mitigation. Deep sequencing showed a panel of mutations potentially associated with the enhanced infection in aged BALB/c mice, such as the Q498H mutations which are located at the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein. We further found that the isolates can not only multiply in the respiratory tract of mice but also cause disease in aged mice. Overall, viral replication and rapid adaption in aged BALB/c mice were associated with pneumonia, confirming that the age-related susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 in mice resembled that in humans.ImportanceAged BALB/c model are in use as a model of disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. Our research demonstrated SARS-CoV-2 can rapidly adapt in aged BALB/c mice through causing mutations at the RBD of the S protein. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2-infected aged BALB/c mice indicated that alveolar damage, interstitial pneumonia, and inflammatory immune responses were similar to the clinical manifestations of human infections. Therefore, our aged BALB/c challenge model will be useful for further understanding the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and for testing vaccines and antiviral agents.

12.
Talanta ; 225: 122064, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003087

ABSTRACT

Quantum dots (QDs) based fluorescent nanobeads are considered as promising materials for next generation point-of-care diagnosis systems. In this study, we carried out, for the first time, the synthesis of QDs nanobeads using polystyrene (PS) nanobead as the template. QDs loading on PS nanobead surface in this method can be readily achieved by the use of polyelectrolyte, avoiding the time-consuming and uncontrollable silane reagents-involved functionalization procedure that conventional synthesis of silica-based QDs nanobeads often suffer from. Notably, the application of QDs nanobeads in suspension microarray for H5N1 virus detection leads to a sensitivity lower than 25 PFU/mL. In addition, QDs nanobead was also incorporated into lateral flow assay for SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection, leading to more than one order of magnitude detection sensitivity as compared to that of commercial one based on colloid gold.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Microspheres , Nanostructures/chemistry , Polystyrenes/chemistry , Quantum Dots , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/physiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nanostructures/ultrastructure , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Silicon Dioxide/chemistry
13.
Virol Sin ; 35(6): 793-802, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-911957

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients can recover with a median SARS-CoV-2 clearance of 20 days post initial symptoms (PIS). However, we observed some COVID-19 patients with existing SARS-CoV-2 for more than 50 days PIS. This study aimed to investigate the cause of viral clearance delay and the infectivity in these patients. Demographic data and clinical characteristics of 22 long-term COVID-19 patients were collected. The median age of the studied cohort was 59.83 ± 12.94 years. All patients were clinically cured after long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection ranging from 53 to 112 days PIS. Peripheral lymphocytes counts were normal. The ratios of interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-secreting cells to total CD4+ and CD8+ cells were normal as 24.68% ± 9.60% and 66.41% ± 14.87% respectively. However, the number of IFN-γ-secreting NK cells diminished (58.03% ± 11.78%). All patients presented detectable IgG, which positively correlated with mild neutralizing activity (Mean value neutralisation antibodies titers = 157.2, P = 0.05). No SARS-CoV-2 virus was isolated in Vero E6 cells inoculated with nasopharyngeal swab samples from all patients 50 days PIS, and the cytopathic effect was lacking. But one sample was positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test in cell supernatants after two passages. Genome sequencing revealed that only three synonymous variants were identified in spike protein coding regions. In conclusion, decreased IFN-γ production by NK cells and low neutralizing antibodies might favor SARS-CoV-2 long-term existence. Further, low viral load and weak viral pathogenicity were observed in COVID-19 patients with long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load , Virulence
14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2013-2019, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739234

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a new respiratory illness caused by SARS-CoV-2, and has constituted a global public health emergency. Cat is susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. However, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in cats remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the infection of SARS-CoV-2 in cats during COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan by serological detection methods. A cohort of serum samples were collected from cats in Wuhan, including 102 sampled after COVID-19 outbreak, and 39 prior to the outbreak. Fifteen sera collected after the outbreak were positive for the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among them, 11 had SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies with a titer ranging from 1/20 to 1/1080. No serological cross-reactivity was detected between SARS-CoV-2 and type I or II feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). In addition, we continuously monitored serum antibody dynamics of two positive cats every 10 days over 130 days. Their serum antibodies reached the peak at 10 days after first sampling, and declined to the limit of detection within 110 days. Our data demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 has infected cats in Wuhan during the outbreak and described serum antibody dynamics in cats, providing an important reference for clinical treatment and prevention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Pandemics/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Animals , COVID-19 , Cats , China , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Coronavirus, Feline/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
15.
Geophys Res Lett ; : e2020GL088533, 2020 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592112

ABSTRACT

It is a puzzle as to why more severe haze formed during the New Year Holiday in 2020 (NYH-20), when China was in an unprecedented state of shutdown to contain the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak, than in 2019 (NYH-19). We performed a comprehensive measurement and modeling analysis of the aerosol chemistry and physics at multiple sites in China (mainly in Shanghai) before, during, and after NYH-19 and NYH-20. Much higher secondary aerosol fraction in PM2.5 were observed during NYH-20 (73%) than during NYH-19 (59%). During NYH-20, PM2.5 levels correlated significantly with the oxidation ratio of nitrogen (r 2 = 0.77, p < 0.01), and aged particles from northern China were found to impede atmospheric new particle formation and growth in Shanghai. A markedly enhanced efficiency of nitrate aerosol formation was observed along the transport pathways during NYH-20, despite the overall low atmospheric NO2 levels.

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