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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(7)2023 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305159

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is clinically less severe in children, even if the wide variety and degree of severity of symptoms reported in children pose a still-unresolved challenge for clinicians. We performed an in-depth analysis of the immunological profiles of 18 hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-infected children, whose results were compared to those obtained from 13 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). The patients were categorized as paucisymptomatic/moderate (55.6%) or severe/critical (44.5%) according to established diagnostic criteria and further stratified into the categories of infants (1-12 months), children (1-12 years), and adolescents (>12 years). We assessed SARS-CoV-2-specific RBD antibodies (Ab), neutralizing antibodies (nAb), and circulating cytokines/chemokines in the plasma, and the SARS-CoV-2-specific immune response was measured in PBMCs by gene expression and secretome analyses. Our results showed peculiar circulating cytokine/chemokine profiles among patients sharing a similar clinical phenotype. A cluster of patients consisting of infants with severe symptoms presented hyperinflammatory profiles, together with extremely polarized antibody profiles. In a second cluster consisting of paucisymptomatic patients, a less pronounced increase in the level of inflammatory cytokines, together with an association between the selected cytokines and humoral responses, was observed. A third cluster, again consisting of paucisymptomatic patients, showed a circulating cytokine/chemokine profile which overlapped with that of the HC. The SARS-CoV-2-stimulated production of pro-inflammatory proteins, T lymphocyte activation, and migration-specific proteins, were significantly increased in SARS-CoV-2-infected children compared to the HC. Our findings suggest that immune response activation in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is directly correlated with clinical severity and, to a lesser extent, age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Cytokines , Chemokines
2.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 145561321993933, 2021 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259837

ABSTRACT

Testing for coronavirus disease 2019 is critical in controlling the pandemic all over the world. Diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection is based on real-time polymerase chain reaction performed on nasopharyngeal swab. If not adequately performed, the viral specimen collection can be painful and lead to complications. We present a complication occurred during a nasopharyngeal swab collection performed in a noncooperative patient where the plastic shaft of the swab fractured during the procedure, resulting in swab tip retention deep into the nasal cavity. The foreign body was found endoscopically, stuck between the nasal septum and the superior turbinate tail at the upper level of the left choana and removed under general anesthesia in a negative pressure operating room with the health care personnel wearing personal protective equipment. Unpleasant complications like the one described can happen when the swab is collected without the necessary knowledge of nasal anatomy or conducted inappropriately, especially in noncooperative patients. Moreover, the design of currently used viral swabs may expose to accidental rupture, with risk of foreign body retention in the nasal cavities. In such cases, diagnosis and treatment are endoscopy-guided procedures performed in an adequate setting to minimize the risk of spreading of the pandemic.

4.
Thromb Res ; 223: 24-33, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2183790

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Studies exploring alterations in blood coagulation and platelet activation induced by COVID-19 vaccines are not concordant. We aimed to assess the impact of four COVID-19 vaccines on platelet activation, coagulation, and inflammation considering also the immunization dose and the history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: TREASURE study enrolled 368 consecutive subjects (161 receiving viral vector vaccines -ChAdOx1-S/Vaxzevria or Janssen- and 207 receiving mRNA vaccines -Comirnaty/Pfizer-BioNTech or Spikevax/Moderna). Blood was collected the day before and 8 ± 2 days after the vaccination. Platelet activation markers (P-selectin, aGPIIbIIIa and Tissue Factor expression; number of platelet-monocyte and -granulocyte aggregates) and microvesicle release were analyzed by flow cytometry. Platelet thrombin generation (TG) capacity was measured using the Calibrated Automated Thrombogram. Plasma coagulation and inflammation markers and immune response were evaluated by ELISA. RESULTS: Vaccination did not induce platelet activation and microvesicle release. IL-6 and CRP levels (+30%), D-dimer, fibrinogen and F1+2 (+13%, +3.7%, +4.3%, respectively) but not TAT levels significantly increased upon immunization with all four vaccines, with no difference among them and between first and second dose. An overall minor post-vaccination reduction of aPC, TM and TFPI, all possibly related to endothelial function, was observed. No anti-PF4 seroconversion was observed. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the four COVID-19 vaccines administered to a large population sample induce a transient inflammatory response, with no onset of platelet activation. The minor changes in clotting activation and endothelial function might be potentially involved at a population level in explaining the very rare venous thromboembolic complications of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Blood Coagulation , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 158, 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009439

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is an IgA-mediated small vessel vasculitis, typical of childhood. It's a self-limiting disease and it affects different systems. HSP is characterized by dermatological, abdominal, joint and renal clinical manifestations. This condition usually occurs upon infections, mainly upper respiratory tract ones, medications, vaccinations and malignancies. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a 11 year-old girl who developed a urticarial rash 12 days after the first dose of Pfizer-BioNTech BNT16B2b2 mRNA vaccine and a clear picture of Henoch Schönlein purpura 5 days after administration of the second dose of the same vaccine. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first description of a pediatric patient with Henoch-Schönlein purpura occurring in association with vaccination against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , IgA Vasculitis , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Humans , IgA Vasculitis/chemically induced , IgA Vasculitis/diagnosis
7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Protozoa of the genus Leishmania are characterized by their capacity to target macrophages and Dendritic Cells (DCs). These microorganisms could thus be exploited for the delivery of antigens to immune cells. Leishmania tarentolae is regarded as a non-pathogenic species; it was previously used as a biofactory for protein production and has been considered as a candidate vaccine or as an antigen delivery platform. However, results on the type of immune polarization determined by L. tarentolae are still inconclusive. METHODS: DCs were derived from human monocytes and exposed to live L. tarentolae, using both the non-engineered P10 strain, and the same strain engineered for expression of the spike protein from SARS-CoV-2. We then determined: (i) parasite internalization in the DCs; and (ii) the capacity of the assayed strains to activate DCs and the type of immune polarization. RESULTS: Protozoan parasites from both strains were effectively engulfed by DCs, which displayed a full pattern of maturation, in terms of MHC class II and costimulatory molecule expression. In addition, after parasite infection, a limited release of Th1 cytokines was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that L. tarentolae could be used as a vehicle for antigen delivery to DCs and to induce the maturation of these cells. The limited cytokine release suggests L. tarentolae as a neutral vaccine vehicle that could be administered in association with appropriate immune-modulating molecules.

8.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 834363, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903099

ABSTRACT

The impact of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the pediatric population is increasingly recognized. A widespread vaccination in childhood would provide benefits for children and might help ending the pandemic by enhancing community protection. Following recent approval by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) of Comirnaty (Pfizer-BioNTech) for children aged 5-11 years, we aimed to investigate caregivers' intention to vaccinate their children <12 years of age against COVID-19. A structured questionnaire was administered to caregivers of children aged <12 years visiting the Emergency Department or the outpatient clinics in three major hospitals of Milan, Italy, from 20 September to 17 October 2021. A total of 612 caregivers were invited to participate and 604 accepted (response rate >98%). Three questionnaires were excluded due to compiling errors and 601 were included in the analysis. A total of 311 (51.7%) caregivers stated they would have their child vaccinated, 138 (23%) would refuse to vaccinate their child and 152 (25.3%) were unsure. The intention to vaccinate the child was higher in caregivers vaccinated against COVID-19, in those with a bachelor's degree or higher level of education, and in those with friends/acquaintances who became ill or died due to COVID-19. This study shows that increasing efforts are necessary to provide evidence-based tailored information to caregivers and to promote vaccination in this pediatric age group.

10.
Diabetes ; 71(7): 1579-1590, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834217

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have shown that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may induce metabolic distress, leading to hyperglycemia in patients affected by coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). We investigated the potential indirect and direct effects of SARS-CoV-2 on human pancreatic islets in 10 patients who became hyperglycemic after COVID-19. Although there was no evidence of peripheral anti-islet autoimmunity, the serum of these patients displayed toxicity on human pancreatic islets, which could be abrogated by the use of anti-interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), anti-IL-6, and anti-tumor necrosis factor α, cytokines known to be highly upregulated during COVID-19. Interestingly, the receptors of those aforementioned cytokines were highly expressed on human pancreatic islets. An increase in peripheral unmethylated INS DNA, a marker of cell death, was evident in several patients with COVID-19. Pathology of the pancreas from deceased hyperglycemic patients who had COVID-19 revealed mild lymphocytic infiltration of pancreatic islets and pancreatic lymph nodes. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2-specific viral RNA, along with the presence of several immature insulin granules or proinsulin, was detected in postmortem pancreatic tissues, suggestive of ß-cell-altered proinsulin processing, as well as ß-cell degeneration and hyperstimulation. These data demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 may negatively affect human pancreatic islet function and survival by creating inflammatory conditions, possibly with a direct tropism, which may in turn lead to metabolic abnormalities observed in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Islets of Langerhans , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Hyperglycemia/virology , Islets of Langerhans/metabolism , Islets of Langerhans/virology , Proinsulin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Nutrients ; 14(9)2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792585

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there has been much discussion about the role of diet and antiviral immunity in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Intake levels of vitamins D, C, B12, and iron have been demonstrated to be correlated with lower COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Obesity has been demonstrated to be an independent risk for the severity of COVID-19 infection in adults and also in children. This may be due to different mechanisms, mainly including the gut dysbiosis status observed in obese children. Moreover, the existence of a gut-lung axis added new knowledge to on the potential mechanisms by which diet and dietary substances may affect immune function. The aim of this narrative review is to address the intricate inter-relationship between COVID-19, immune function, and obesity-related inflammation and to describe the role of nutrients and dietary patterns in enhancing the immune system. Two ways to fight against COVID-19 disease exist: one with an antiviral response through immune system boosting and another with antioxidants with an anti-inflammatory effect. In the current pandemic situation, the intake of a varied and balanced diet, rich in micronutrients and bioactive compounds including fibers, should be recommended. However, clinical studies conducted on children affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection and comorbidity are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Adult , Antiviral Agents , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/complications , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674746

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, whose causative agent is Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, has caused a global crisis that has had a major impact on the health of the global population [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542684

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, social isolation, semi-lockdown, and "stay at home" orders were imposed upon the population in the interest of infection control. This dramatically changes the daily routine of children and adolescents, with a large impact on lifestyle and wellbeing. Children with obesity have been shown to be at a higher risk of negative lifestyle changes and weight gain during lockdown. Obesity and COVID-19 negatively affect children and adolescents' wellbeing, with adverse effects on psychophysical health, due in large part to food choices, snacking between meals, and comfort eating. Moreover, a markable decrease in physical activity levels and an increase in sedentary behavior is associated with weight gain, especially in children with excessive weight. In addition, obesity is the most common comorbidity in severe cases of COVID-19, suggesting that immune dysregulation, metabolic unbalance, inadequate nutritional status, and dysbiosis are key factors in the complex mechanistic and clinical interplay between obesity and COVID-19. This narrative review aims to describe the most up-to-date evidence on the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in children and adolescents, focusing on the role of excessive weight and weight gain in pediatrics. The COVID-19 pandemic has taught us that nutrition education interventions, access to healthy food, as well as family nutrition counselling should be covered by pediatric services to prevent obesity, which worsens disease outcomes related to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Snacks
14.
JCI Insight ; 6(24)2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518198

ABSTRACT

A substantial proportion of patients who have recovered from coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) experience COVID-19-related symptoms even months after hospital discharge. We extensively immunologically characterized patients who recovered from COVID-19. In these patients, T cells were exhausted, with increased PD-1+ T cells, as compared with healthy controls. Plasma levels of IL-1ß, IL-1RA, and IL-8, among others, were also increased in patients who recovered from COVID-19. This altered immunophenotype was mirrored by a reduced ex vivo T cell response to both nonspecific and specific stimulation, revealing a dysfunctional status of T cells, including a poor response to SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Altered levels of plasma soluble PD-L1, as well as of PD1 promoter methylation and PD1-targeting miR-15-5p, in CD8+ T cells were also observed, suggesting abnormal function of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint axis. Notably, ex vivo blockade of PD-1 nearly normalized the aforementioned immunophenotype and restored T cell function, reverting the observed post-COVID-19 immune abnormalities; indeed, we also noted an increased T cell-mediated response to SARS-CoV-2 peptides. Finally, in a neutralization assay, PD-1 blockade did not alter the ability of T cells to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotyped lentivirus infection. Immune checkpoint blockade ameliorates post-COVID-19 immune abnormalities and stimulates an anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/immunology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/pharmacology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , B7-H1 Antigen/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/drug effects , DNA Methylation , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/drug effects , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/immunology , Interleukin-1beta/drug effects , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Interleukin-8/drug effects , Interleukin-8/immunology , Male , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Middle Aged , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
15.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 225, 2021 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Italy only recently, for the 2020-21 season, has the flu vaccination been extended to all children. A quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (qLAIV) was administered to children aged 2-17 years for the first time. We registered the number and severity of adverse reactions to (Fluenz Tetra™) and the factors influencing them, evaluated uniformity of access to care and assessed the degree of satisfaction with the vaccination of both parents and health care providers, in order to improve the 2021-22 vaccination program. METHODS: On vaccination day, a questionnaire was given out to collect information about the children and their parents. Between 1 and 3 months later, the parents were contacted to record any adverse reactions following (Fluenz Tetra™) and rate the degree of satisfaction. RESULTS: We received data of 3226 children from 2152 families. Adverse events were reported in 24.8% of children: 80.6% mild, 18.1% moderate and 1.3% significant. The most common were rhinitis (52.5%) and fever (24.4%). Statistical analysis performed with a multiple regression model, showed that children aged 2-5 years have an increased risk of adverse events compared to both 6-10 years old (aRR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5-1.9, p < 0. 001) and 11-17 years old (aRR 1.5, 95% CI 1-2.2, p = 0.051). Most families chose to vaccinate their children to protect them and because they were concerned about Covid19. The main channel through which parents became aware of a new flu vaccination was word-of-mouth (39.8%), which occurred mostly among parents of the same school group, followed by information from the child's doctor (30.6%), the Internet (26.9%), personal research (15%), newspapers (4%), telecommunications (7.5%) and other (2.6%). Most parents (83.3%) were very satisfied and intend to vaccinate their children with qLAIV again (83.8%). The majority of operators (93%) considered the experience as excellent and are willing to repeat it (94.6%). CONCLUSION: (Fluenz Tetra™) proved to be easy to administer and the degree of satisfaction was high among both health workers and parents. Considering its substantial safety profile especially in school-age children and adolescents, all these aspects make the nasal qLAIV optimal for widespread immunization. Schools offer the best setting to reach more families and physicians should be actively involved.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Nasal Sprays , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Italy , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488618

ABSTRACT

The inflammatory response plays a central role in the complications of congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAM) and severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the transcriptional changes induced by SARS-CoV-2 exposure in pediatric MSCs derived from pediatric lung (MSCs-lung) and CPAM tissues (MSCs-CPAM) in order to elucidate potential pathways involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection in a condition of exacerbated inflammatory response. MSCs-lung and MSCs-CPAM do not express angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TRMPSS2). SARS-CoV-2 appears to be unable to replicate in MSCs-CPAM and MSCs-lung. MSCs-lung and MSCs-CPAM maintained the expression of stemness markers MSCs-lung show an inflammatory response (IL6, IL1B, CXCL8, and CXCL10), and the activation of Notch3 non-canonical pathway; this route appears silent in MSCs-CPAM, and cytokine genes expression is reduced. Decreased value of p21 in MSCs-lung suggested no cell cycle block, and cells did not undergo apoptosis. MSCs-lung appears to increase genes associated with immunomodulatory function but could contribute to inflammation, while MSCs-CPAM keeps stable or reduce the immunomodulatory receptors expression, but they also reduce their cytokines expression. These data indicated that, independently from their perilesional or cystic origin, the MSCs populations already present in a patient affected with CPAM are not permissive for SARS-CoV-2 entry, and they will not spread the disease in case of infection. Moreover, these MSCs will not undergo apoptosis when they come in contact with SARS-CoV-2; on the contrary, they maintain their staminality profile.


Subject(s)
Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Respiratory System Abnormalities , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transcriptome , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression Profiling , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Infant , Lung/abnormalities , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/virology , RNA-Seq , Respiratory System Abnormalities/genetics , Respiratory System Abnormalities/pathology , Respiratory System Abnormalities/virology
17.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257046, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486676

ABSTRACT

The benefits of schools' closure, used as a containment strategy by many European countries, must be carefully considered against the adverse effects of child wellbeing. In this study, we assessed SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence, which better estimates the real extent of the infection unraveling asymptomatic cases, among schoolchildren aged 3 to 18 in Milan, using dried blood spot, a safe and extremely viable methods for children, and then compared it between September 2020 and January 2021. Secondly, we evaluated the seroconversion rate and compared it between students attending schools in presence and those switched to distance-learning, using a logistic regression model, both as univariate and multivariate, adjusting for age and biological-sex. Among 1109 pupils, we found a seroprevalence of 2.8% in September before school reopening, while in January 2021, the seropositive rate was 12.5%, reflecting the general growth rate of infections during the second pandemic wave. The overall seroconversion rate was 10%, with no differences based on biological-sex and age groups; we observed no seroreversion. When considered age groups, the seroconversion rate was 10.5% (95%Confidence Interval, 2.9-24.8) among children attending preschools, 10.6% (95%Confidence Interval, 8.2-13.4) for primary schools, 9.9% (95%Confidence Interval, 6.8-13.8) for secondary schools, and 7.8% (95%Confidence Interval, 4-13.2) among high-school students. Interestingly, no differences in seroconversion rate were found between students who attended school compared to those who started remote learning in the first days of November. Furthermore, most patients (61%) reported that the contact occurred within the household. We reported a low seroconversion rate among school children in Milan, with no differences between those who attended from September 2020 to January 2021 compared to those who switched to remote learning in the first days of November. Our data suggest that schools do not amplify SARS-CoV-2 transmission, but rather reflect the level of the transmission in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Schools , Students/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
18.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403855

ABSTRACT

(1) Background. Early nutrition and lifestyle before and during pregnancy, breastfeeding, infancy, and early childhood can affect the risk of developing common non-communicable diseases during adulthood such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. To support positive long-term outcomes, it is essential to debunk fake news and provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations. "Nutripedia-Informati per Crescere" is a new tool delivering information and education on appropriate nutrition of mothers and babies during pregnancy and the first years of life. (2) Methods. Nutripedia provides the readers with evidence-based scientific contents in an easy-to-access fashion through a website, a social media page and a personalized advice app called "Nutripedia Chatbot". (3) Results. Forty articles were published on Nutripedia website with more than 220,000 total views. Social channel activation via bloggers reached over 9 million parents. 14,698 users downloaded Nutripedia chatbot, through which a total of 1930 questions were directed to experts while over 24,000 responses were provided by the app. (4) Conclusions. The use of different communication tools delivering evidence-based nutritional information such as Nutripedia is increasing and could offer supportive strategies to provide scientific information to large audiences and contribute fighting fake news. Future research could investigate the effectiveness of this important health campaign.


Subject(s)
Communication , Communications Media , Health Education/methods , Internet , Maternal-Child Health Services , Nutritional Status , Adult , Blogging , Breast Feeding , Child, Preschool , Counseling , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Information Dissemination , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Social Media
19.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374305

ABSTRACT

According to the neurological symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is known that the nervous system is influenced by the virus. We used pediatric human cerebral cortical cell line HCN-2 as a neuronal model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and, through transcriptomic analysis, our aim was to evaluate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 in this type of cells. Transcriptome analyses revealed impairment in TXN gene, resulting in deregulation of its antioxidant functions, as well as a decrease in the DNA-repairing mechanism, as indicated by the decrease in KAT5. Western blot analyses of SOD1 and iNOS confirmed the impairment of reduction mechanisms and an increase in oxidative stress. Upregulation of CDKN2A and a decrease in CDK4 and CDK6 point to the blocking of the cell cycle that, according to the deregulation of repairing mechanism, has apoptosis as the outcome. A high level of proapoptotic gene PMAIP1 is indeed coherent with neuronal death, as also supported by increased levels of caspase 3. The upregulation of cell-cycle-blocking genes and apoptosis suggests a sufferance state of neurons after SARS-CoV-2 infection, followed by their inevitable death, which can explain the neurological symptoms reported. Further analyses are required to deeply explain the mechanisms and find potential treatments to protect neurons from oxidative stress and prevent their death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cellular Senescence/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Neurons/pathology , Oxidative Stress/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cell Death , Cell Line , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Humans , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology
20.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(8): ofab384, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the coronavirus pandemic spreads, more and more people are infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The short- and medium-term effects of the infection have been described, but the description of the long-term sequelae is lacking in the literature. METHODS: Patients healed from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from February 2020 to May 2020 were considered for inclusion in this study, regardless of the severity of the disease during the acute phase. Eligible patients were consecutively contacted and a semistructured interview was administered between February and March 2021 by trained medical staff. RESULTS: Three hundred three patients were eligible and accepted to participate in the study and were enrolled. Of those surveyed, most patients (81%) reported at least 1 symptom, and the most prevalent symptoms were fatigue (52%), pain (48%), and sleep disorders (47%). Sensory alterations were present in 28% of surveyed patients, but in most of these cases (74% of those affected by sensory alterations or 20% of the overall sample) symptoms reported were either anosmia or dysgeusia. Higher prevalence was generally observed with increasing age, although the most relevant differences were observed when comparing young versus middle-aged adults. CONCLUSIONS: At 12 months after acute infection, COVID-19 survivors were still suffering from symptoms identified at shorter follow-up, and the most frequent symptoms included fatigue, pain, and sleep disorders. A more severe impairment in the acute phase did not seem to predict more severe complications.

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