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1.
Nutrients ; 14(9):1701, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1792585

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there has been much discussion about the role of diet and antiviral immunity in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Intake levels of vitamins D, C, B12, and iron have been demonstrated to be correlated with lower COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Obesity has been demonstrated to be an independent risk for the severity of COVID-19 infection in adults and also in children. This may be due to different mechanisms, mainly including the gut dysbiosis status observed in obese children. Moreover, the existence of a gut–lung axis added new knowledge to on the potential mechanisms by which diet and dietary substances may affect immune function. The aim of this narrative review is to address the intricate inter-relationship between COVID-19, immune function, and obesity-related inflammation and to describe the role of nutrients and dietary patterns in enhancing the immune system. Two ways to fight against COVID-19 disease exist: one with an antiviral response through immune system boosting and another with antioxidants with an anti-inflammatory effect. In the current pandemic situation, the intake of a varied and balanced diet, rich in micronutrients and bioactive compounds including fibers, should be recommended. However, clinical studies conducted on children affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection and comorbidity are warranted.

2.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 18, 2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690896

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in children is difficult to estimate because they are typically treated in outpatient settings and the majority of epidemiological data originate from hospital settings and refer to the most severe illnesses. Therefore, the incidence of ARTIs in a real-world setting remains largely unexplored. Therefore, this study aims to estimate the incidence of ARTIs, upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children aged 0-5 years in an outpatient setting. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted in Lombardy, Italy, from October 1st, 2019, to March 31st, 2021, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic that began in March 2020. Caucasian healthy children aged 0-5 years were recruited from 69 Family Pediatricians (FP) and followed-up in an outpatient setting. Data were collected whenever a child was referred to FP and ARTI was diagnosed (Covid-19 related ARTI were excluded). The primary outcome was an estimate of the incidence of ARTIs. The incidence of ARTIs in different age groups and the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of ARTIs were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: We enrolled 484 children, 249 male (51.8%), mean age of 2.39 ± 1.68 years. The mean estimated incidence of ARTIs was 12.1/100 children × 30 days (95% CIs: 9.5-12.9), with the highest value observed in infants aged 1-12 months (24.9/100 children × 30 days; 95% CIs: 17.6-28.9). The mean estimated incidence of URTIs was higher than that of LRTIs (8.3 - CIs: 7.6-8.9 vs 3.8/100 children × 30 days - CIs: 6.4-4.3, respectively). The comparison of ARTIs, which occurred in the pre-pandemic winter, to those measured during the COVID-19 pandemic, revealed an impressive 82.1% drop in the incidence rate (CIs: 77.8-85.7). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that infants aged 1-12 months are more likely to develop ARTIs than older children and that COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically altered the epidemiology of ARTIs in children aged 0-5 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Outpatients , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315779

ABSTRACT

Background: The long-term effects of COVID-19 still remain to be explored. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection at one year after acute disease, either in inpatients and outpatients, and to explore associated risk factors, in particular disease severity during the acute phase.Methods: This study is part of a large cohort study of COVID+ patients. Seven-hundred seventeen patients from the metropolitan area of Milan in Lombardia (Italy) who had been referred for tele-monitoring after a confirmed or plausible SARS-CoV-2 infection between February and May 2020 were evaluated with a semi-structured phone interview between February and March 2021, regardless of the severity of the disease during the acute phase. In the phone interview performed by trained medical staff we looked for clinical complications in the following domains: respiratory disorders, fatigue and weakness, muscle and joint pain, movement impairments, neurological and cognitive impairments, sensory alterations, sleep disorders, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Patients were asked if symptoms were present before the SARS-CoV-2 infection, and if the symptom was present at the current time.Interpretation: At 12-months after acute infection, COVID-19 survivors were still suffering of symptoms identified at shorter follow-up including fatigue, pain and sleep disorders among the most frequent. A more severe impairment in the acute phase did not seem to predict more severe complications, further supporting the unpredictability of such consequences. These data need to be considered and compared with other studies from other countries on COVID-19 survivors and have to be taken into account to plan public health interventions.Funding: Fondazione Invernizzi and Regional Operational Programme (ERDF ROP) 2014-2020Declaration of Interest: None to declare. Ethical Approval: This study was approved by the Ethics Commission of the University of Milan, (Ethics Commission number: 126/20). Written informed consent was obtained from allparticipants.

4.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674746

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, whose causative agent is Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, has caused a global crisis that has had a major impact on the health of the global population [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542684

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, social isolation, semi-lockdown, and "stay at home" orders were imposed upon the population in the interest of infection control. This dramatically changes the daily routine of children and adolescents, with a large impact on lifestyle and wellbeing. Children with obesity have been shown to be at a higher risk of negative lifestyle changes and weight gain during lockdown. Obesity and COVID-19 negatively affect children and adolescents' wellbeing, with adverse effects on psychophysical health, due in large part to food choices, snacking between meals, and comfort eating. Moreover, a markable decrease in physical activity levels and an increase in sedentary behavior is associated with weight gain, especially in children with excessive weight. In addition, obesity is the most common comorbidity in severe cases of COVID-19, suggesting that immune dysregulation, metabolic unbalance, inadequate nutritional status, and dysbiosis are key factors in the complex mechanistic and clinical interplay between obesity and COVID-19. This narrative review aims to describe the most up-to-date evidence on the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in children and adolescents, focusing on the role of excessive weight and weight gain in pediatrics. The COVID-19 pandemic has taught us that nutrition education interventions, access to healthy food, as well as family nutrition counselling should be covered by pediatric services to prevent obesity, which worsens disease outcomes related to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Snacks
6.
JCI Insight ; 6(24)2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518198

ABSTRACT

A substantial proportion of patients who have recovered from coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) experience COVID-19-related symptoms even months after hospital discharge. We extensively immunologically characterized patients who recovered from COVID-19. In these patients, T cells were exhausted, with increased PD-1+ T cells, as compared with healthy controls. Plasma levels of IL-1ß, IL-1RA, and IL-8, among others, were also increased in patients who recovered from COVID-19. This altered immunophenotype was mirrored by a reduced ex vivo T cell response to both nonspecific and specific stimulation, revealing a dysfunctional status of T cells, including a poor response to SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Altered levels of plasma soluble PD-L1, as well as of PD1 promoter methylation and PD1-targeting miR-15-5p, in CD8+ T cells were also observed, suggesting abnormal function of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint axis. Notably, ex vivo blockade of PD-1 nearly normalized the aforementioned immunophenotype and restored T cell function, reverting the observed post-COVID-19 immune abnormalities; indeed, we also noted an increased T cell-mediated response to SARS-CoV-2 peptides. Finally, in a neutralization assay, PD-1 blockade did not alter the ability of T cells to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotyped lentivirus infection. Immune checkpoint blockade ameliorates post-COVID-19 immune abnormalities and stimulates an anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/immunology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/pharmacology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , B7-H1 Antigen/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/drug effects , DNA Methylation , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/drug effects , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/immunology , Interleukin-1beta/drug effects , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Interleukin-8/drug effects , Interleukin-8/immunology , Male , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Middle Aged , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , Promoter Regions, Genetic
7.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 225, 2021 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Italy only recently, for the 2020-21 season, has the flu vaccination been extended to all children. A quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (qLAIV) was administered to children aged 2-17 years for the first time. We registered the number and severity of adverse reactions to (Fluenz Tetra™) and the factors influencing them, evaluated uniformity of access to care and assessed the degree of satisfaction with the vaccination of both parents and health care providers, in order to improve the 2021-22 vaccination program. METHODS: On vaccination day, a questionnaire was given out to collect information about the children and their parents. Between 1 and 3 months later, the parents were contacted to record any adverse reactions following (Fluenz Tetra™) and rate the degree of satisfaction. RESULTS: We received data of 3226 children from 2152 families. Adverse events were reported in 24.8% of children: 80.6% mild, 18.1% moderate and 1.3% significant. The most common were rhinitis (52.5%) and fever (24.4%). Statistical analysis performed with a multiple regression model, showed that children aged 2-5 years have an increased risk of adverse events compared to both 6-10 years old (aRR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5-1.9, p < 0. 001) and 11-17 years old (aRR 1.5, 95% CI 1-2.2, p = 0.051). Most families chose to vaccinate their children to protect them and because they were concerned about Covid19. The main channel through which parents became aware of a new flu vaccination was word-of-mouth (39.8%), which occurred mostly among parents of the same school group, followed by information from the child's doctor (30.6%), the Internet (26.9%), personal research (15%), newspapers (4%), telecommunications (7.5%) and other (2.6%). Most parents (83.3%) were very satisfied and intend to vaccinate their children with qLAIV again (83.8%). The majority of operators (93%) considered the experience as excellent and are willing to repeat it (94.6%). CONCLUSION: (Fluenz Tetra™) proved to be easy to administer and the degree of satisfaction was high among both health workers and parents. Considering its substantial safety profile especially in school-age children and adolescents, all these aspects make the nasal qLAIV optimal for widespread immunization. Schools offer the best setting to reach more families and physicians should be actively involved.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Nasal Sprays , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Italy , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488618

ABSTRACT

The inflammatory response plays a central role in the complications of congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAM) and severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the transcriptional changes induced by SARS-CoV-2 exposure in pediatric MSCs derived from pediatric lung (MSCs-lung) and CPAM tissues (MSCs-CPAM) in order to elucidate potential pathways involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection in a condition of exacerbated inflammatory response. MSCs-lung and MSCs-CPAM do not express angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TRMPSS2). SARS-CoV-2 appears to be unable to replicate in MSCs-CPAM and MSCs-lung. MSCs-lung and MSCs-CPAM maintained the expression of stemness markers MSCs-lung show an inflammatory response (IL6, IL1B, CXCL8, and CXCL10), and the activation of Notch3 non-canonical pathway; this route appears silent in MSCs-CPAM, and cytokine genes expression is reduced. Decreased value of p21 in MSCs-lung suggested no cell cycle block, and cells did not undergo apoptosis. MSCs-lung appears to increase genes associated with immunomodulatory function but could contribute to inflammation, while MSCs-CPAM keeps stable or reduce the immunomodulatory receptors expression, but they also reduce their cytokines expression. These data indicated that, independently from their perilesional or cystic origin, the MSCs populations already present in a patient affected with CPAM are not permissive for SARS-CoV-2 entry, and they will not spread the disease in case of infection. Moreover, these MSCs will not undergo apoptosis when they come in contact with SARS-CoV-2; on the contrary, they maintain their staminality profile.


Subject(s)
Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Respiratory System Abnormalities , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transcriptome , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression Profiling , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Infant , Lung/abnormalities , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/virology , RNA-Seq , Respiratory System Abnormalities/genetics , Respiratory System Abnormalities/pathology , Respiratory System Abnormalities/virology
9.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257046, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486676

ABSTRACT

The benefits of schools' closure, used as a containment strategy by many European countries, must be carefully considered against the adverse effects of child wellbeing. In this study, we assessed SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence, which better estimates the real extent of the infection unraveling asymptomatic cases, among schoolchildren aged 3 to 18 in Milan, using dried blood spot, a safe and extremely viable methods for children, and then compared it between September 2020 and January 2021. Secondly, we evaluated the seroconversion rate and compared it between students attending schools in presence and those switched to distance-learning, using a logistic regression model, both as univariate and multivariate, adjusting for age and biological-sex. Among 1109 pupils, we found a seroprevalence of 2.8% in September before school reopening, while in January 2021, the seropositive rate was 12.5%, reflecting the general growth rate of infections during the second pandemic wave. The overall seroconversion rate was 10%, with no differences based on biological-sex and age groups; we observed no seroreversion. When considered age groups, the seroconversion rate was 10.5% (95%Confidence Interval, 2.9-24.8) among children attending preschools, 10.6% (95%Confidence Interval, 8.2-13.4) for primary schools, 9.9% (95%Confidence Interval, 6.8-13.8) for secondary schools, and 7.8% (95%Confidence Interval, 4-13.2) among high-school students. Interestingly, no differences in seroconversion rate were found between students who attended school compared to those who started remote learning in the first days of November. Furthermore, most patients (61%) reported that the contact occurred within the household. We reported a low seroconversion rate among school children in Milan, with no differences between those who attended from September 2020 to January 2021 compared to those who switched to remote learning in the first days of November. Our data suggest that schools do not amplify SARS-CoV-2 transmission, but rather reflect the level of the transmission in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Schools , Students/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
10.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403855

ABSTRACT

(1) Background. Early nutrition and lifestyle before and during pregnancy, breastfeeding, infancy, and early childhood can affect the risk of developing common non-communicable diseases during adulthood such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. To support positive long-term outcomes, it is essential to debunk fake news and provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations. "Nutripedia-Informati per Crescere" is a new tool delivering information and education on appropriate nutrition of mothers and babies during pregnancy and the first years of life. (2) Methods. Nutripedia provides the readers with evidence-based scientific contents in an easy-to-access fashion through a website, a social media page and a personalized advice app called "Nutripedia Chatbot". (3) Results. Forty articles were published on Nutripedia website with more than 220,000 total views. Social channel activation via bloggers reached over 9 million parents. 14,698 users downloaded Nutripedia chatbot, through which a total of 1930 questions were directed to experts while over 24,000 responses were provided by the app. (4) Conclusions. The use of different communication tools delivering evidence-based nutritional information such as Nutripedia is increasing and could offer supportive strategies to provide scientific information to large audiences and contribute fighting fake news. Future research could investigate the effectiveness of this important health campaign.


Subject(s)
Communication , Communications Media , Health Education/methods , Internet , Maternal-Child Health Services , Nutritional Status , Adult , Blogging , Breast Feeding , Child, Preschool , Counseling , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Information Dissemination , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Social Media
11.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257046, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388956

ABSTRACT

The benefits of schools' closure, used as a containment strategy by many European countries, must be carefully considered against the adverse effects of child wellbeing. In this study, we assessed SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence, which better estimates the real extent of the infection unraveling asymptomatic cases, among schoolchildren aged 3 to 18 in Milan, using dried blood spot, a safe and extremely viable methods for children, and then compared it between September 2020 and January 2021. Secondly, we evaluated the seroconversion rate and compared it between students attending schools in presence and those switched to distance-learning, using a logistic regression model, both as univariate and multivariate, adjusting for age and biological-sex. Among 1109 pupils, we found a seroprevalence of 2.8% in September before school reopening, while in January 2021, the seropositive rate was 12.5%, reflecting the general growth rate of infections during the second pandemic wave. The overall seroconversion rate was 10%, with no differences based on biological-sex and age groups; we observed no seroreversion. When considered age groups, the seroconversion rate was 10.5% (95%Confidence Interval, 2.9-24.8) among children attending preschools, 10.6% (95%Confidence Interval, 8.2-13.4) for primary schools, 9.9% (95%Confidence Interval, 6.8-13.8) for secondary schools, and 7.8% (95%Confidence Interval, 4-13.2) among high-school students. Interestingly, no differences in seroconversion rate were found between students who attended school compared to those who started remote learning in the first days of November. Furthermore, most patients (61%) reported that the contact occurred within the household. We reported a low seroconversion rate among school children in Milan, with no differences between those who attended from September 2020 to January 2021 compared to those who switched to remote learning in the first days of November. Our data suggest that schools do not amplify SARS-CoV-2 transmission, but rather reflect the level of the transmission in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Schools , Students/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
12.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374305

ABSTRACT

According to the neurological symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is known that the nervous system is influenced by the virus. We used pediatric human cerebral cortical cell line HCN-2 as a neuronal model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and, through transcriptomic analysis, our aim was to evaluate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 in this type of cells. Transcriptome analyses revealed impairment in TXN gene, resulting in deregulation of its antioxidant functions, as well as a decrease in the DNA-repairing mechanism, as indicated by the decrease in KAT5. Western blot analyses of SOD1 and iNOS confirmed the impairment of reduction mechanisms and an increase in oxidative stress. Upregulation of CDKN2A and a decrease in CDK4 and CDK6 point to the blocking of the cell cycle that, according to the deregulation of repairing mechanism, has apoptosis as the outcome. A high level of proapoptotic gene PMAIP1 is indeed coherent with neuronal death, as also supported by increased levels of caspase 3. The upregulation of cell-cycle-blocking genes and apoptosis suggests a sufferance state of neurons after SARS-CoV-2 infection, followed by their inevitable death, which can explain the neurological symptoms reported. Further analyses are required to deeply explain the mechanisms and find potential treatments to protect neurons from oxidative stress and prevent their death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cellular Senescence/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Neurons/pathology , Oxidative Stress/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cell Death , Cell Line , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Humans , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology
14.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(8): ofab384, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the coronavirus pandemic spreads, more and more people are infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The short- and medium-term effects of the infection have been described, but the description of the long-term sequelae is lacking in the literature. METHODS: Patients healed from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from February 2020 to May 2020 were considered for inclusion in this study, regardless of the severity of the disease during the acute phase. Eligible patients were consecutively contacted and a semistructured interview was administered between February and March 2021 by trained medical staff. RESULTS: Three hundred three patients were eligible and accepted to participate in the study and were enrolled. Of those surveyed, most patients (81%) reported at least 1 symptom, and the most prevalent symptoms were fatigue (52%), pain (48%), and sleep disorders (47%). Sensory alterations were present in 28% of surveyed patients, but in most of these cases (74% of those affected by sensory alterations or 20% of the overall sample) symptoms reported were either anosmia or dysgeusia. Higher prevalence was generally observed with increasing age, although the most relevant differences were observed when comparing young versus middle-aged adults. CONCLUSIONS: At 12 months after acute infection, COVID-19 survivors were still suffering from symptoms identified at shorter follow-up, and the most frequent symptoms included fatigue, pain, and sleep disorders. A more severe impairment in the acute phase did not seem to predict more severe complications.

15.
EClinicalMedicine ; 39: 101067, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Italian Lombardy region has been the epicenter of COVID-19 since February 2020. This study analyses the epidemiology of pediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D) onset during the first two pandemic waves and three previous years. METHODS: All the 13 pediatric diabetes centers in Lombardy prospectively evaluated charts of children at T1D onset (0-17 years), during year 2020. After calculating the annual incidence, the data were compared with those of the 3 previous years, using generalized linear models, adjusted for age and sex. Monthly T1D new onsets and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) were investigated yearly from 2017 to 2020. Data were extracted from outpatients charts of the pediatric diabetes centers and from the database of the national institute of statistics. FINDINGS: The estimated incidence proportion of T1D was 16/100·000 in 2020, compared to 14, 11 and 12 in 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. When adjusting for age and gender, the incidence was significantly lower in 2018 and 2017 compared to 2020 (adjusted incidence ratio: 0.73 and 0.77 respectively, with 95% CI: 0.63 to 0.84, and 0.67 to 0.83; p = 0·002 and p = 0·01), but no difference was found between the years 2020 and 2019. A reduction trend in the percentage of T1D diagnosis during the first wave (March-April) over the total year diagnoses was observed compared to previous years (11·7% in 2020, 17·7% in 2019, 14·1% in 2018 and 14·4% 2017). No difference was observed during the second wave (October-December) (32·8% in 2020, 33·8% in 2019, 34% in 2018, 30·7% in 2017). The proportion of DKA over the total T1D diagnoses during the second wave had higher trend than the first one (41·7% vs 33·3%), while severe DKA over the total DKA appeared higher during the first wave (60% vs 37·1%). INTERPRETATION: The study suggests an increase in the incidence of pediatric T1D in Lombardy throughout the past five years. Pandemic waves may have affected the clinical presentation at onset. FUNDING: None.

16.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 34: 84-90, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340639

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize neurological involvement in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the clinical, electroencephalographic, CSF and neuroradiological parameters recorded in seven children (3 males, aged 3-10 years) affected by MIS-C with acute neurological involvement. RESULTS: All cases presented acute encephalopathy with drowsiness, irritability, mood deflection and diffuse EEG slowing with periodic posterior complexes. Focal neurological signs, normal brain MRI and CSF, were present in four patients; these patients received intravenous methylprednisolone at 30 mg/kg/day for 3 days. In all cases, the clinical picture rapidly improved in the first three days, and all neurological symptoms and EEG abnormalities disappeared within 10 and 30 days respectively. The severity and duration of the EEG abnormalities was proportional to the extent of the neurological involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with MIS-C may present acute encephalitis characterized by rapid-onset encephalopathy and EEG abnormalities (slow wave activity and/or epileptic abnormalities), in some cases associated with focal neurological signs that disappear with immunomodulatory therapy. The detection through neurological evaluation of sentinel neurological signs and distinctive EEG patterns documentable at disease onset will allow timely diagnosis and treatment of these cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , COVID-19/complications , Child , Encephalitis/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
17.
Nat Metab ; 3(6): 774-785, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243313

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are reported to have a greater prevalence of hyperglycaemia. Cytokine release as a consequence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection may precipitate the onset of metabolic alterations by affecting glucose homeostasis. Here we describe abnormalities in glycometabolic control, insulin resistance and beta cell function in patients with COVID-19 without any pre-existing history or diagnosis of diabetes, and document glycaemic abnormalities in recovered patients 2 months after onset of disease. In a cohort of 551 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in Italy, we found that 46% of patients were hyperglycaemic, whereas 27% were normoglycaemic. Using clinical assays and continuous glucose monitoring in a subset of patients, we detected altered glycometabolic control, with insulin resistance and an abnormal cytokine profile, even in normoglycaemic patients. Glycaemic abnormalities can be detected for at least 2 months in patients who recovered from COVID-19. Our data demonstrate that COVID-19 is associated with aberrant glycometabolic control, which can persist even after recovery, suggesting that further investigation of metabolic abnormalities in the context of long COVID is warranted.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Insulin Resistance , Insulin-Secreting Cells/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 145561321993933, 2021 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105627

ABSTRACT

Testing for coronavirus disease 2019 is critical in controlling the pandemic all over the world. Diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection is based on real-time polymerase chain reaction performed on nasopharyngeal swab. If not adequately performed, the viral specimen collection can be painful and lead to complications. We present a complication occurred during a nasopharyngeal swab collection performed in a noncooperative patient where the plastic shaft of the swab fractured during the procedure, resulting in swab tip retention deep into the nasal cavity. The foreign body was found endoscopically, stuck between the nasal septum and the superior turbinate tail at the upper level of the left choana and removed under general anesthesia in a negative pressure operating room with the health care personnel wearing personal protective equipment. Unpleasant complications like the one described can happen when the swab is collected without the necessary knowledge of nasal anatomy or conducted inappropriately, especially in noncooperative patients. Moreover, the design of currently used viral swabs may expose to accidental rupture, with risk of foreign body retention in the nasal cavities. In such cases, diagnosis and treatment are endoscopy-guided procedures performed in an adequate setting to minimize the risk of spreading of the pandemic.

20.
Pediatr Rep ; 12(3): 114-123, 2020 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024622

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) emergency, in the pediatric surgical setting, it has been essential to avoid and contain infections as well as to protect both the patients and the surgical team. During this emergency, procedures and workflow were adapted to provide the safest possible environment for both the surgical team and the patients. Pediatric surgical activities were reorganized during the COVID-19 pandemic at the "Vittore Buzzi" Children's Hospital, which is a pediatric/maternal hospital located in Milan (Lombardy Region), Italy. Resources were optimized in order to maintain high levels of care and quality of assistance. During the COVID-19 emergency, the pediatric surgical department at the "Vittore Buzzi" Children's Hospital became an acute care surgical service. For the reorganization of surgical activities, institutional protocols were adapted in order to preserve the pediatric-specific characteristics of our service; five crucial points were specifically addressed. The pediatric surgical procedures carried out during the initial two months of the Italian lockdown are also reported. Continuity of care was maintained for children affected by severe diseases, such as tumors and neurosurgical conditions, whose treatment could not be deferred. Telemedicine and telecommunication were adopted as quick-support modalities for pre- and post-operative care. This reorganization allowed us to preserve the "pediatric specificity" and all care-related procedures offered at this high-quality/high-volume surgical care referral center.

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