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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(3)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745703

ABSTRACT

Two years after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, key questions about the emergence of its aetiological agent (SARS-CoV-2) remain a matter of considerable debate. Identifying when SARS-CoV-2 began spreading among people is one of those questions. Although the current canonically accepted timeline hypothesises viral emergence in Wuhan, China, in November or December 2019, a growing body of diverse studies provides evidence that the virus may have been spreading worldwide weeks, or even months, prior to that time. However, the hypothesis of earlier SARS-CoV-2 circulation is often dismissed with prejudicial scepticism and experimental studies pointing to early origins are frequently and speculatively attributed to false-positive tests. In this paper, we critically review current evidence that SARS-CoV-2 had been circulating prior to December of 2019, and emphasise how, despite some scientific limitations, this hypothesis should no longer be ignored and considered sufficient to warrant further larger-scale studies to determine its veracity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
2.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 25, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a novel condition temporally associated with SARS-CoV2 infection. Cardiovascular involvement is mainly evident as acute myocardial dysfunction in MIS-C. The aim of this study was to describe the cardiac dysfunction in patients with MIS-C, defining the role of severity in the clinical presentations and outcomes in a single cohort of pediatric patients. METHODS: A single-center retrospective study on patients diagnosed with MIS-C, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definition, and referred to Vittore Buzzi Children's Hospital in Milan from November 2020 to February 2021. Patients were managed according to a local approved protocol. According to the admission cardiac left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), the patients were divided into group A (LVEF < 45%) and group B (LVEF ≥45%). Pre-existing, clinical, and laboratory factors were assessed for evaluating outcomes at discharge. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were considered. Cardiac manifestations of MIS-C were reported in 26 patients (81%). Group A included 10 patients (9 M/1F, aged 13 years [IQR 5-15]), and group B included 22 patients (15 M/7 M, aged 9 years [IQR 7-13]). Significant differences were noted among clinical presentations (shock, diarrhea, intensive care unit admission), laboratory markers (leucocytes, neutrophils, and protein C-reactive), and cardiac markers (troponin T and N-terminal pro B-type Natriuretic Peptide) between the groups, with higher compromission in Group A. We found electrocardiogram anomalies in 14 patients (44%) and rhythm alterations in 3 patients (9%), without differences between groups. Mitral regurgitation and coronary involvement were more prevalent in group A. Total length of hospital stay and cardiac recovery time were not statistically different between groups. A recovery of cardiac functioning was reached in all patients. CONCLUSION: Despite significant differences in clinical presentations and need for intensive care, all of the MIS-C patients with significant cardiac involvement in this study completely recovered. This suggests that the heart is an involved organ and did not influence prognosis if properly treated and supported in the acute phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Ventricular Function, Left
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307887

ABSTRACT

Background: There is mounting evidence on the existence of a Pediatric Multi-inflammatory Syndrome related to SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS), sharing similarities with Kawasaki Disease (KD). The main outcome of the study were to better characterize the clinical features and the treatment response of PIMS-TS and to explore its relationship with KD determining whether KD and PIMS are two distinct entities. Methods: : The Rheumatology Study Group of the Italian Pediatric Society launched a survey to enroll patients diagnosed with KD (Kawasaki Disease Group – KDG) or KD-like (Kawacovid Group - KCG) disease. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data, treatment information, and patients’ outcome were collected in an online anonymized database (RedCAP). Relationship between clinical presentation and SARS-CoV-2 infection was also taken into account. Chi square test or exact Fisher test and non-parametric Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test were used to study differences between two groups Results: : One-hundred-forty-nine cases were enrolled, (96 KDG and 53 KCG). KCG children were significantly older and presented more frequently from gastrointestinal and respiratory involvement. Cardiac involvement was more common in KCG, with 60,4% of patients with myocarditis and 37,8% with hypotension/non-cardiogenic shock. Coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) were more common in the KDG. The risk of ICU admission were higher in KCG. Lymphopenia, higher CRP levels, elevated Ferritin and Troponin-T characterized KCG. KDG received more frequently immunoglobulins (IVIG) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) (81,3% vs 66%;p=0.04 and 71,9% vs 43,4%;p=0.001 respectively) as KCG more often received glucocorticoids (56,6% vs 14,6%;p<0.0001). SARS-CoV-2 assay more often resulted positive in KCG than in KDG (75,5% vs 20%;p<0.0001). Short-term follow data showed minor complications. Comparing KDG with a KD-Historical Italian cohort (598 patients), no statistical difference was found in terms of clinical manifestations and laboratory data. Conclusion: Our study suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection might determine two distinct inflammatory diseases in children: KD and PIMS-TS. Older age at onset and clinical peculiarities like the occurrence of myocarditis characterize this multi-inflammatory syndrome. Our patients had an optimal response to treatments and a good outcome, with few complications and no deaths.

4.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2022 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661728

ABSTRACT

The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and dizziness is still unclear. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and characteristics of dizziness and vertigo among patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. Patients discharged from the emergency rooms with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis were assisted by daily telephone calls until nasopharyngeal swab negativization, and specific symptoms concerning balance disorders were investigated through targeted questions posed by experienced physicians. The study included 1512 subjects (765 females, 747 males), with a median age of 51 ± 18.4 years. New-onset dizziness was reported by 251 (16.6%) patients, among whom 110 (43.8%) complained of lightheadedness, 70 (27.9%) of disequilibrium, 41 (16.3%) of presyncope, and 30 (12%) of vertigo. This study analyzed in detail the prevalence and pathophysiological mechanisms of the different types of balance disorders in a large sample, and the results suggest that dizziness should be included among the main symptoms of COVID-19 because one-sixth of patients reported this symptom, with females being significantly more affected than males (20.3 vs 12.9%, P < 0.001). Most cases of dizziness were attributable to lightheadedness, which was probably exacerbated by psychophysical stress following acute infection and mandatory quarantine. Vertigo should not be underestimated because it might underlie serious vestibular disorders, and disequilibrium in elderly individuals should be monitored due to the possible risk of falls.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 736530, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581277

ABSTRACT

To detect and prevent emerging epidemics, discovery platforms are urgently needed, for the rapid development of diagnostic assays. Molecular diagnostic tests for COVID-19 were developed shortly after the isolation of SARS-CoV-2. However, serological tests based on antiviral antibody detection, revealing previous exposure to the virus, required longer testing phases, due to the need to obtain correctly folded and glycosylated antigens. The delay between the identification of a new virus and the development of reliable serodiagnostic tools limits our readiness to tackle future epidemics. We suggest that the protozoan Leishmania tarentolae can be used as an easy-to-handle microfactory for the rapid production of viral antigens to face emerging epidemics. We engineered L. tarentolae to express the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) and we recorded the ability of the purified RBD antigen to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection in human sera, with a sensitivity and reproducibility comparable to that of a reference antigen produced in human cells. This is the first application of an antigen produced in L. tarentolae for the serodiagnosis of a Coronaviridae infection. On the basis of our results, we propose L. tarentolae as an effective system for viral antigen production, even in countries that lack high-technology cell factories.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572579

ABSTRACT

The coexistence of childhood obesity (or its risk) and COVID-19 pandemic put children and adolescents in greater risk to develop respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. In fact, the restrictions introduced to limit the spread of the virus had detrimental effects on various lifestyle components, especially in young population. This resulted in augmented levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors and a reduced time spent in play outdoors or sport practices. Contrariwise, the increased use of technology led clinicians, teachers, and trainers to maintain relations with obese children/adolescents so as to reduce sedentary behaviors and the associated health risks. This narrative review aims to describe the role of Telehealth and Tele-exercise as useful tools in the management of pediatric obesity during COVID-19 pandemic. Telehealth and Tele-exercise were effective in promoting self-monitoring and behavioral changes, including adherence to exercise training programs in children and adolescents. Moreover, tele-exercise platforms such as applications or exergames allowed flexible scheduling, limiting the infection risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Telemedicine , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Pediatric Obesity/therapy
7.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523883

ABSTRACT

While the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or COVID-19 disease progression in the general population has been largely assessed, its impact on HIV-positive individuals remains unclear. We present clinical and immunological data collected in a cohort of HIV-infected young individuals during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 RNA, virus-specific antibodies, as well as the expression of factors involved in the anti-viral immune response were analyzed. Moreover, we set up an in vitro coinfection assay to study the mechanisms correlated to the coinfection process. Our results did not show any increased risk of severe COVID-19 in HIV-positive young individuals. In those subjects who contracted SARS-CoV-2 infection, an increase in IL-10 expression and production was observed. Furthermore, in the in vitro coinfection assay, we revealed a reduction in SARS-CoV-2 replication associated to an upregulation of IL-10. We speculate that IL-10 could play a crucial role in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HIV-positive individuals. These results might help defining clinical management of HIV/SARS-CoV-2 co-infected young individuals, or putative indications for vaccination schedules in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/virology , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Infant , Inflammation , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-10/genetics , Male , RNA, Messenger/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
8.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480894

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the implementation of policies that mandate various restrictions on daily life, including social distancing, the closure of public services and schools, and movement limitations. Even though these restrictive measures decreased the COVID-19 spread, they may have detrimental effects on various lifestyle components such as physical inactivity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits, influencing the maintenance of weight and contributing to obesity among children and adolescents. The coexistence of childhood obesity and COVID-19 and changes in the bioecological environment have put children and adolescents at increased risk for developing obesity and exacerbating the severity of this disorder. The use of telehealth technology is a modern approach useful for the delivery of health care services by health care professionals, where distance is a critical factor. Telehealth is effective in promoting increased self-monitoring and behavioral change, and provides the opportunity to perform online nutritional support and exercise training programs to promote a healthy lifestyle and reduce sedentary behaviors in children and adolescents. Telehealth, including tele-exercise and tele-nutrition, has the potential to address many of the key challenges in providing health services, including in patients with obesity during the COVID-19 outbreak. This narrative review aims to describe the role of telehealth as an opportunity in the management of pediatric obesity in the COVID-19 era, and to deliver nutrition and exercise programs for the maintenance of health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Healthy , Exercise Therapy , Nutritive Value , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior , Age Factors , Child , Child Behavior , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Patient Education as Topic , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Treatment Outcome
9.
Metabolites ; 11(11)2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480871

ABSTRACT

MIS-C (multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children) linked to SARS-CoV-2 infection, is a pathological state observed in subjects younger than 21 years old with evidence of either current SARS-CoV-2 infection or exposure within the 4 weeks prior to the onset of symptoms, the presence of documented fever, elevated markers of inflammation, at least two signs of multisystem involvement, and, finally, lack of an alternative diagnosis. They share with adult COVID-19 patients the presence of altered markers of inflammation, but unlike most adults the symptoms are not pulmonary but are affecting several organs. Lipid mediators arising from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) play an important role in the inflammatory response, with arachidonic acid-derived compounds, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, mainly pro-inflammatory and ω3 PUFA metabolites such as resolvins and protectins, showing anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution activities. In order to assess potential alterations of these FA, we evaluated the blood fatty acid profile of MIS-C children at admission to the hospital, together with biochemical, metabolic and clinical assessment. All the patients enrolled showed altered inflammatory parameters with fibrinogen, D-dimer, NT-proBNP, ferritin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), C-reactive protein (CRP) and TrygIndex levels over the reference values in all the subjects under observation, while albumin and HDL-cholesterol resulted below the normal range. Interestingly, linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA) and the ω3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) results were lower in our study when compared to relative amounts reported in the other studies, including from our own laboratory. This significant alteration is pointing out to a potential depletion of these PUFA as a result of the systemic inflammatory condition typical of these patients, suggesting that LA- and AA-derived metabolites may play a critical role in this pathological state, while ω3 PUFA-derived pro-resolution metabolites in these subjects may not be able to provide a timely, physiological counterbalance to the formation of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators. In conclusion, this observational study provides evidence of FA alterations in MIS-C children, suggesting a significant contribution of ω6 FA to the observed inflammatory state, and supporting a potential dietary intervention to restore an appropriate balance among the FAs capable of promoting the resolution of the observed inflammatory condition.

10.
J Clin Transl Endocrinol ; 25: 100261, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433476

ABSTRACT

AIM: We explored the physical activity (PA) level and the variation in glycaemic control in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) before and during the lockdown. Then, we proposed an online training program supported by sport-science specialists. METHODS: Parents of children with T1D (<18 years) filled out an online survey. Anthropometric characteristics, PA, play, sport and sedentary time and the medical related outcomes were recorded. An adapted online program "Covidentary" was proposed through full-training (FT) and active breaks (AB) modality. RESULTS: 280 youth (11.8 ± 3.3 years) were included in the analysis. We reported a decline in sport (-2.1 ± 2.1 h/week) and outdoor-plays (-73.9 ± 93.6 min/day). Moreover, we found an increase in sedentary time (+144.7 ± 147.8 min/day), in mean glycaemic values (+25.4 ± 33.4 mg/dL) and insulin delivery (71.8% of patients). 37% of invited patients attended the training program, 46% took part in AB and 54% in FT. The AB was carried out for 90% of the total duration, while the FT for 31%. Both types of training were perceived as moderate intensity effort. CONCLUSION: A decline of participation in sport activities and a subsequent increase of sedentary time influence the management of T1D of children, increasing the risk of acute/long-term complications. Online exercise program may contrast the pandemic's sedentary lifestyle.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335097

ABSTRACT

Different mechanisms were proposed as responsible for COVID-19 neurological symptoms but a clear one has not been established yet. In this work we aimed to study SARS-CoV-2 capacity to infect pediatric human cortical neuronal HCN-2 cells, studying the changes in the transcriptomic profile by next generation sequencing. SARS-CoV-2 was able to replicate in HCN-2 cells, that did not express ACE2, confirmed also with Western blot, and TMPRSS2. Looking for pattern recognition receptor expression, we found the deregulation of scavenger receptors, such as SR-B1, and the downregulation of genes encoding for Nod-like receptors. On the other hand, TLR1, TLR4 and TLR6 encoding for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were upregulated. We also found the upregulation of genes encoding for ERK, JNK, NF-κB and Caspase 8 in our transcriptomic analysis. Regarding the expression of known receptors for viral RNA, only RIG-1 showed an increased expression; downstream RIG-1, the genes encoding for TRAF3, IKKε and IRF3 were downregulated. We also found the upregulation of genes encoding for chemokines and accordingly we found an increase in cytokine/chemokine levels in the medium. According to our results, it is possible to speculate that additionally to ACE2 and TMPRSS2, also other receptors may interact with SARS-CoV-2 proteins and mediate its entry or pathogenesis in pediatric cortical neurons infected with SARS-CoV-2. In particular, TLRs signaling could be crucial for the neurological involvement related to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Neurons/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Cytokines/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Neurons/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/genetics , Toll-Like Receptors/genetics , Virus Replication
12.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e171, 2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333853

ABSTRACT

Monitoring the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) community-wide transmission with a suitable and effective sampling method would be of great support for public health response to the spreading due to asymptomatic subjects in the community.Here, we describe how using saliva samples for SARS-CoV-2 detection has allowed for a weekly surveillance of a small business company and the early detection of coronavirus disease 2019 cases.As on 23rd March, two cases were detected and investigated, and control measures were rapidly applied.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Contact Tracing , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
13.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 721635, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332126
14.
Children (Basel) ; 8(5)2021 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227003

ABSTRACT

An interaction between metabolic glucose impairment and coronavirus disease 2019 is reported. The development of a severe multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) related to SARS-CoV-2 infection has been described. We evaluated the impact of MIS-C on glycemic patterns in pediatric patients. A group of 30 children and adolescents affected by MIS-C were considered; all patients were normal weight. Clinical and biochemical assessments, including surrogate markers of insulin resistance (IR) such as homeostasis model analysis-IR (HOMA-IR) and triglyceride-glucose (TyG) indexes, were recorded. Patients were also invited to undergo an intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM). HOMA-IR index was calculated in 18 patients (60%), of which 17 (94%) revealed a pathological value. TyG index was computed for all patients and pathological values were detected in all cases. In 15 patients, isCGM data were recorded on average for 9 days (±3 days). Overall, average glucose was 105 mg/dL (±16 mg/dL) and average time spent in the 70-180 mg/dL range (TIR) was 93.76%, with nearly 10% of glucose readings in the 141-180 mg/dL range; glycemic fluctuations over the hyperglycemic threshold were detected in four patients. Regular glucose monitoring may be useful to prevent metabolic imbalance and obtain a better outcome.

15.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223985

ABSTRACT

Considerable reorganization of the regional network for pediatric burn treatment during the pandemic was required to cope with severe burn injuries in small children. In support of the emergency network for burns during the COVID-19 pandemic, we referred to regional indications for centralization in our hospital for all children aged less than 5 years who presented with severe burns, >15% of total body surface area (TBSA), or who necessitated admittance to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). A new service with a dedicated management protocol was set up to treat pediatric burns in our SARS-CoV-2 pediatric hospital during the lockdown period. A multidisciplinary burn treatment team was set up to offer compassionate and comprehensive burn care. Patient's clinical data, burn features, treatment and follow up were recorded. A higher number of admissions was recorded from February to December 2020 compared with the same period in 2019 (52 vs. 32 admissions). Eighteen patients were admitted to the COVID-19 Service (10 M/8 F; 3.10 ± 2.6 yrs); ten children (55.5%) were hospitalized in the ward and eight in the ICU (44.5%). Fifty percent of the cases presented with lesions extending over >15% TBSA; in one case, TBSA was 35%. All patients suffered 2nd-degree burns; while five patients also had 3rd degree lesions covering more than 15% TBSA. All of the injuries occurred at home. No major secondary infections were recorded. Successful treatment was achieved in 94.4% of cases. The average length of stay was 15.2 ± 12.6 days. A proactive, carefully planned service, involving a multidisciplinary team, was created to ensure appropriate care in a pediatric hospital during the COVID-19 period, despite the effective pandemic associated challenges. Better health promotion in pediatric burn cases should also include dedicated TBSA assessment and a database of children's burn characteristics.

16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 656362, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211814

ABSTRACT

Since March 2020, the outbreak of Sars-CoV-2 pandemic has changed medical practice and daily routine around the world. Huge efforts from pharmacological industries have led to the development of COVID-19 vaccines. In particular two mRNA vaccines, namely the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and the mRNA-1273 (Moderna), and a viral-vectored vaccine, i.e. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca), have recently been approved in Europe. Clinical trials on these vaccines have been published on the general population showing a high efficacy with minor adverse events. However, specific data about the efficacy and safety of these vaccines in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are still lacking. Moreover, the limited availability of these vaccines requires prioritizing some vulnerable categories of patients compared to others. In this position paper, we propose the point of view about the management of COVID-19 vaccination from Italian experts on IMIDs and the identification of high-risk groups according to the different diseases and their chronic therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immune System Diseases/virology , Vaccination/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Europe , Expert Testimony , Glomerulonephritis/complications , Glomerulonephritis/immunology , Glomerulonephritis/virology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/virology , Lung Diseases/complications , Lung Diseases/immunology , Lung Diseases/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , Rheumatic Diseases/virology , Skin Diseases/complications , Skin Diseases/immunology , Skin Diseases/virology , Uveitis/complications , Uveitis/immunology , Uveitis/virology
17.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 29, 2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136233

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence on the existence of a Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome-temporally associated to SARS-CoV-2 infection (PIMS-TS), sharing similarities with Kawasaki Disease (KD). The main outcome of the study were to better characterize the clinical features and the treatment response of PIMS-TS and to explore its relationship with KD determining whether KD and PIMS are two distinct entities. METHODS: The Rheumatology Study Group of the Italian Pediatric Society launched a survey to enroll patients diagnosed with KD (Kawasaki Disease Group - KDG) or KD-like (Kawacovid Group - KCG) disease between February 1st 2020, and May 31st 2020. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data, treatment information, and patients' outcome were collected in an online anonymized database (RedCAP®). Relationship between clinical presentation and SARS-CoV-2 infection was also taken into account. Moreover, clinical characteristics of KDG during SARS-CoV-2 epidemic (KDG-CoV2) were compared to Kawasaki Disease patients (KDG-Historical) seen in three different Italian tertiary pediatric hospitals (Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", Trieste; AOU Meyer, Florence; IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa) from January 1st 2000 to December 31st 2019. Chi square test or exact Fisher test and non-parametric Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test were used to study differences between two groups. RESULTS: One-hundred-forty-nine cases were enrolled, (96 KDG and 53 KCG). KCG children were significantly older and presented more frequently from gastrointestinal and respiratory involvement. Cardiac involvement was more common in KCG, with 60,4% of patients with myocarditis. 37,8% of patients among KCG presented hypotension/non-cardiogenic shock. Coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) were more common in the KDG. The risk of ICU admission were higher in KCG. Lymphopenia, higher CRP levels, elevated ferritin and troponin-T characterized KCG. KDG received more frequently immunoglobulins (IVIG) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) (81,3% vs 66%; p = 0.04 and 71,9% vs 43,4%; p = 0.001 respectively) as KCG more often received glucocorticoids (56,6% vs 14,6%; p < 0.0001). SARS-CoV-2 assay more often resulted positive in KCG than in KDG (75,5% vs 20%; p < 0.0001). Short-term follow data showed minor complications. Comparing KDG with a KD-Historical Italian cohort (598 patients), no statistical difference was found in terms of clinical manifestations and laboratory data. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection might determine two distinct inflammatory diseases in children: KD and PIMS-TS. Older age at onset and clinical peculiarities like the occurrence of myocarditis characterize this multi-inflammatory syndrome. Our patients had an optimal response to treatments and a good outcome, with few complications and no deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Hypotension/physiopathology , Lymphopenia/physiopathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Age Distribution , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/metabolism , Hyperferritinemia/physiopathology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/metabolism , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Tachypnea/physiopathology , Troponin T/metabolism , Vomiting/physiopathology
18.
J Voice ; 2021 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129098

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Dysphonia has been described in patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dysphonia, and its severity and extent, of voice fatigue and of dysphagia in non hospitalized patients affected by COVID-19 in Lombardy, the Italian region most hit by the first explosive outbreak of COVID-19 in Europe. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data of 160 consecutive patients, with COVID-19 diagnosis confirmed by nasal swabs processed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, were gathered by means of telephone interviews performed by physicians in charge of daily follow-up. General and specific symptoms concerning voice and swallowing impairment were investigated. Dysphonia grade and duration were graded on 4-point scales, while voice fatigue was graded on a 5-point scale. RESULTS: Dysphonia was reported by 70 (43.7%) patients and was positively associated with voice fatigue (P < 0.001), cough (P = 0.005), rhinitis (P = 0.01), and dyspnea (P = 0.06); it was mild and/or moderate in 69 patients, but its duration was > 2 weeks in 33/70 (47.1%) patients and >1 month in 11/70 (15.7%). Grade and duration of dysphonia were positively associated with cough and rhinitis (all P values < 0.01). Voice fatigue was reported by 43/160 patients (26.8%) and its severity was correlated with dysphonia (P < 0.0001), cough (P = 0.02), rhinitis (P = 0.02), dyspnea (P < 0.001), and loss of appetite (P = 0.01). Dysphagia was encountered in 27/160 patients (16.9%) and was associated with dysgeusia, cough, arthralgia, myalgia and loss of appetite but not with dysphonia. CONCLUSIONS: Dysphonia was a highly prevalent and long-lasting symptom in this series; it has been underestimated to date. Further studies might shed light on the pathophysiology of voice disorders in COVID-19 patients.

19.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 24, 2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069577

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Italy was the first Western country to be hit by the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. There is now mounting evidence that a minority of children infected with SARS-CoV2 may experience a severe multisystem inflammatory syndrome, called Multisystem inflammatory Syndrome associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (MIS-C). To date no universally agreed approach is available for this disease. MAIN BODY: as Italy is now facing a second hity of COVID-19 cases, we fear a recrudescence of MIS-C cases. We have, therefore, decided to prepare a report that will help clinicians to face this novel and challenging disease. We propose a diagnostic algorithm, to help case definition and guide work-up, and a therapeutic approach. MIS-C should be promptly recognized, based on the presence of systemic inflammation and specific organ involvement. Early treatment is crucial, and it will be based on the combined use of corticosteroids, high-dose immunoglobulins and anti-cytokine treatments, depending on the severity of the disease. Ancillary treatments (such as. aspirin and thrombo-profilaxis) will be also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: we propose a document that will help physicians to diagnose and treat MIS-C patients. Given the level of evidence available and the methodology used, this document should not be interpreted as a guideline; the final decision about the optimal management should still be taken by the caring physician, on an individual basis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Child , Female , Humans , Italy , Male
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