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1.
J Clin Microbiol ; : e0017422, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874497

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with prolonged hospitalization and a high risk of intubation, which raises concern for bacterial coinfection and antimicrobial resistance. Previous research has shown a wide range of bacterial pneumonia rates for COVID-19 patients in a variety of clinical and demographic settings, but none have compared hospitalized COVID-19 patients to patients testing negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in similar care settings. We performed a retrospective cohort study on hospitalized patients with COVID-19 testing from March 10th, 2020 to December 31st, 2020. A total of 19,219 patients were included, of which 3,796 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. We found a 2.6-fold increase (P < 0.001) in respiratory culture ordering in COVID-19 patients. On a per-patient basis, COVID-19 patients were 1.5-fold more likely than non-COVID patients to have positive respiratory cultures (46.8% versus 30.9%, P < 0.001), which was primarily driven by patients requiring intubation. Among patients with pneumonia, a significantly higher proportion of COVID-19 patients had ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) relative to non-COVID patients (86.3% versus 70.8%, P < 0.001), but a lower proportion had community-acquired (11.2% vs 25.5%, P < 0.01) pneumonia. There was also a significantly higher proportion of respiratory cultures positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and antibiotic-resistant organisms in COVID-19 patients. Increased rates of respiratory culture ordering for COVID-19 patients therefore appear to be clinically justified for patients requiring intubation, but further research is needed to understand how SARS-CoV-2 increases the risk of VAP.

2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(5): e35311, 2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines have demonstrated efficacy and effectiveness in preventing symptomatic COVID-19, while being relatively safe in trial studies. However, vaccine breakthrough infections have been reported. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify risk factors associated with COVID-19 breakthrough infections among fully mRNA-vaccinated individuals. METHODS: We conducted a series of observational retrospective analyses using the electronic health records (EHRs) of the Columbia University Irving Medical Center/New York Presbyterian (CUIMC/NYP) up to September 21, 2021. New York City (NYC) adult residences with at least 1 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) record were included in this analysis. Poisson regression was performed to assess the association between the breakthrough infection rate in vaccinated individuals and multiple risk factors-including vaccine brand, demographics, and underlying conditions-while adjusting for calendar month, prior number of visits, and observational days in the EHR. RESULTS: The overall estimated breakthrough infection rate was 0.16 (95% CI 0.14-0.18). Individuals who were vaccinated with Pfizer/BNT162b2 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] against Moderna/mRNA-1273=1.66, 95% CI 1.17-2.35) were male (IRR against female=1.47, 95% CI 1.11-1.94) and had compromised immune systems (IRR=1.48, 95% CI 1.09-2.00) were at the highest risk for breakthrough infections. Among all underlying conditions, those with primary immunodeficiency, a history of organ transplant, an active tumor, use of immunosuppressant medications, or Alzheimer disease were at the highest risk. CONCLUSIONS: Although we found both mRNA vaccines were effective, Moderna/mRNA-1273 had a lower incidence rate of breakthrough infections. Immunocompromised and male individuals were among the highest risk groups experiencing breakthrough infections. Given the rapidly changing nature of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, continued monitoring and a generalizable analysis pipeline are warranted to inform quick updates on vaccine effectiveness in real time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , /administration & dosage , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331284

ABSTRACT

Many regions have experienced successive epidemic waves of COVID-19 since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 with heterogeneous differences in mortality. Elucidating factors differentially associated with mortality between epidemic waves may inform clinical and public health strategies. We examined clinical and demographic data among patients admitted with COVID-19 during the first (March-June 2020) and second (December 2020-March 2021) epidemic waves at an academic medical center in New York City. Hospitalized patients (N=4631) had lower mortality during the second wave (14%) than the first (23%). Patients in the second wave had a lower 30-day mortality (Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.52, 95% CI 0.44, 0.61) than those in the first wave. The mortality decrease persisted after adjusting for confounders except for the volume of COVID-19 admissions (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.70, 1.11), a measure of health system strain. Several demographic and clinical patient factors were associated with an increased risk of mortality independent of wave.

4.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327549

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with prolonged hospitalization and a high risk of intubation, which raises concern for bacterial co-infection and antimicrobial resistance. Previous research has shown a wide range of bacterial pneumonia rates for COVID-19 patients in a variety of clinical and demographic settings, but none have compared hospitalized COVID-19 patients to patients testing negative for SARS-CoV-2 in similar care settings. We performed a retrospective cohort study on hospitalized patients with COVID-19 testing from 10 March 2020 to 31 December 2020. A total of 19,219 patients were included, of which 3,796 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. We found a 2.6-fold increase (p < 0.001) in respiratory culture ordering in COVID-19 patients. On a per-patient basis, COVID-19 patients were 1.5-fold more likely than non-COVID patients to have abnormal respiratory cultures (46.8% vs. 30.9%, p < 0.001), which was primarily driven by patients requiring intubation. Among patients with pneumonia, a significantly higher proportion of COVID-19 patients had ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) relative to non-COVID patients (85.7% vs 55.1%, p <0.001), but a lower proportion had community-acquired (12.2% vs 22.1%, p < 0.01) or hospital-acquired pneumonia (2.1% vs. 22.8%, p < 0.001). There was also a significantly higher proportion of respiratory cultures positive for MRSA, K. pneumoniae , and antibiotic-resistant organisms in COVID-19 patients. Increased rates of respiratory culture ordering for COVID-19 patients therefore appear to be clinically justified for patients requiring intubation, but further research is needed to understand how SARS-CoV-2 increases the risk of VAP.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322082

ABSTRACT

Background: Hyperglycemic patients with or without a history of diabetes have increased morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. Published case reports describe patients with COVID-19 and simultaneous presentation of diabetic acidosis (DKA), however there is limited data on the prevalence, predictors and outcomes of DKA in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.Methods: Patients with COVID-19 were identified from the electronic medical record. DKA was defined by standardized criteria. Proportional hazard regression models were used to determine risk factors for, and mortality from DKA in COVID-19.Findings: Of 2366 patients admitted for COVID-19, 157 (6.6%) patients developed DKA. Ninety-four percent of patients with incident DKA had a history of type 2 diabetes, while 5.7% patients had no prior diagnosis of diabetes. Patients with compared to without DKA had increased hospital length of stay and in-patient mortality. Each unit of higher HbA1c predicted a 47% increased risk of incident DKA (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.40-1.54). Risk factors for mortality included older age (HR 1.07 per 5 years, 95% CI 1.06 - 1.08) and need for pressors (HR 2.33, 95% CI 1.82-2.98). An interaction between use of glucocorticoids and older age and pressor use indicated a protective effect of glucocorticoid use with both increasing age and for patients on pressors.Interpretation: The combination of DKA and COVID-19 is associated with greater mortality, driven by older age and severity of COVID-19 disease. Improved outpatient treatment of diabetes may prevent the development of DKA in patients with COVID-19.Funding Statement: None.Declaration of Interests: JSS, MBB, DJM, JZ, PK, SM, MTY and UBP have no disclosures. TLN: AmgenEthics Approval Statement: This study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Columbia University Irving Medical Center and the requirement for informed consent was waived.

6.
Cardiol Young ; : 1-7, 2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655379

ABSTRACT

Cardiac involvement associated with multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children has been extensively reported, but the prevalence of cardiac involvement in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the absence of inflammatory syndrome has not been well described. In this retrospective, single centre, cohort study, we describe the cardiac involvement found in this population and report on outcomes of patients with and without elevated cardiac biomarkers. Those with multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children, cardiomyopathy, or complex CHD were excluded. Inclusion criteriaz were met by 80 patients during the initial peak of the pandemic at our institution. High-sensitivity troponin T and/or N-terminal pro-brain type natriuretic peptide were measured in 27/80 (34%) patients and abnormalities were present in 5/27 (19%), all of whom had underlying comorbidities. Advanced respiratory support was required in all patients with elevated cardiac biomarkers. Electrocardiographic abnormalities were identified in 14/38 (37%) studies. Echocardiograms were performed on 7/80 patients, and none demonstrated left ventricular dysfunction. Larger studies to determine the true extent of cardiac involvement in children with COVID-19 would be useful to guide recommendations for standard workup and management.

8.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S280-S280, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1563896

ABSTRACT

Background Antibiotic use among patients with COVID-19 is common, exceeds the prevalence of probable bacterial co-infection, and promotes development of resistant organisms. Lack of diagnostic microbiological data may prolong empiric broad-spectrum therapy. Here we evaluate the use of the BioFire FilmArray pneumonia panel (PP), a novel rapid diagnostic test, and antibiotic decisions among intensive care unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of adult ICU patients admitted with COVID-19 between January 2020 and May 2021 at an academic medical center. ICU patients who underwent bronchoscopy/bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with PP (PP group) were matched by age (< 65 or ≥65), BMI (< 30 or ≥30), and BAL date (within 60 days) to ICU patients who did not undergo BAL (no-BAL group). PP patients were matched by age and BMI to ICU patients who underwent BAL without PP (no-PP group). Antibiotic use was compared between groups. Chi squared analysis, t-test, and ANOVA were used for comparisons as appropriate. Results 65 patients were included;the majority were male (65%), < 65 years (86%), and had BMI ≥30 (54%) (Table 1). Only 17 no-PP matches were identified for PP patients due to infrequent BALs. Similar proportion of patients in PP and no-PP groups had organisms identified from BAL (54% vs. 47%, p=0.65). Among PP patients with a detected organism, all (n=13) had subsequent changes in antibiotic regimen ≤72 hours after BAL;10/13 (77%) had a change targeted to detected organism and 5/13 (39%) had antibiotic narrowing. Among PP patients with no detected organism, only 4/11 (36%) had antibiotic narrowing or maintenance off antibiotics. In all groups, average antibiotic use exceeded 70% of admission duration. Table 1. Patient characteristics and antibiotic management. Abbreviations: BAL - bronchoalveolar lavage Conclusion Rapid, highly sensitive diagnostic tests have potential to guide clinical decisions and promote antibiotic stewardship among patients with severe viral pneumonia and suspected bacterial co-infection. In this descriptive analysis, antibiotic management did not differ significantly with use of PP. While most patients with detected organism on PP had targeted antibiotic changes, a negative PP did not appear to influence antibiotic narrowing. Larger studies and provider education are needed to evaluate potential of the PP for antibiotic stewardship. Disclosures Jason Zucker, MD, MS, Nothing to disclose Daniel A. Green, M.D., BioFire (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Advisor or Review Panel member) Deborah Theodore, MD, BioFire Diagnostics (Other Financial or Material Support, Donation of testing materials to support investigator-initiated research)

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295321

ABSTRACT

Importance Little is known about COVID vaccine breakthrough infections and their risk factors. Objective To identify risk factors associated with COVID-19 breakthrough infections among vaccinated individuals and to reassess the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination against severe outcomes using real-world data. Design, Setting, and Participants We conducted a series of observational retrospective analyses using the electronic health records (EHRs) of Columbia University Irving Medical Center/New York Presbyterian (CUIMC/NYP) up to September 21, 2021. New York adult residence with PCR test records were included in this analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures Poisson regression was used to assess the association between breakthrough infection rate in vaccinated individuals and multiple risk factors – including vaccine brand, demographics, and underlying conditions – while adjusting for calendar month, prior number of visits and observational days. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between vaccine administration and infection rate by comparing a vaccinated cohort to a historically matched cohort in the pre-vaccinated period. Infection incident rate was also compared between vaccinated individuals and longitudinally matched unvaccinated individuals. Cox regression was used to estimate the association of the vaccine and COVID-19 associated severe outcomes by comparing breakthrough cohort and two matched unvaccinated infection cohorts. Results Individuals vaccinated with Pfizer/BNT162b2 (IRR against Moderna/mRNA-1273 [95% CI]: 1.66 [1.17 – 2.35]);were male (1.47 [1.11 – 1.94%]);and had compromised immune systems (1.48 [1.09 – 2.00]) were at the highest risk for breakthrough infections. Vaccinated individuals had a significant lower infection rate among all subgroups. An increased incidence rate was found in both vaccines over the time. Among individuals infected with COVID-19, vaccination significantly reduced the risk of death (adj. HR: 0.20 [0.08 - 0.49]). Conclusion and Relevance While we found both mRNA vaccines were effective, Moderna/mRNA-1273 had a lower incidence rate of breakthrough infections. Both vaccines had increased incidence rates over the time. Immunocompromised individuals were among the highest risk groups experiencing breakthrough infections. Given the rapidly changing nature of the SARS-CoV-2, continued monitoring and a generalizable analysis pipeline are warranted to inform quick updates on vaccine effectiveness in real time. Key Points Question What risk factors contribute to COVID-19 breakthrough infections among mRNA vaccinated individuals? How do clinical outcomes differ between vaccinated but still SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals and non-vaccinated, infected individuals? Findings This retrospective study uses CUIMC/NYP EHR data up to September 21, 2021. Individuals who were vaccinated with Pfizer/BNT162b2, male, and had compromised immune systems had significantly higher incidence rate ratios of breakthrough infections. Comparing demographically matched pre-vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, vaccinated individuals had a lower incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection among all subgroups. Meaning Leveraging real-world EHR data provides insight on who may optimally benefit from a booster COVID-19 vaccination.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0257979, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526683

ABSTRACT

Public health interventions such as social distancing and mask wearing decrease the incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but it is unclear whether they decrease the viral load of infected patients and whether changes in viral load impact mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We evaluated 6923 patients with COVID-19 at six New York City hospitals from March 15-May 14, 2020, corresponding with the implementation of public health interventions in March. We assessed changes in cycle threshold (CT) values from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests and in-hospital mortality and modeled the impact of viral load on mortality. Mean CT values increased between March and May, with the proportion of patients with high viral load decreasing from 47.7% to 7.8%. In-hospital mortality increased from 14.9% in March to 28.4% in early April, and then decreased to 8.7% by May. Patients with high viral loads had increased mortality compared to those with low viral loads (adjusted odds ratio 2.34). If viral load had not declined, an estimated 69 additional deaths would have occurred (5.8% higher mortality). SARS-CoV-2 viral load steadily declined among hospitalized patients in the setting of public health interventions, and this correlated with decreases in mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Viral Load/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , New York , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
11.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0005521, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467670

ABSTRACT

Bacterial-viral interactions in saliva have been associated with morbidity and mortality for respiratory viruses such as influenza and SARS-CoV. However, such transkingdom relationships during SARS-CoV-2 infection are currently unknown. Here, we aimed to elucidate the relationship between saliva microbiota and SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of newly hospitalized COVID-19 patients and controls. We used 16S rRNA sequencing to compare microbiome diversity and taxonomic composition between COVID-19 patients (n = 53) and controls (n = 59) and based on saliva SARS-CoV-2 viral load as measured using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The saliva microbiome did not differ markedly between COVID-19 patients and controls. However, we identified significant differential abundance of numerous taxa based on saliva SARS-CoV-2 viral load, including multiple species within Streptococcus and Prevotella. IMPORTANCE Alterations to the saliva microbiome based on SARS-CoV-2 viral load indicate potential biologically relevant bacterial-viral relationships which may affect clinical outcomes in COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/classification , COVID-19/pathology , Microbial Interactions/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/microbiology , Bacteria/genetics , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Microbiota/genetics , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Viral Load
12.
Nature ; 597(7878): 703-708, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442788

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infections have surged across the globe in recent months, concomitant with considerable viral evolution1-3. Extensive mutations in the spike protein may threaten the efficacy of vaccines and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies4. Two signature spike mutations of concern are E484K, which has a crucial role in the loss of neutralizing activity of antibodies, and N501Y, a driver of rapid worldwide transmission of the B.1.1.7 lineage. Here we report the emergence of the variant lineage B.1.526 (also known as the Iota variant5), which contains E484K, and its rise to dominance in New York City in early 2021. This variant is partially or completely resistant to two therapeutic monoclonal antibodies that are in clinical use and is less susceptible to neutralization by plasma from individuals who had recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection or serum from vaccinated individuals, posing a modest antigenic challenge. The presence of the B.1.526 lineage has now been reported in all 50 states in the United States and in many other countries. B.1.526 rapidly replaced earlier lineages in New York, with an estimated transmission advantage of 35%. These transmission dynamics, together with the relative antibody resistance of its E484K sub-lineage, are likely to have contributed to the sharp rise and rapid spread of B.1.526. Although SARS-CoV-2 B.1.526 initially outpaced B.1.1.7 in the region, its growth subsequently slowed concurrently with the rise of B.1.1.7 and ensuing variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Humans , Mutation , New York/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , United States/epidemiology
13.
Nature ; 597(7878): 703-708, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371602

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infections have surged across the globe in recent months, concomitant with considerable viral evolution1-3. Extensive mutations in the spike protein may threaten the efficacy of vaccines and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies4. Two signature spike mutations of concern are E484K, which has a crucial role in the loss of neutralizing activity of antibodies, and N501Y, a driver of rapid worldwide transmission of the B.1.1.7 lineage. Here we report the emergence of the variant lineage B.1.526 (also known as the Iota variant5), which contains E484K, and its rise to dominance in New York City in early 2021. This variant is partially or completely resistant to two therapeutic monoclonal antibodies that are in clinical use and is less susceptible to neutralization by plasma from individuals who had recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection or serum from vaccinated individuals, posing a modest antigenic challenge. The presence of the B.1.526 lineage has now been reported in all 50 states in the United States and in many other countries. B.1.526 rapidly replaced earlier lineages in New York, with an estimated transmission advantage of 35%. These transmission dynamics, together with the relative antibody resistance of its E484K sub-lineage, are likely to have contributed to the sharp rise and rapid spread of B.1.526. Although SARS-CoV-2 B.1.526 initially outpaced B.1.1.7 in the region, its growth subsequently slowed concurrently with the rise of B.1.1.7 and ensuing variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Humans , Mutation , New York/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , United States/epidemiology
14.
J Clin Med ; 10(16)2021 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The progression of clinical manifestations in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) highlights the need to account for symptom duration at the time of hospital presentation in decision-making algorithms. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control analysis of 4103 adult patients with COVID-19 and at least 28 days of follow-up who presented to a New York City medical center. Multivariable logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis were used to identify predictors of poor outcome. RESULTS: Patients presenting to the hospital earlier in their disease course were older, had more comorbidities, and a greater proportion decompensated (<4 days, 41%; 4-8 days, 31%; >8 days, 26%). The first recorded oxygen delivery method was the most important predictor of decompensation overall in CART analysis. In patients with symptoms for <4, 4-8, and >8 days, requiring at least non-rebreather, age ≥ 63 years, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio ≥ 5.1; requiring at least non-rebreather, IL-6 ≥ 24.7 pg/mL, and D-dimer ≥ 2.4 µg/mL; and IL-6 ≥ 64.3 pg/mL, requiring non-rebreather, and CRP ≥ 152.5 mg/mL in predictive models were independently associated with poor outcome, respectively. CONCLUSION: Symptom duration in tandem with initial clinical and laboratory markers can be used to identify patients with COVID-19 at increased risk for poor outcomes.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14390, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309469

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected people at all ages. Whereas pregnant women seemed to have a worse course of disease than age-matched non-pregnant women, the risk of feto-placental infection is low. Using a cohort of 66 COVID-19-positive women in late pregnancy, we correlated clinical parameters with disease severity, placental histopathology, and the expression of viral entry and Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) antiviral transcripts. All newborns were negative for SARS-CoV-2. None of the demographic parameters or placental histopathological characteristics were associated with disease severity. The fetal-maternal transfer ratio for IgG against the N or S viral proteins was commonly less than one, as recently reported. We found that the expression level of placental ACE2, but not TMPRSS2 or Furin, was higher in women with severe COVID-19. Placental expression of IFITM1 and IFITM3, which have been implicated in antiviral response, was higher in participants with severe disease. We also showed that IFITM3 protein expression, which localized to early and late endosomes, was enhanced in severe COVID-19. Our data suggest an association between disease severity and placental SARS-CoV-2 processing and antiviral pathways, implying a role for these proteins in placental response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Placenta/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Female , Furin/metabolism , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Young Adult
16.
Transplantation ; 105(7): 1445-1448, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The optimal duration of transmission-based precautions among immunocompromised patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is unknown. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients with solid organ transplant with positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction result from nasopharyngeal specimens admitted to the hospital between March 13, 2020 and May 15, 2020. RESULTS: Twenty-one percent of solid organ transplant recipients with positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction detected ≥20 d after symptom onset (or after first positive test among asymptomatic individuals) had a low cycle threshold (ie, high viral load). The majority of these patients were asymptomatic or symptomatically improved. CONCLUSIONS: Solid organ transplant recipients may have prolonged high viral burden of SARS-CoV-2. Further data are needed to understand whether cycle threshold data can help inform strategies for prevention of healthcare-associated transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and for appropriate discontinuation of transmission-based precautions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/virology , Organ Transplantation , Postoperative Complications/virology , Viral Load , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies
17.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(6): ofab201, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at increased risk of health care-associated infections (HAIs), especially with prolonged hospital stays. We sought to identify incidence, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and outcomes associated with bacterial/fungal secondary infections in a large cohort of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We evaluated adult patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between 2 March and 31 May 2020 and hospitalized >24 hours. Data extracted from medical records included diagnoses, vital signs, laboratory results, microbiological data, and antibiotic use. Microbiologically confirmed bacterial and fungal pathogens from clinical cultures were evaluated to characterize community- and health care-associated infections, including describing temporal changes in predominant organisms on presentation and throughout hospitalization. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate risk factors for HAIs. RESULTS: A total of 3028 patients were included and accounted for 899 positive clinical cultures. Overall, 516 (17%) patients with positive cultures met criteria for infection. Community-associated coinfections were identified in 183 (6%) patients, whereas HAIs occurred in 350 (12%) patients. Fifty-seven percent of HAIs were caused by gram-negative bacteria and 19% by fungi. Antibiotic resistance increased with longer hospital stays, with incremental increases in the proportion of vancomycin resistance among enterococci and ceftriaxone and carbapenem resistance among Enterobacterales. Intensive care unit stay, invasive mechanical ventilation, and steroids were associated with HAIs. CONCLUSIONS: HAIs occur in a small proportion of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and are most often caused by gram-negative and fungal pathogens. Antibiotic resistance is more prevalent with prolonged hospital stays. Antimicrobial stewardship is imperative in this population to minimize unnecessary broad-spectrum antibiotic use.

18.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e049488, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterise the long-term outcomes of patients with COVID-19 admitted to a large New York City medical centre at 3 and 6 months after hospitalisation and describe their healthcare usage, symptoms, morbidity and mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort through manual chart review of the electronic medical record. SETTING: NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center, a quaternary care academic medical centre in New York City. PARTICIPANTS: The first 1190 consecutive patients with symptoms of COVID-19 who presented to the hospital for care between 1 March and 8 April 2020 and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on reverse transcriptase PCR assay. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Type and frequency of follow-up encounters, self-reported symptoms, morbidity and mortality at 3 and 6 months after presentation, respectively; patient disposition information prior to admission, at discharge, and at 3 and 6 months after hospital presentation. RESULTS: Of the 1190 reviewed patients, 929 survived their initial hospitalisation and 261 died. Among survivors, 570 had follow-up encounters (488 at 3 months and 364 at 6 months). An additional 33 patients died in the follow-up period. In the first 3 months after admission, most encounters were telehealth visits (59%). Cardiopulmonary symptoms (35.7% and 28%), especially dyspnoea (22.1% and 15.9%), were the most common reported symptoms at 3-month and 6-month encounters, respectively. Additionally, a large number of patients reported generalised (26.4%) or neuropsychiatric (24.2%) symptoms 6 months after hospitalisation. Patients with severe COVID-19 were more likely to have reduced mobility, reduced independence or a new dialysis requirement in the 6 months after hospitalisation. CONCLUSIONS: Patients hospitalised with SARS-CoV-2 infection reported persistent symptoms up to 6 months after diagnosis. These results highlight the long-term morbidity of COVID-19 and its burden on patients and healthcare resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(4): e13637, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228844

ABSTRACT

Whether solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at increased risk of poor outcomes due to COVID-19 in comparison to the general population remains uncertain. In this study, we compared outcomes of SOT recipients and non-SOT patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in a propensity score matched analysis based on age, race, ethnicity, BMI, diabetes, and hypertension. After propensity matching, 117 SOT recipients and 350 non-SOT patients were evaluated. The median age of SOT recipients was 61 years, with a median time from transplant of 5.68 years. The most common transplanted organs were kidney (48%), followed by lung (21%), heart (19%), and liver (10%). Overall, SOT recipients were more likely to receive COVID-19 specific therapies and to require ICU admission. However, mortality (23.08% in SOT recipients vs. 23.14% in controls, P = .21) and highest level of supplemental oxygen (P = .32) required during hospitalization did not significantly differ between groups. In this propensity matched cohort study, SOT recipients hospitalized with COVID-19 had similar overall outcomes as non-SOT recipients, suggesting that chronic immunosuppression may not be an independent risk factor for poor outcomes in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Cohort Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e216842, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198342

ABSTRACT

Importance: Critical illness, a marked inflammatory response, and viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 may prolong corrected QT interval (QTc). Objective: To evaluate baseline QTc interval on 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) and ensuing changes among patients with and without COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included 3050 patients aged 18 years and older who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing and had ECGs at Columbia University Irving Medical Center from March 1 through May 1, 2020. Patients were analyzed by treatment group over 5 days, as follows: hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, and neither hydroxychloroquine nor azithromycin. ECGs were manually analyzed by electrophysiologists masked to COVID-19 status. Multivariable modeling evaluated clinical associations with QTc prolongation from baseline. Exposures: COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mean QTc prolongation, percentage of patients with QTc of 500 milliseconds or greater. Results: A total of 965 patients had more than 2 ECGs and were included in the study, with 561 (58.1%) men, 198 (26.2%) Black patients, and 191 (19.8%) aged 80 years and older. There were 733 patients (76.0%) with COVID-19 and 232 patients (24.0%) without COVID-19. COVID-19 infection was associated with significant mean QTc prolongation from baseline by both 5-day and 2-day multivariable models (5-day, patients with COVID-19: 20.81 [95% CI, 15.29 to 26.33] milliseconds; P < .001; patients without COVID-19: -2.01 [95% CI, -17.31 to 21.32] milliseconds; P = .93; 2-day, patients with COVID-19: 17.40 [95% CI, 12.65 to 22.16] milliseconds; P < .001; patients without COVID-19: 0.11 [95% CI, -12.60 to 12.81] milliseconds; P = .99). COVID-19 infection was independently associated with a modeled mean 27.32 (95% CI, 4.63-43.21) millisecond increase in QTc at 5 days compared with COVID-19-negative status (mean QTc, with COVID-19: 450.45 [95% CI, 441.6 to 459.3] milliseconds; without COVID-19: 423.13 [95% CI, 403.25 to 443.01] milliseconds; P = .01). More patients with COVID-19 not receiving hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin had QTc of 500 milliseconds or greater compared with patients without COVID-19 (34 of 136 [25.0%] vs 17 of 158 [10.8%], P = .002). Multivariable analysis revealed that age 80 years and older compared with those younger than 50 years (mean difference in QTc, 11.91 [SE, 4.69; 95% CI, 2.73 to 21.09]; P = .01), severe chronic kidney disease compared with no chronic kidney disease (mean difference in QTc, 12.20 [SE, 5.26; 95% CI, 1.89 to 22.51; P = .02]), elevated high-sensitivity troponin levels (mean difference in QTc, 5.05 [SE, 1.19; 95% CI, 2.72 to 7.38]; P < .001), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels (mean difference in QTc, 5.31 [SE, 2.68; 95% CI, 0.06 to 10.57]; P = .04) were associated with QTc prolongation. Torsades de pointes occurred in 1 patient (0.1%) with COVID-19. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, COVID-19 infection was independently associated with significant mean QTc prolongation at days 5 and 2 of hospitalization compared with day 0. More patients with COVID-19 had QTc of 500 milliseconds or greater compared with patients without COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin , COVID-19 , Electrocardiography , Hydroxychloroquine , Long QT Syndrome , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/statistics & numerical data , Electrocardiography/methods , Electrocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Long QT Syndrome/virology , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
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