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Lab Med ; 53(6): 609-613, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901209


OBJECTIVE: To identify the potential prognostic value of lymphocyte subsets in COVID-19 patients, where lymphopenia is a common finding. METHODS: In 353 COVID-19 inpatients and 40 controls T cell subsets with markers of senescence and exhaustion were studied by flow cytometry. RESULTS: In severe illness, total lymphocytes B, NK, and all T subsets were dampened. Senescent CD4+, but mainly CD8+ T cells, increased in patients with respect to controls. The most significant index predicting fatal outcome was neutrophils/CD3+ T ratio. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, an altered T cell pattern underlies COVID-19 severity and is involved in predicting the outcome.

COVID-19 , Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cellular Senescence
Diabetes ; 71(4): 788-794, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643401


Admission hyperglycemia has emerged worldwide as a predictor of poor coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcome. Hyperglycemia leads to a defect in circulating hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), which, in turn, predicts diabetic complications. Here, we explored whether reduced HSPCs mediated at least part of the prognostic effect of hyperglycemia on COVID-19 outcome. We found that patients with COVID-19 (n = 100) hospitalized in a nonintensive setting displayed dramatically (50-60%) reduced levels of HSPCs measured by flow cytometry as CD34+, CD34+CD45dim, or CD34+CD133+ cells, compared with control subjects (n = 595). This finding was highly significant (all P < 10-10) after multivariable adjustment, or manual 1:1 patient match, or propensity score matching. Admission hyperglycemia (≥7.0 mmol/L) was present in 45% of patients, was associated with a significant further ∼30% HSPCs reduction, and predicted a 2.6-fold increased risk of the primary outcome of adverse COVID-19 course (admittance to the intensive care unit or death). Low HSPCs were also associated with advanced age, higher peak C-reactive protein, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. Independently from confounders, 1 SD lower CD34+ HSPCs was associated with a more than threefold higher risk of adverse outcome. Upon formal analysis, reduction of HSPCs was a significant mediator of the admission hyperglycemia on COVID-19 outcome, being responsible for 28% of its prognostic effect.

COVID-19 , Hyperglycemia , Antigens, CD34/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/metabolism , Humans , Hyperglycemia/metabolism
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(7): 1307-1314, 2021 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119482


OBJECTIVES: Patients in Intensive Care Units (ICU) are a high-risk population for sepsis, recognized as a major cause of admission and death. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and prognostication of monocyte distribution width (MDW) in sepsis for patients admitted to ICU. METHODS: Between January and June 2020, we conducted a prospective observational study during the hospitalization of 506 adult patients admitted to the ICU. MDW was evaluated in 2,367 consecutive samples received for routine complete blood counts (CBC) performed once a day and every day during the study. Sepsis was diagnosed according to Sepsis-3 criteria and patients enrolled were classified in the following groups: no sepsis, sepsis and septic shock. RESULTS: MDW values were significantly higher in patients with sepsis or septic shock in comparison to those within the no sepsis group [median 26.23 (IQR: 23.48-29.83); 28.97 (IQR: 21.27-37.21); 21.99 (IQR: 19.86-24.36) respectively]. ROC analysis demonstrated that AUC is 0.785 with a sensitivity of 66.88% and specificity of 77.79% at a cut-off point of 24.63. In patients that developed an ICU-acquired sepsis MDW showed an increase from 21.33 [median (IQR: 19.47-21.72)] to 29.19 [median (IQR: 27.46-31.47)]. MDW increase is not affected by the aetiology of sepsis, even in patients with COVID-19. In sepsis survivors a decrease of MDW values were found from the first time to the end of their stay [median from 29.14 (IQR: 26.22-32.52) to 25.67 (IQR: 22.93-30.28)]. CONCLUSIONS: In ICU, MDW enhances the sepsis detection and is related to disease severity.

Intensive Care Units , Monocytes/metabolism , Sepsis/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Area Under Curve , Female , Hematologic Tests/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sepsis/blood , Young Adult