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1.
IJID Regions ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1611767

ABSTRACT

Background We performed a prospective cohort study of the clinical presentations and management outcomes of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients in the early months of the pandemic at two hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Between April 1 - May 31, 2020, laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients seen at two tertiary facilities were consecutively enrolled in the study and followed up for 21 days. Results We enrolled 121 COVID-19 patients;112 (92.6%) were admitted while 9 (7.4%) were seen as outpatients. The median (IQR) age of patients was 41 (30-54) years;72 (59.5%) were male. The medians (IQR) reported days from hospital admission to recovery and death was 10 (6-18) and 5.5 (3-9), respectively. Forty-four (36.4%) patients had at least one underlying condition. Of the 112 admissions, 17 (15.2%) went to ICU, of which 14 (82.3%) died. At the end of follow-up, 93(76.9%) recovered, and 18 (14.9%) died, 7 (5.8%) remained asymptomatic, and 1 (0.8%) was still ill. Overall, 46 (38.3%) patients had at least one underlying condition. Conclusion Three-quarters of all COVID-19 patients were aged less than 60 years, reflecting Africa's young population structure. High admission rates to ICU and death rates were observed.

2.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 42(6): 828-838, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585701

ABSTRACT

The past two decades have witnessed the emergence of three zoonotic coronaviruses which have jumped species to cause lethal disease in humans: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2. MERS-CoV emerged in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and the origins of MERS-CoV are not fully understood. Genomic analysis indicates it originated in bats and transmitted to camels. Human-to-human transmission occurs in varying frequency, being highest in healthcare environment and to a lesser degree in the community and among family members. Several nosocomial outbreaks of human-to-human transmission have occurred, the largest in Riyadh and Jeddah in 2014 and South Korea in 2015. MERS-CoV remains a high-threat pathogen identified by World Health Organization as a priority pathogen because it causes severe disease that has a high mortality rate, epidemic potential, and no medical countermeasures. MERS-CoV has been identified in dromedaries in several countries in the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia. MERS-CoV-2 causes a wide range of clinical presentations, although the respiratory system is predominantly affected. There are no specific antiviral treatments, although recent trials indicate that combination antivirals may be useful in severely ill patients. Diagnosing MERS-CoV early and implementation infection control measures are critical to preventing hospital-associated outbreaks. Preventing MERS relies on avoiding unpasteurized or uncooked animal products, practicing safe hygiene habits in health care settings and around dromedaries, community education and awareness training for health workers, as well as implementing effective control measures. Effective vaccines for MERS-COV are urgently needed but still under development.


Subject(s)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Camelus/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575764

ABSTRACT

The WHO 2020 global TB Report estimates that in 2019 there were an estimated 500,000 cases of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) of which only 186,772 MDR-TB cases were diagnosed, and positive treatment outcomes were achieved in 57% of them. These data highlight the need for accelerating and improving MDR-TB screening, diagnostic, treatment and patient follow-up services. The last decade has seen three new TB drugs being licensed; bedaquiline, delamanid and pretomanid, and combinations these new, existing and repurposed drugs are leading to improved cure rates. The all oral six month WHO regimen for MDR-TB is more tolerable, has higher treatment success rates and lower mortality. However, the unprecedented ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is having major direct and indirect negative impacts on health services overall, including national TB programs and TB services. This adds further to longstanding challenges for tackling MDR-TB such as cost, rollout of diagnostics and drugs, and implementation of latest WHO guidelines for MDR-TB. In light of COVID-19 disruption of TB services, it is anticipated the numbers of MDR-TB cases will rise in 2021 and 2022 and will affect treatment outcomes further. Investing more in development of new TB drugs and shorter MDR-TB treatment regimens is required in anticipation of emerging drug resistance to new TB drug regimens. There is an urgent need for protecting current investments in TB services, sustaining gains being made in TB control and accelerating roll out of TB diagnostic and treatment services.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575474

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the novel COVID-19 pandemic replaced TB as the world's top cause of death from an infectious disease. The October 21, 2020 the UN Secretary-General report on progress towards implementation of the UNHLM political declaration on TB stresses that although high-level commitments and targets had galvanized global and national progress towards ending TB, urgent and more ambitious investments and actions were required, especially in lieu of the COVID-19 pandemic where associated public health measures and travel restrictions, have disrupted health services universally. The report sets out 10 priority recommendations to get the world on track to reach agreed targets by 2022. Political commitment is more critical than ever. COVID-19 diagnostic and vaccination health services need to be aligned to TB services with active early case finding in communities, engaging the private sector care providers and mitigation of fear and stigma. Healthcare staff and community workers and leaders need to be provided with COVID-19 vaccination and personal protective equipment. The UNHLM declaration committed to mobilize 15 billion USD per annum for TB, of which 13 billion USD is for TB care and 2 billion USD per annum for TB R&D. The Global Fund needs to increase funding for TB. Learning from the unprecedented speed of COVID-19 vaccine development, fastracking development and evaluation of TB vaccines is essential. World leaders need to urgently address and reverse the socio-economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic and these will determine to what extent they will impact on achieving TB targets.

6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575136

ABSTRACT

After a century of controversies on its usefulness in protection against TB, underlying mechanisms of action, and benefits in various groups and geographical areas, the BCG vaccine is yet again a focus of global attention- this time due to the global COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Recent studies have shown that human CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells primed with a BCG-derived peptide developed high reactivity to its corresponding SARS-CoV-2-derived peptide. Furthermore, BCG vaccine has been shown to substantially increase interferon-gamma (IFN-g) production and its effects on CD4+ T-cells and these non-specific immune responses through adjuvant effect could be harnessed as cross protection against severe forms of COVID-19.The completion of ongoing BGG trials is important as they may shed light on the mechanisms underlying BCG-mediated immunity and could lead to improved efficacy, increased tolerance of treatment, and identification of other ways of combining BCG with other immunotherapies.

7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575135

ABSTRACT

In this perspective, we discuss the impact of COVID-19 on tuberculosis (TB)/HIV health services and approaches to mitigating the growing burden of these three colliding epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). SSA countries bear significantly high proportions of TB and HIV cases reported worldwide, compared to countries in the West. Whilst COVID-19 epidemiology appears to vary across Africa, most countries in this region have reported relatively lower-case counts compared to the West. Nevertheless, the COVID-19 pandemic has added an additional burden to already overstretched health systems in SSA, which, among other things, have been focused on the longstanding dual epidemics of TB and HIV. As with these dual epidemics, inadequate resources and poor case identification and reporting may be contributing to underestimations of the COVID-19 case burden in SSA. Modelling studies predict that the pandemic-related disruptions in TB and HIV services will result in significant increases in associated morbidity and mortality over the next five years. Furthermore, limited empirical evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 coinfections with TB and HIV are associated with increased mortality risk in SSA. However, predictive models require a better evidence-base to accurately define the impact of COVID-19, not only on communicable diseases such as TB and HIV, but on non-communicable disease comorbidities. Further research is needed to assess morbidity and mortality data among both adults and children across the African continent, paying attention to geographic disparities, as well as the clinical and socio-economic determinants of COVID-19 in the setting of TB and/or HIV.

8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574772

ABSTRACT

Despite slow reductions in the annual burden of active human tuberculosis (TB) cases, zoonotic TB (zTB) remains a poorly monitored and an important unaddressed global problem. There is a higher incidence in some regions and countries, especially where close association exists between growing numbers of cattle (the major source of Mycobacterium bovis) and people, many suffering from poverty, and where dairy products are consumed unpasteurised. More attention needs to be focused on possible increased zTB incidence resulting from growth in dairy production globally and increased demand in low income countries in particular. Evidence of new zoonotic mycobacterial strains in South Asia and Africa (e.g. M. orygis), warrants urgent assessment of prevalence, potential drivers and risk in order to develop appropriate interventions. Control of M. bovis infection in cattle through detect and cull policies remain the mainstay of reducing zTB risk, whilst in certain circumstances animal vaccination is proving beneficial. New point of care diagnostics will help to detect animal infections and human cases. Given the high burden of human tuberculosis (caused by M. tuberculosis) in endemic areas, animals are affected by reverse zoonosis, including multi-drug resistant strains. This, may create drug resistant reservoirs of infection in animals. Like COVID-19, zTB is evolving in an ever-changing global landscape.

9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573985

ABSTRACT

The October 2020 Global TB report reviews TB control strategies and United Nations (UN) targets set in the political declaration at the September 2018 UN General Assembly high-level meeting on TB held in New York. Progress in TB care and prevention has been very slow. In 2019, TB remained the most common cause of death from a single infectious pathogen. Globally, an estimated 10.0 million people developed TB disease in 2019, and there were an estimated 1.2 million TB deaths among HIV-negative people and an additional 208, 000 deaths among people living with HIV. Adults accounted for 88% and children for 12% of people with TB. The WHO regions of South-East Asia (44%), Africa (25%), and the Western Pacific (18%) had the most people with TB. Eight countries accounted for two thirds of the global total: India (26%), Indonesia (8.5%), China (8.4%), the Philippines (6.0%), Pakistan (5.7%), Nigeria (4.4%), Bangladesh (3.6%) and South Africa (3.6%). Only 30% of the 3.5 million five-year target for children treated for TB was met. Major advances have been development of new all oral regimens for MDRTB and new regimens for preventive therapy. In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic dislodged TB from the top infectious disease cause of mortality globally. Notably, global TB control efforts were not on track even before the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many challenges remain to improve sub-optimal TB treatment and prevention services. Tuberculosis screening and diagnostic test services need to be ramped up. The major drivers of TB remain undernutrition, poverty, diabetes, tobacco smoking, and household air pollution and these need be addressed to achieve the WHO 2035 TB care and prevention targets. National programs need to include interventions for post-tuberculosis holistic wellbeing. From first detection of COVID-19 global coordination and political will with huge financial investments have led to the development of effective vaccines against SARS-CoV2 infection. The world now needs to similarly focus on development of new vaccines for TB utilizing new technological methods.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(10): 1913-1919, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522140

ABSTRACT

Globally, there are prevailing knowledge gaps in the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among children and adolescents; and these gaps are especially wide in African countries. The availability of robust age-disaggregated data is a critical first step in improving knowledge on disease burden and manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among children. Furthermore, it is essential to improve understanding of SARS-CoV-2 interactions with comorbidities and coinfections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis, malaria, sickle cell disease, and malnutrition, which are highly prevalent among children in sub-Saharan Africa. The African Forum for Research and Education in Health (AFREhealth) COVID-19 Research Collaboration on Children and Adolescents is conducting studies across Western, Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa to address existing knowledge gaps. This consortium is expected to generate key evidence to inform clinical practice and public health policy-making for COVID-19 while concurrently addressing other major diseases affecting children in African countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Tuberculosis , Adolescent , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Encyclopedia of Respiratory Medicine ; : 146-161, 2022.
Article in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750374

ABSTRACT

Three novel coronaviruses have emerged as new lethal zoonotic pathogens of humans during the past 17 years: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV), the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and most recently SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV first surfaced as a human pathogen in Guangdong, China in November 2002 and rapidly spread worldwide with 8098 cases and 774 deaths before the end of the epidemic. SARS-like CoVs have been detected in horseshoe bats with high sequence homology with human or civet isolates, suggesting that bats could be a natural reservoir of a close ancestor of SARS-CoV. No cases of SARS have been reported since January 2004. MERS-CoV was first reported in September 2012, after it was isolated from respiratory samples from a patient in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia who died in June 2012. How humans acquire MERS-CoV infection is not yet known although bats and dromedary camels are intermediary reservoirs. MERS-CoV continues to circulate in the Middle East. As of May 22, 2019, 2428 cases of laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV cases reported to the World Health Organization, including 838 deaths (34.5% mortality) have been reported from 27 countries. While the majority of MERS cases occur in the Middle East, travel related MERS cases have been reported from all continents. Large health care associated outbreaks of MERS-CoV have occurred in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and the Republic of Korea. SARS-CoV-2 emerged from Wuhan, China in December 2019, and by March 2020 had established as a pandemic which has caused massive disruption in multiple countries. The eventual mortality caused by this virus remains to be seen. All three viruses cause a similar wide range of nonspecific clinical manifestations from mild upper respiratory tract illness to severe respiratory, gastrointestinal and other extra-pulmonary disease. Early recognition of cases, improved compliance with internationally recommended infection control protocols, and rapid implementation of infection control measures are required to prevent health care facility-associated outbreaks, and in the case of SARS-CoV-2 for control of community spread as well. Treatment is supportive and there are no specific antivirals or vaccines available for both SARS and MERS.

13.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390541

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 presents with a wide range of clinical neurological manifestations. It has been recognized that SARS-CoV-2 infection affects both the central and peripheral nervous system, leading to smell and taste disturbances; acute ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease; encephalopathies and seizures; and causes most surviving patients to have long lasting neurological symptoms. Despite this, typical neuropathological features associated with the infection have still not been identified. Studies of post-mortem examinations of the cerebral cortex are obtained with difficulty due to laboratory safety concerns. In addition, they represent cases with different neurological symptoms, age or comorbidities, thus a larger number of brain autoptic data from multiple institutions would be crucial. Histopathological findings described here are aimed to increase the current knowledge on neuropathology of COVID-19 patients. We report post-mortem neuropathological findings of ten COVID-19 patients. A wide range of neuropathological lesions were seen. The cerebral cortex of all patients showed vascular changes, hyperemia of the meninges and perivascular inflammation in the cerebral parenchyma with hypoxic neuronal injury. Perivascular lymphocytic inflammation of predominantly CD8-positive T cells mixed with CD68-positive macrophages, targeting the disrupted vascular wall in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and pons were seen. Our findings support recent reports highlighting a role of microvascular injury in COVID-19 neurological manifestations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cerebral Cortex/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , Brain Diseases/pathology , Brain Diseases/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Cerebral Cortex/virology , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Macrophages/pathology , Male , Microvessels/pathology , Microvessels/virology , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
14.
One Health Outlook ; 3(1): 5, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388848

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of high consequence pathogens such as Ebola and SARS-CoV-2, along with the continued burden of neglected diseases such as rabies, has highlighted the need for preparedness for emerging and endemic infectious diseases of zoonotic origin in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using a One Health approach. To identify trends in SSA preparedness, the World Health Organization (WHO) Joint External Evaluation (JEE) reports were analysed. JEEs are voluntary, collaborative processes to assess country's capacities to prevent, detect and rapidly respond to public health risks. This report aimed to analyse the JEE zoonotic disease preparedness data as a whole and identify strengths and weaknesses. Methods: JEE zoonotic disease preparedness scores for 44 SSA countries who had completed JEEs were analysed. An overall zoonotic disease preparedness score was calculated as an average of the sum of all the SSA country zoonotic disease preparedness scores and compared to the overall mean JEE score. Zoonotic disease preparedness indicators were analysed and data were collated into regions to identify key areas of strength. Results: The mean 'Zoonotic disease' preparedness score (2.35, range 1.00-4.00) was 7% higher compared to the mean overall JEE preparedness score (2.19, range 1.55-3.30), putting 'Zoonotic Diseases' 5th out of 19 JEE sub-areas for preparedness. The average scores for each 'Zoonotic Disease' category were 2.45 for 'Surveillance Systems', 2.76 for 'Veterinary Workforce' and 1.84 for 'Response Mechanisms'. The Southern African region scored highest across the 'Zoonotic disease' categories (2.87).A multisectoral priority zoonotic pathogens list is in place for 43% of SSA countries and 70% reported undertaking national surveillance on 1-5 zoonotic diseases. 70% of SSA countries reported having public health training courses in place for veterinarians and 30% had veterinarians in all districts (reported as sufficient staffing). A multisectoral action plan for zoonotic outbreaks was in place for 14% countries and 32% reported having an established inter-agency response team for zoonotic outbreaks. The zoonotic diseases that appeared most in reported country priority lists were rabies and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) (both 89%), anthrax (83%), and brucellosis (78%). Conclusions: With 'Zoonotic Diseases' ranking 5th in the JEE sub-areas and a mean SSA score 7% greater than the overall mean JEE score, zoonotic disease preparedness appears to have the attention of most SSA countries. However, the considerable range suggests that some countries have more measures in place than others, which may perhaps reflect the geography and types of pathogens that commonly occur. The category 'Response Mechanisms' had the lowest mean score across SSA, suggesting that implementing a multisectoral action plan and response team could provide the greatest gains.

15.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(8): 788, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356553

ABSTRACT

In the last months, many studies have clearly described several mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection at cell and tissue level, but the mechanisms of interaction between host and SARS-CoV-2, determining the grade of COVID-19 severity, are still unknown. We provide a network analysis on protein-protein interactions (PPI) between viral and host proteins to better identify host biological responses, induced by both whole proteome of SARS-CoV-2 and specific viral proteins. A host-virus interactome was inferred, applying an explorative algorithm (Random Walk with Restart, RWR) triggered by 28 proteins of SARS-CoV-2. The analysis of PPI allowed to estimate the distribution of SARS-CoV-2 proteins in the host cell. Interactome built around one single viral protein allowed to define a different response, underlining as ORF8 and ORF3a modulated cardiovascular diseases and pro-inflammatory pathways, respectively. Finally, the network-based approach highlighted a possible direct action of ORF3a and NS7b to enhancing Bradykinin Storm. This network-based representation of SARS-CoV-2 infection could be a framework for pathogenic evaluation of specific clinical outcomes. We identified possible host responses induced by specific proteins of SARS-CoV-2, underlining the important role of specific viral accessory proteins in pathogenic phenotypes of severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions , Immunity/immunology , Protein Interaction Maps/physiology , Proteome , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 363-369, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since information on the pathology of COVID-19 from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains scarce, the objective of our study was to define the gross pathology and histological features of COVID-19. We report data from 29 whole-body autopsies of COVID-19 deaths occurring in hospitals in Lusaka, Zambia - the first large autopsy case series from Africa. METHODS: We performed a descriptive post-mortem examination study of inpatient COVID-19 related deaths at two hospitals in Lusaka, Zambia. Whole-body autopsies were conducted according to Standard Operating Procedures. Gross and histopathological examinations of all organs were performed. Patient demographics, history, co-morbidities, autopsy gross and microscopic findings, and cause(s) of death were recorded and analyzed using STATA version 14. Variables were grouped and presented as frequencies and percentages. FINDINGS: Autopsies were performed on 29 decedents (mean age = 44 ± 15.8years; age range = 19-82; 17/29 [58.8%] males). 22/29 [75.9%] cases were <55 years of age. A spectrum of pathological manifestations of COVID-19 were seen in all organs. The commonest causes of death were pulmonary thromboembolism (13/29, 45%), Diffuse Alveolar Damage (9/29, 31%), and COVID-19 pneumonia (7/29, 25%). 22/29 (76%) had co-morbidities. Common co-morbidities included HIV (8/29, 28%), Hypertension (6/29, 20%) Tuberculosis (3/29, 10%), Diabetes (3/29, 10%). CONCLUSIONS: A spectrum of gross anatomical and histopathological findings are seen in COVID-19 deaths in hospitalized decedents. These appear broadly similar to those reported from China, Europe and USA. Differences include a younger age group, and co-morbidities of HIV and TB co-infection which require further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Hospitals , Humans , Inpatients , Lung , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult , Zambia/epidemiology
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 109: 160-167, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data from Africa regarding sudden and unexpected COVID-19 community deaths and underlying pathological, demographic, and co-morbidity features require definition. METHODS: We performed a case series of COVID-19-related deaths seen at Forensic Post-Mortem examination of sudden and unexpected Community Deaths in Lusaka, Zambia, Africa. Whole-body Post-Mortem examinations were performed according to Standard Operating Procedures. Patient demographics, history, co-morbidities, pathological gross and microscopic findings, and cause(s) of death were recorded. Variables were grouped as frequencies and percentages. Comparison of data was made with autopsy findings of hospital COVID-19 deaths. FINDINGS: Of 21 COVID-19 decedents, 14/21 (66.7%) were male; 18/21, (85.7%) were below 55 years of age (mean age, 40 ± 12.3; range, 20-73). The median duration of symptoms was 1 day (range 0-2); 9/21 (42.9%) had co-morbidities, with hypertension and obesity being the most common. Main post-mortem findings were diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) (80.9%), saddle and shower emboli (38.1%, respectively), and pneumonia (14.3%). Pulmonary thromboembolism (76.2%), DAD (14.3%), and SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (9.5%) were common causes of death. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is an important cause of death to consider in forensic investigations of sudden and unexpected community deaths. Risk factors for the younger age of COVID-19 deaths and thromboembolism need to be identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Autopsy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Zambia/epidemiology
18.
Turk J Med Sci ; 2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319768

ABSTRACT

The pandemic has now unfolded over the past one and a half year and all data show that SARS-CoV-2 has a higher mortality compared to influenza and people with sequelae after infection need to be treated by the health care systems. Evolution of new virus variants is discussed. The global expansion of the delta variant demonstrates that new variants with a higher transmission potential and also being more pathogenic can easily arise. So far, the roll out of vaccines has been the most efficient tool to control the pandemic. With the evolution of new variants vaccine efficacy must be closely monitored. The zoonotic nature of the virus means that it can cross from humans into an animal reservoir and back again, and surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 virus in animals in close contact to humans are needed. There will most certainly be a new wave in the coming year and it is possible that a booster vaccination is needed. To increase population immunity and reduce circulation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations most probably have to be expanded to children.

20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 110: 267-271, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313161

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised patients who have a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection pose many clinical and public health challenges. We describe the case of a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patient with lymphoma who had a protracted illness requiring three consecutive hospital admissions. Whole genome sequencing confirmed two different SARS-CoV-2 clades. Clinical management issues and the unanswered questions arising from this case are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding
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