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1.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: Global ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1763791

ABSTRACT

Background There is limited evidence on the long-term impact of mild to moderate COVID-19 on lung function among young adults. Objectives We aimed to assess if COVID-19 has a negative impact on lung function in young adults and whether asthma, allergic sensitization or use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) modifies a potential association. Method Participants from the population-based cohort BAMSE with spirometry assessed before (2016-2019) and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic (2020-2021) were included. Serum levels of SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM and/or IgA (ELISA) defined seropositivity. Mean change in lung function (FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC) in percent of predicted (pp) from before to after the onset of the pandemic were compared between the seronegative and seropositive participants. In seropositive participants, lung function change was assessed in relation to allergic sensitization and self-reported ICS-use. Results Among 853 included participants, 29% (n=243) were seropositive. There were no differences in lung function change between seronegative and seropositive participants (mean change FEV1 pp (SD), seropositive: 0.87% (4.79%), seronegative: 1.03% (4.76%) p=0.66 for difference using t-test;FVC pp (SD) seropositive: 1.34% (4.44%), seronegative: 1.29% (4.27%), p=0.87;FEV1/FVC pp (SD) seropositive: -0.25% (3.13%), seronegative: -0.13% (3.15%), p=0.61). Similar results were observed among participants with asthma, n=147 (17%). Among seropositive participants, allergic sensitization or ICS-use did not influence lung function. Conclusion We found no evidence for mild to moderate COVID-19 to affect lung function long-term in a population-based cohort of young adults. Moreover, asthma, allergic sensitization or ICS-use did not affect the results.

2.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 102, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2. In November 2021, the Omicron variant was discovered and immediately classified as a variant of concern (VOC), since it shows substantially more mutations in the spike protein than any previous variant, especially in the receptor-binding domain (RBD). We analyzed the binding of the Omicron RBD to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptor (ACE2) and the ability of human sera from COVID-19 patients or vaccinees in comparison to Wuhan, Beta, or Delta RBD variants. METHODS: All RBDs were produced in insect cells. RBD binding to ACE2 was analyzed by ELISA and microscale thermophoresis (MST). Similarly, sera from 27 COVID-19 patients, 81 vaccinated individuals, and 34 booster recipients were titrated by ELISA on RBDs from the original Wuhan strain, Beta, Delta, and Omicron VOCs. In addition, the neutralization efficacy of authentic SARS-CoV-2 wild type (D614G), Delta, and Omicron by sera from 2× or 3× BNT162b2-vaccinated persons was analyzed. RESULTS: Surprisingly, the Omicron RBD showed a somewhat weaker binding to ACE2 compared to Beta and Delta, arguing that improved ACE2 binding is not a likely driver of Omicron evolution. Serum antibody titers were significantly lower against Omicron RBD compared to the original Wuhan strain. A 2.6× reduction in Omicron RBD binding was observed for serum of 2× BNT162b2-vaccinated persons. Neutralization of Omicron SARS-CoV-2 was completely diminished in our setup. CONCLUSION: These results indicate an immune escape focused on neutralizing antibodies. Nevertheless, a boost vaccination increased the level of anti-RBD antibodies against Omicron, and neutralization of authentic Omicron SARS-CoV-2 was at least partially restored. This study adds evidence that current vaccination protocols may be less efficient against the Omicron variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
3.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(3): 471-483, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inborn errors of immunity (IEI) and autoantibodies to type I interferons (IFNs) underlie critical COVID-19 pneumonia in at least 15% of the patients, while the causes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) remain elusive. OBJECTIVES: To detect causal genetic variants in very rare cases with concomitant critical COVID-19 pneumonia and MIS-C. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed, and the impact of candidate gene variants was investigated. Plasma levels of cytokines, specific antibodies against the virus, and autoantibodies against type I IFNs were also measured. RESULTS: We report a 3-year-old child who died on day 56 of SARS-CoV-2 infection with an unusual clinical presentation, combining both critical COVID-19 pneumonia and MIS-C. We identified a large, homozygous loss-of-function deletion in IFNAR1, underlying autosomal recessive IFNAR1 deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that impaired type I IFN immunity can underlie critical COVID-19 pneumonia, while suggesting that it can also unexpectedly underlie concomitant MIS-C. Our report further raises the possibility that inherited or acquired dysregulation of type I IFN immunity might contribute to MIS-C in other patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Autoantibodies , COVID-19/complications , Child, Preschool , Cytokines , Humans , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
4.
iScience ; 25(2): 103743, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611783

ABSTRACT

Information concerning the longevity of immunity to SARS-CoV-2 following natural infection may have considerable implications for durability of immunity induced by vaccines. Here, we monitored the SARS-CoV-2 specific immune response in COVID-19 patients followed up to 15 months after symptoms onset. Following a peak at day 15-28 postinfection, the IgG antibody response and plasma neutralizing titers gradually decreased over time but stabilized after 6 months. Compared to G614, plasma neutralizing titers were more than 8-fold lower against variants Beta, Gamma, and Delta. SARS-CoV-2-specific memory B and T cells persisted in the majority of patients up to 15 months although a significant decrease in specific T cells, but not B cells, was observed between 6 and 15 months. Antiviral specific immunity, especially memory B cells in COVID-19 convalescent patients, is long-lasting, but some variants of concern may at least partially escape the neutralizing activity of plasma antibodies.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296970

ABSTRACT

Background: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the beta coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 manifests itself from mild or even asymptomatic infections to severe forms of life-threatening pneumonia. At the end of November 2021, yet another novel SARS-CoV-2 variant named B.1.1.529 or Omicron was discovered and classified as a variant of concern (VoC) by the WHO. Omicron shows significantly more mutations in the amino acid (aa) sequence of its spike protein than any previous variant, with the majority of those concentrated in the receptor binding domain (RBD). In this work, the binding of the Omicron RBD to the human ACE2 receptor was experimentally analyzed in comparison to the original Wuhan SARS-CoV-2 virus, and the Beta and Delta variants. Moreover, we compared the ability of human sera from COVID-19 convalescent donors and persons fully vaccinated with BNT162b2 (Corminaty) or Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen COVID-19 vaccine) as well as individuals who had boost vaccine doses with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 (Spikevax) to bind the different RBDs variants. Methods The Omicron RBD with 15 aa mutations compared to the original Wuhan strain was produced baculovirus-free in insect cells. Binding of the produced Omicron RBD to hACE was analyzed by ELISA. Sera from 27 COVID-19 patients, of whom 21 were fully vaccinated and 16 booster recipients were titrated on the original Wuhan strain, Beta, Delta and Omicron RBD and compared to the first WHO International Standard for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (human) using the original Wuhan strain as reference. Results The Omicron RBD showed a slightly reduced binding to ACE2 compared to the other RBDs. The serum of COVID-19 patients, BNT162b2 vaccinated and boost vaccinated persons showed a reduced binding to Omicron RBD in comparison to the original Wuhan strain, Beta und Delta RBDs. In this assay, the boost vaccination did not improve the RBD binding when compared to the BNT162b2 fully vaccinated group. The RBD binding of the Ad26.COV2.S serum group was lower at all compared to the other groups. Conclusions The reduced binding of human sera to Omicron RBD provides first hints that the current vaccinations using BNT162b2, mRNA-1273 and Ad26.COV2.S may be less efficient in preventing infections with the Omicron variant.

6.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(1): 1-9, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482248

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibits a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic to critical conditions. Understanding the mechanism underlying life-threatening COVID-19 is instrumental for disease prevention and treatment in individuals with a high risk. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify the genetic cause for critical COVID-19 pneumonia in a patient with a preexisting inborn error of immunity (IEI). METHODS: Serum levels of specific antibodies against the virus and autoantibodies against type I interferons (IFNs) were measured. Whole exome sequencing was performed, and the impacts of candidate gene variants were investigated. We also evaluated 247 ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients in the Iranian IEI registry. RESULTS: We report a 7-year-old Iranian boy with a preexisting hyper IgM syndrome who developed critical COVID-19 pneumonia. IgM only specific COVID-19 immune response was detected but no autoantibodies against type I IFN were observed. A homozygous deleterious mutation in the ATM gene was identified, which together with his antibody deficiency, radiosensitivity, and neurological signs, established a diagnosis of A-T. Among the 247 A-T patients evaluated, 36 had SARS-CoV-2 infection, but all had mild symptoms or were asymptomatic except the index patient. A hemizygous deleterious mutation in the TLR7 gene was subsequently identified in the patient. CONCLUSIONS: We report a unique IEI patient with combined ATM and TLR7 deficiencies. The two genetic defects underlie A-T and critical COVID-19 in this patient, respectively.


Subject(s)
Ataxia Telangiectasia/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Pneumonia/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 7/deficiency , Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics , Child , Humans , Iran , Male
7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(1): 65-75.e8, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Young adults are now considered major spreaders of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. Although most young individuals experience mild to moderate disease, there are concerns of long-term adverse health effects. The impact of COVID-19 disease and to which extent population-level immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) exists in young adults remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a population-based study on humoral and cellular immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and explored COVID-19 disease characteristics in young adults. METHODS: We invited participants from the Swedish BAMSE (Barn [Children], Allergy Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology) birth cohort (age 24-27 years) to take part in a COVID-19 follow-up. From 980 participants (October 2020 to June 2021), we here present data on SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain-specific IgM, IgA, and IgG titers measured by ELISA and on symptoms and epidemiologic factors associated with seropositivity. Further, SARS-CoV-2-specific memory B- and T-cell responses were detected for a subpopulation (n = 108) by ELISpot and FluoroSpot. RESULTS: A total of 28.4% of subjects were seropositive, of whom 18.4% were IgM single positive. One in 7 seropositive subjects was asymptomatic. Seropositivity was associated with use of public transport, but not with sex, asthma, rhinitis, IgE sensitization, smoking, or body mass index. In a subset of representative samples, 20.7% and 35.0% had detectable SARS-CoV-2 specific B- and T-cell responses, respectively. B- and T-cell memory responses were clearly associated with seropositivity, but T-cell responses were also detected in 17.2% of seronegative subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of IgM and T-cell responses may improve population-based estimations of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The pronounced surge of both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections among young adults indicates that the large-scale vaccination campaign should be continued.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Sweden
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