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1.
J Food Sci ; 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510685

ABSTRACT

In this study, citrus pectin (CP) and soybean protein isolate (SPI) were used as raw materials to prepare a complex. The interaction mechanism and structural changes between SPI and CP were deeply studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier infrared spectroscopy. The results show that CP has a strong quenching effect on SPI's endogenous fluorescence, and with the addition of CP, the endogenous fluorescence intensity of SPI decreased from 13,565.2 to 6067.3. The CP quenching of SPI is static quenching, and the number of combined bits is 1.26. The results of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra showed that the addition of CP reduced the polarity of SPI amino acid residue microenvironment and changed the protein structure. Hydrophobic interaction exists between CP and SPI. The results of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra showed that the addition of CP reduced the polarity of the amino acid residue microenvironment of SPI and changed the protein structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows that CP could change the secondary structure of SPI by decreasing the α-helix and ß-sheet, increasing ß-rotation and irregular curl, destroying the ordered structure of SPI and increasing the polarity of the amino acids exposed to the solution. The microstructure analysis shows that SPI-CP composite system has honeycomb structure and dense pores. From the perspective of reaction thermodynamics, it was found that the addition of CP could improve the thermal stability of SPI and increase the denaturation temperature of SPI from 119.73 to 132.97°C. This study can provide a theoretical basis for the preparation of protein-pectin complexes and provides reference for their application in food grade gels and Pickering emulsions.

2.
Curr Med Sci ; 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511413

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the feasibility and usefulness of transabdominal color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) technology and the high-definition flow imaging (HDFI) technique in detecting fetal pulmonary veins (PVs) in the first trimester (11-13+6 weeks). METHODS: From December 2018 to October 2019, 328 pregnant women with 328 normal singleton fetuses (crown-rump length: 45-84 mm) who had undergone CDFI and HDFI scans for fetal heart and vessel examination were enrolled in this study. The cases were divided into three groups according to the gestational age: group A, 11+0 -11+6 weeks; group B, 12+0 -12+6 weeks; and group C, 13+0 -13+6 weeks. Baseline sonograms and CDFI and HDFI images were analyzed by two senior radiologists independently and blindly. The abilities of CDFI and HDFI to display PVs were compared. RESULTS: Successful PV display rates via CDFI and HDFI were 2.3% and 68.2% (P<0.01), 22.4% and 82.4% (P<0.01), 41.5% and 91.2% (P<0.01) for group A, group B, and group C, respectively. The total successful display rates for the two methods were 28.9% (CDFI) and 84.8% (HDFI) (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The HDFI technique is more valuable than CDFI for detecting PVs in early pregnancy (11-13+6 weeks). HDFI can detect at least one PV in all cases and may be used to detect pulmonary venous anomalies early.

3.
Front Nutr ; 9: 846409, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35399678

ABSTRACT

Studies have shown that inhibiting inflammation and regulating intestinal microflora imbalance is a significant factor in controlling the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This experiment studied the protective effect of polyphenol extract from germinated mung beans on diabetic C57BL/6 mice. Results: Fasting blood glucose (FBG) was decreased, glucose tolerance was increased, insulin resistance was decreased, serum lipid indexes in T2DM mice were improved, and the enzyme activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in serum were reduced. Meanwhile, the levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum were decreased, the concentration of interleukin 10 (IL-10) in serum was increased, inhibiting the inflammatory reaction induced by diabetes and repairing the morphology of mice liver tissue. At the same time, germinated mung bean polyphenol (GMP) can regulate the main intestinal flora, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria in diabetic mice and can also regulate species diversity and improve intestinal flora imbalance. Taken together, the experimental conclusion is a certain dose of polyphenol extract from germinated mung beans that can improve mouse T2DM by inhibiting inflammatory reaction and regulating intestinal microflora.

4.
Cancer Causes Control ; 33(5): 779-791, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35304655

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Previous studies show that consuming foods preserved by salting increases the risk of gastric cancer, while results on the association between total salt or added salt and gastric cancer are less consistent and vary with the exposure considered. This study aimed to quantify the association between dietary salt exposure and gastric cancer, using an individual participant data meta-analysis of studies participating in the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project. METHODS: Data from 25 studies (10,283 cases and 24,643 controls) from the StoP Project with information on salt taste preference (tasteless, normal, salty), use of table salt (never, sometimes, always), total sodium intake (tertiles of grams/day), and high-salt and salt-preserved foods intake (tertiles of grams/day) were used. A two-stage approach based on random-effects models was used to pool study-specific adjusted (sex, age, and gastric cancer risk factors) odds ratios (aORs), and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: Gastric cancer risk was higher for salty taste preference (aOR 1.59, 95% CI 1.25-2.03), always using table salt (aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.16-1.54), and for the highest tertile of high-salt and salt-preserved foods intake (aOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.51) vs. the lowest tertile. No significant association was observed for the highest vs. the lowest tertile of total sodium intake (aOR 1.08, 95% CI 0.82-1.43). The results obtained were consistent across anatomic sites, strata of Helicobacter pylori infection, and sociodemographic, lifestyle and study characteristics. CONCLUSION: Salty taste preference, always using table salt, and a greater high-salt and salt-preserved foods intake increased the risk of gastric cancer, though the association was less robust with total sodium intake.


Subject(s)
Helicobacter Infections , Helicobacter pylori , Stomach Neoplasms , Case-Control Studies , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Humans , Risk Factors , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/adverse effects , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Stomach Neoplasms/etiology
5.
Helicobacter ; 27(3): e12883, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35235224

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is the most important risk factor for non-cardia gastric cancer (NCGC); however, the magnitude of the association varies across epidemiological studies. This study aimed to quantify the association between H. pylori infection and NCGC, using different criteria to define infection status. METHODS: A pooled analysis of individual-level H. pylori serology data from eight international studies (1325 NCGC and 3121 controls) from the Stomach Cancer Pooling (StoP) Consortium was performed. Cases and controls with a negative H. pylori infection status were reclassified as positive considering the presence of anti-Cag A antibodies, gastric atrophy, or advanced stage at diagnosis, as available and applicable. A two-stage approach was used to pool study-specific adjusted odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). A meta-analysis of published prospective studies assessing H. pylori seropositivity in NCGCs was conducted. RESULTS: The OR for the association between serology-defined H. pylori and NCGC was 1.45 (95% CI: 0.87-2.42), which increased to 4.79 (95% CI: 2.39-9.60) following the reclassification of negative H. pylori infection. The results were consistent across strata of sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features and lifestyle factors, though significant differences were observed according to geographic region-a stronger association in Asian studies. The pooled risk estimates from the literature were 3.01 (95% CI: 2.22-4.07) for ELISA or EIA and 9.22 (95% CI: 3.12-27.21) for immunoblot or multiplex serology. CONCLUSION: The NCGC risk estimate from StoP based on the reclassification of H. pylori seronegative individuals is consistent with the risk estimates obtained from the literature. Our classification algorithm may be useful for future studies.


Subject(s)
Helicobacter Infections , Helicobacter pylori , Stomach Neoplasms , Case-Control Studies , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms/etiology
6.
Br J Cancer ; 2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210588

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of allium vegetables on gastric cancer (GC) risk remains unclear. METHODS: We evaluated whether higher intakes of allium vegetables reduce GC risk using individual participant data from 17 studies participating in the "Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project", including 6097 GC cases and 13,017 controls. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) were pooled using a two-stage modelling approach. RESULTS: Total allium vegetables intake was inversely associated with GC risk. The pooled OR for the highest versus the lowest study-specific tertile of consumption was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.56-0.90), with substantial heterogeneity across studies (I2 > 50%). Pooled ORs for high versus low consumption were 0.69 (95% CI, 0.55-0.86) for onions and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.75-0.93) for garlic. The inverse association with allium vegetables was evident in Asian (OR 0.50, 95% CI, 0.29-0.86) but not European (OR 0.96, 95% CI, 0.81-1.13) and American (OR 0.66, 95% CI, 0.39-1.11) studies. Results were consistent across all other strata. CONCLUSIONS: In a worldwide consortium of epidemiological studies, we found an inverse association between allium vegetables and GC, with a stronger association seen in Asian studies. The heterogeneity of results across geographic regions and possible residual confounding suggest caution in results interpretation.

7.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 15(5): 319-326, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027464

ABSTRACT

Although evidence suggests that a positive family history of bladder cancer in first-degree relatives is an important risk factor for bladder cancer occurrence, results remain unclear. The influence of family history of nonbladder cancers and more distant relatives on bladder cancer risk is inconsistent. This research, therefore, aims to increase the understanding of the association between family history and bladder cancer risk based on worldwide case-control studies. In total 4,327 cases and 8,948 non-cases were included. Pooled ORs, with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI), were obtained using multilevel logistic regression models, adjusted by age, sex, ethnicity, smoking status, and smoking pack-years. The results show bladder cancer risk increased by having a first- or second-degree relative affected with bladder cancer (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.55-4.77 and OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.22-2.40, respectively), and nonurologic cancers (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.19-2.18). Moreover, bladder cancer risk increased by number of cancers affected first-degree relatives (for 1 and >1 first-degree relatives: OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.02-2.04; OR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.84-3.86, respectively). Our findings highlight an increased bladder cancer risk for a positive bladder cancer family history in first- and second-degree relatives, and indicate a possible greater effect for an increment of numbers of affected relatives. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: This study found a positive association between family history and bladder cancer in first- and second-degree relatives, with an added effect attributed to smoking. Given the detriments of bladder cancer, at-risk individuals should receive family history screening and tobacco cessation and avoidance counseling.


Subject(s)
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Case-Control Studies , Family , Female , Humans , Male , Medical History Taking , Risk Factors , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/etiology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics
8.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21266360

ABSTRACT

BackgroundDespite safe and effective vaccines to prevent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections and disease, a substantial minority of the US remains resistant to getting vaccinated. It is imperative to know if expanding vaccination rates could reduce community-wide Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease, not just among those vaccinated. MethodsNegative binomial models were used to estimate associations between U.S. county-level vaccination rates and county-wide COVID-19 incidence and mortality between April 23rd and September 30th, 2021. A two-week lag and a four-week lag were introduced to assess vaccination rate impact on incidence and mortality, respectively. Stratified analyses were performed for county vaccination rates 40%, and before and after Delta became the dominant variant. FindingsAmong 3,070 counties, each percentage increase in population vaccination rates reduced county-wide COVID-19 incidence by 0{middle dot}9% (relative risk (RR) 0. 9910 (95% CI: 0{middle dot}9869, 0{middle dot}9952)) and mortality by 1{middle dot}9% (RR 0{middle dot}9807 (95% CI: 0{middle dot}9745, 0{middle dot}9823)). Among counties with vaccination coverage >40%, each percentage increase in vaccination rates reduced COVID-19 disease by 1{middle dot}5%, RR 0{middle dot}9850 (95% CI: 0{middle dot}9793, 0{middle dot}9952) and mortality by 2{middle dot}7% (RR 0{middle dot}9727 (95% CI: 0{middle dot}9632, 0{middle dot}9823)). These associations were not observed among counties with <40% vaccination rates. Increasing vaccination rates from 40% to 80% would have reduced COVID-19 cases by 45{middle dot}4% (RR 0{middle dot}5458 (95% CI: 0{middle dot}4335, 0{middle dot}6873)) and deaths by 67{middle dot}0% (RR 0{middle dot}3305 (95% CI: 0{middle dot}2230, 0{middle dot}4898)). An estimated 5,989,952 COVID-19 cases could have been prevented and 127,596 lives saved had US population vaccination rates increased from 40% to 80%. InterpretationsIncreasing U.S. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination rates results in population-wide reductions in COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Furthermore, increasing vaccination rates above 40% has protective effects among non-vaccinated persons. Given ongoing vaccine hesitancy in the U.S., increasing vaccination rates could better protect the entire community and potentially reach herd immunity. FundingNational Cancer Institute

9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6388, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737258

ABSTRACT

The relationship between dietary factors and liver disease remains poorly understood. This study evaluated the associations of whole grain and dietary fiber intake with liver cancer risk and chronic liver disease mortality. The National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study cohort recruited 485, 717 retired U.S. participants in 1995-1996. Follow-up through 2011 identified 940 incident liver cancer cases and 993 deaths from chronic liver disease. Compared with the lowest, the highest quintile of whole grain intake was associated with lower liver cancer risk (Hazard ratio [HR]Q5 vs. Q1 = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63-0.96) and chronic liver disease mortality (HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.35-0.55) in multivariable Cox models. Dietary fiber was also associated with lower liver cancer risk (HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.53-0.90) and chronic liver disease mortality (HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.29-0.48). Fiber from vegetables, beans and grains showed potential protective effect. Here, we show that higher intake of whole grain and dietary fiber are associated with lower risk of liver cancer and liver disease mortality.


Subject(s)
Dietary Fiber , Liver Diseases/mortality , Liver Neoplasms/mortality , Aged , Eating , Edible Grain , Female , Humans , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(1): 200-209, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728467

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric cancer (HpNGC) can be as low as 1%, when infection is assessed using more sensitive tests or considering the presence of gastric atrophy. HpNGC may share a high-risk profile contributing to the occurrence of cancer in the absence of infection. We estimated the proportion of HpNGC, using different criteria to define infection status, and compared HpNGC and positive cases regarding gastric cancer risk factors. METHODS: Cases from 12 studies from the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project providing data on H. pylori infection status determined by serologic test were included. HpNGC was reclassified as positive (eight studies) when cases presented CagA markers (four studies), gastric atrophy (six studies), or advanced stage at diagnosis (three studies), and were compared with positive cases. A two-stage approach (random-effects models) was used to pool study-specific prevalence and adjusted odds ratios (OR). RESULTS: Among non-cardia cases, the pooled prevalence of HpNGC was 22.4% (n = 166/853) and decreased to 7.0% (n = 55) when considering CagA status; estimates for all criteria were 21.8% (n = 276/1,325) and 6.6% (n = 97), respectively. HpNGC had a family history of gastric cancer more often [OR = 2.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-4.61] and were current smokers (OR = 2.16; 95% CI, 0.52-9.02). CONCLUSION: This study found a low prevalence of HpNGC, who are more likely to have a family history of gastric cancer in first-degree relatives. IMPACT: Our results support that H. pylori infection is present in most non-cardia gastric cancers, and suggest that HpNGC may have distinct patterns of exposure to other risk factors.


Subject(s)
Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Stomach Neoplasms/microbiology , Aged , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Female , Gastritis, Atrophic/epidemiology , Gastritis, Atrophic/microbiology , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology
11.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 31(2): 117-127, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545022

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate and quantify the relationship between coffee and gastric cancer using a uniquely large dataset from an international consortium of observational studies on gastric cancer, including data from 18 studies, for a total of 8198 cases and 21 419 controls. METHODS: A two-stage approach was used to obtain the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for coffee drinkers versus never or rare drinkers. A one-stage logistic mixed-effects model with a random intercept for each study was used to estimate the dose-response relationship. Estimates were adjusted for sex, age and the main recognized risk factors for gastric cancer. RESULTS: Compared to never or rare coffee drinkers, the estimated pooled OR for coffee drinkers was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.94-1.13). When the amount of coffee intake was considered, the pooled ORs were 0.91 (95% CI, 0.81-1.03) for drinkers of 1-2 cups per day, 0.95 (95% CI, 0.82-1.10) for 3-4 cups, and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.79-1.15) for five or more cups. An OR of 1.20 (95% CI, 0.91-1.58) was found for heavy coffee drinkers (seven or more cups of caffeinated coffee per day). A positive association emerged for high coffee intake (five or more cups per day) for gastric cardia cancer only. CONCLUSIONS: These findings better quantify the previously available evidence of the absence of a relevant association between coffee consumption and gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Coffee , Stomach Neoplasms , Coffee/adverse effects , Humans , Logistic Models , Observational Studies as Topic , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Stomach Neoplasms/etiology , Stomach Neoplasms/prevention & control
12.
Cancer Nurs ; 2021 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483286

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The uptake of cancer screening is significantly associated with participants' health beliefs about cancer screening. Scales measuring health beliefs of cancer screening are available; however, the scales that were developed and validated for the US population may lack cultural appropriateness, which could compromise the reliability and validity of the scales when applied to different ethnic groups or populations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to summarize, analyze, and compare the methods used in the cross-cultural instrument adaptation and validation processes of health beliefs about cancer screening. METHODS: A systematic review design with narrative methods was used. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, were searched. RESULTS: A total of 18 articles were eligible. Results showed (1) the translation methods included committee translation and back translation, which were further refined by using professional translators, using professional interpreters and/or involving the first author, using bilingual individuals, and involving bilingual investigators; (2) the modification methods included embedded and afterward modification; and (3) the validation methods included testing construct validity, internal consistency reliability, item-total subscale correlations, test-retest reliability, content validity, predictive validity, and face validity. CONCLUSIONS: Back translation and afterward modification were most frequently used for translating existing instruments to another language. Validity and reliability were most frequently established by construct validity, content validity, face validity, predictive validity, internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, and item-total subscale correlation after instruments were translated. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Clinicians should evaluate the translation and adaptation process for translated versions of instruments before using them to provide culturally appropriate and sensitive care.

13.
Med Biol Eng Comput ; 59(10): 2073-2084, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432182

ABSTRACT

Identifying transient and nonpersistent abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) waveforms by continuously monitoring the high-risk populations is of great importance for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, fabric electrodes have been widely used in wearable devices because of their non-irritating properties and better comfort than traditional AgCl electrodes. However, the motion noise caused by the relative movement between the fabric electrodes and skin affects the quality of ECGs and reduces the accuracy of diagnosis. Therefore, delineating the ECG waveforms that are recorded from wearable devices with varying levels of noise is still challenging. In this study, a signal quality assessment (SQA)-based ECG waveform delineation method that is used for wearable systems was developed. The ECG signal was first preprocessed by a bandpass filter. Five indices, including the multiscale nonlinear amplitude statistical distribution (adSQI1, adSQI2), the proportion of energy-related to T wave (ptSQI), and heart rates computed from R waves and T waves (rHR and tHR, respectively), were then calculated from the preprocessed ECG signal. The signals were classified as good, acceptable, and unacceptable ECGs by combining these indices through the use of a neural network. Subsequently, the R waves or/and T waves were identified for the corresponding feature interpretations based on the SQA results. ECGs that were recorded from the chest belts from 29 volunteers at different activity statuses were divided into 4-s segments. A total of 7133 manually labeled segments were used to derive (4985 segments) and validate (2148 segments) the algorithm. The adSQI1, adSQI2, tHR, and rHR characteristics were significantly different among the good, acceptable, and unacceptable ECGs. The ptSQI value was considerably higher in the good ECGs than in the acceptable and unacceptable ECGs. The ECG segments of different quality levels were classified with an accuracy of 96.74% by using the proposed SQA method. The R waves and T waves were identified with accuracies of 99.95% and 99.57%, respectively, for segments that were classified as acceptable and/or good. The SQA-based ECG waveform delineation method can perform reliable analysis and has the potential to be applied in wearable ECG systems for the early diagnosis and prevention of cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Electrocardiography , Heart Rate , Wearable Electronic Devices , Algorithms , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Humans , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
14.
Front Oncol ; 11: 698198, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A decreased level of serum adiponectin is associated with obesity and an increased risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women. Yet, the interplay between genetic variants associated with adiponectin phenotype, obesity, and breast cancer risk is unclear in African American (AA) women. METHODS: We examined 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously identified in genome-wide association and replication studies of serum adiponectin levels using data from 7,991 AA postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative SNP Health Association Resource. RESULTS: Stratifying by obesity status, we identified 18 adiponectin-related SNPs that were associated with breast cancer risk. Among women with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, the minor TT genotype of FER rs10447248 had an elevated breast cancer risk. Interaction was observed between obesity and the CT genotype of ADIPOQ rs6773957 on the additive scale for breast cancer risk (relative excess risk due to interaction, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.32-0.92). The joint effect of BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and the TC genotype of OR8S1 rs11168618 was larger than the sum of the independent effects on breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that obesity plays a significant role as an effect modifier in an increased effect of the SNPs on breast cancer risk using one of the most extensive data on postmenopausal AA women. IMPACT: The results suggest the potential use of adiponectin genetic variants as obesity-associated biomarkers for informing AA women who are at greater risk for breast cancer and also for promoting behavioral interventions, such as weight control, to those with risk genotypes.

15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(15)2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359744

ABSTRACT

Although there is a clear relationship between family history (FH) and the risk of gastric cancer (GC), quantification is still needed in relation to different histological types and anatomical sites, and in strata of covariates. The objective was to analyze the risk of GC according to first-degree FH in a uniquely large epidemiological consortium of GC. This investigation includes 5946 cases and 12,776 controls from 17 studies of the Stomach Cancer Pooling (StoP) Project consortium. Summary odds ratios (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by pooling study-specific ORs using fixed-effect model meta-analysis techniques. Stratified analyses were carried out by sex, age, tumor location and histological type, smoking habit, socioeconomic status, alcohol intake and fruit consumption. The pooled OR for GC was 1.84 (95% CI: 1.64-2.04; I2 = 6.1%, P heterogeneity = 0.383) in subjects with vs. those without first-degree relatives with GC. No significant differences were observed among subgroups of sex, age, geographic area or study period. Associations tended to be stronger for non-cardia (OR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.59-2.05 for subjects with FH) than for cardia GC (OR = 1.38; 95% CI: 0.98-1.77), and for the intestinal (OR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.62-2.23) than for the diffuse histotype (OR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.28-1.96). This analysis confirms the effect of FH on the risk of GC, reporting an approximately doubled risk, and provides further quantification of the risk of GC according to the subsite and histotype. Considering these findings, accounting for the presence of FH to carry out correct prevention and diagnosis measures is of the utmost importance.

16.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 30(6): 448-456, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292200

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Dietary factors are of importance in the development of stomach cancer. This study aims to examine index-based dietary patterns associated with stomach cancer in a Chinese population. METHODS: Using data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Jiangsu Province, China, we included a total of 8432 participants (1900 stomach cancer cases and 6532 controls). Dietary data collected by food frequency questionnaire was evaluated by modified Chinese Healthy Eating Index-2016 (mCHEI-2016) and the US Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015). Multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the association of mCHEI-2016 and HEI-2015 with stomach cancer while adjusting for potential confounders. The possible interactions between mCHEI-2016 or HEI-2015 and established risk factors were explored. RESULTS: Among nonproxy interviews, after adjusting for potential confounding factors, a higher score of sodium, reflecting lower intake per day, was inversely associated with stomach cancer [odds ratio (OR), 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-0.99 for mCHEI-2016; OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99 for HEI-2015]. No clear associations with stomach cancer were identified for total scores of HEI-2015 (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.87-1.10 with a 10-point increase, P trend = 0.98) and mCHEI-2016 (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.94-1.17 with a 10-point increase, P trend = 0.22). However, the relation between stomach cancer and the mCHEI-2016 was modified by BMI, with a possible inverse association in normal-weight subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight that reduced intake of dietary sodium would prevent the development of stomach cancer. The data indicate a heterogeneity between normal weight and overweight's dietary factors in relation to stomach cancer.


Subject(s)
Stomach Neoplasms , Case-Control Studies , Diet/adverse effects , Diet, Healthy , Humans , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Stomach Neoplasms/etiology , Stomach Neoplasms/prevention & control
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(12)2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200600

ABSTRACT

Long-term PM2.5 exposure might predispose populations to SARS-CoV-2 infection and intervention policies might interrupt SARS-CoV-2 transmission and reduce the risk of COVID-19. We conducted an ecologic study across the United States, using county-level COVID-19 incidence up to 12 September 2020, to represent the first two surges in the U.S., annual average of PM2.5 between 2000 and 2016 and state-level facemask mandates and stay home orders. We fit negative binomial models to assess COVID-19 incidence in association with PM2.5 and policies. Stratified analyses by facemask policy and stay home policy were also performed. Each 1-µg/m3 increase in annual average concentration of PM2.5 exposure was associated with 7.56% (95% CI: 3.76%, 11.49%) increase in COVID-19 risk. Facemask mandates and stay home policies were inversely associated with COVID-19 with adjusted RRs of 0.8466 (95% CI: 0.7598, 0.9432) and 0.9193 (95% CI: 0.8021, 1.0537), respectively. The associations between PM2.5 and COVID-19 were consistent among counties with or without preventive policies. Our study added evidence that long-term PM2.5 exposure increased the risk of COVID-19 during each surge and cumulatively as of 12 September 2020, in the United States. Although both state-level implementation of facemask mandates and stay home orders were effective in preventing the spread of COVID-19, no clear effect modification was observed regarding long-term exposure to PM2.5 on the risk of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Incidence , Masks , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
18.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 31(3): 260-269, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183534

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior epidemiologic studies on the association between diabetes and gastric cancer risk provided inconclusive findings, while traditional, aggregate data meta-analyses were characterized by high between-study heterogeneity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between type 2 diabetes and gastric cancer using data from the 'Stomach Cancer Pooling (StoP) Project', an international consortium of more than 30 case-control and nested case-control studies, which is large and provides harmonized definition of participants' characteristics across individual studies. The data have the potential to minimize between-study heterogeneity and provide greater statistical power for subgroup analysis. METHODS: We included 5592 gastric cancer cases and 12 477 controls from 14 studies from Europe, Asia, North America, and South America in a two-stage individual-participant data meta-analysis. Random-effect models were used to estimate summary odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by pooling study-specific ORs. RESULTS: We did not find an overall association between diabetes and gastric cancer (pooled OR = 1.01, 95% CI, 0.94-1.07). However, the risk of cardia gastric cancer was significantly higher among individuals with type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.16, 95% CI, 1.02-1.33). There was no association between diabetes and gastric cancer risk in strata of Helicobacter pylori infection serostatus, age, sex, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, fruit/vegetable intake, gastric cancer histologic type, and source of controls. CONCLUSION: This study provides additional evidence that diabetes is unrelated to gastric cancer overall but may be associated with excess cardia gastric cancer risk.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Helicobacter Infections , Helicobacter pylori , Stomach Neoplasms , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Helicobacter Infections/pathology , Humans , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Stomach Neoplasms/etiology
19.
Int J Cancer ; 149(6): 1228-1238, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990950

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is crucial in gastric carcinogenesis, but infection alone is not a sufficient cause, and the interaction between Hp infection and other risk factors has not been adequately studied. We conducted a pooled analysis of seven case-control studies from the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project, comprising 1377 cases and 2470 controls, to explore the interaction among Hp infection and tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, socioeconomic status (SES) and dietary salt intake on the risk of gastric cancer. We estimated summary odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by multivariate unconditional logistic regression. The analysis showed no consistent interaction between Hp infection and cigarette smoking, while interaction was more than multiplicative for alcohol drinking (OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.07-1.77, P-interaction 0.02) and high intake of salt (OR = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.88-3.65, P-interaction = 0.04). The interaction with SES followed the multiplicative model (P = 0.49), resulting in a weakening among infected individuals of the protective effect of high SES among observed Hp-negative individuals. The interactions found were more pronounced in subjects with history of peptic ulcer. The interactions with Hp infection were stronger for cigarette smoking and dietary salt in the case of noncardia cancer, and for alcohol and SES in the case of cardia cancer. No differences were found when stratifying for histologic type. This large-scale study aimed to quantify the interaction between Hp infection and other modifiable risk factors of gastric cancer revealed that the benefit of combined Hp eradication and lifestyle modification on gastric cancer prevention may be larger than commonly appreciated.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Helicobacter pylori , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Tobacco Smoking/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Female , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Socioeconomic Factors , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/adverse effects , Stomach Neoplasms/etiology , Tobacco Smoking/adverse effects
20.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(8): 619, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Amplitude spectrum area (AMSA) calculated from ventricular fibrillation (VF) can be used to monitor the effectiveness of chest compression (CC) and optimize the timing of defibrillation. However, reliable AMSA can only be obtained during CC pause because of artifacts. In this study, we sought to develop a method for estimating AMSA during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) using only the electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform. METHODS: Intervals of 8 seconds ECG and CC-related references, including 4 seconds during CC and an adjacent 4 seconds without CC, were collected before 1,008 defibrillation shocks from 512 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. Signal quality was analyzed based on the irregularity of autocorrelation of VF. If signal quality index (SQI) was high, AMSA would be calculated from the original signal. Otherwise, CC-related artifacts would be constructed and suppressed using the least mean square filter from VF before calculation of AMSA. The algorithm was optimized using 480 training shocks and evaluated using 528 independent testing shocks. RESULTS: Overall, CC resulted in lower SQI [0.15 (0.04-0.61) with CC vs. 0.75 (0.61-0.83) without CC, P<0.01] and higher AMSA [11.2 (7.7-16.2) with CC vs. 7.2 (4.9-10.6) mVHz without CC, P<0.01] values. The predictive accuracy (49.2% vs. 66.5%, P<0.01) and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) (0.647 vs. 0.734, P<0.01) were significantly decreased during CC. Using the proposed method, the estimated AMSA was 7.1 (5.0-15.2) mVHz, the predictive accuracy was 67.0% and the AUC was 0.713, which were all comparable with those calculated without CC. CONCLUSIONS: Using the signal quality-based artifact suppression method, AMSA can be reliably estimated and continuously monitored during CPR.

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