Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 539
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
International journal of clinical pediatric dentistry ; 13(2):176-179, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693567

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of this corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19) was first reported in Wuhan city in China and now it has become a global issue The total number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 recorded globally has surpassed 100,000 The mode of transmission of COVID-19 is usually from person to person and it could also be through direct transmission such as cough, sneeze, and inhalation of droplets Dental care providers are at higher risk since they are more prone to cross contamination with the patient's saliva and aerosols that are released during the dental procedures They can also be transmitted through other routes such as direct contact with blood, oral fluids, and from contaminated instruments This paper intends to provide primordial-level preventive measures for dental care providers against this life-threatening COVID-19 HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Khanagar SB, Al-Ehaideb A, Naik S, et al Primordial-level Preventive Measures for Dental Care Providers against Life-threatening Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2020;13(2):176-179

2.
Euroasian journal of hepato-gastroenterology ; 10(1):47-49, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693388

ABSTRACT

How to cite this article: Al Mahtab M, Huq AKMF, Rahman MF, et al Therapeutic Endoscopy during COVID-19 Pandemic: An Observational Study from Bangladesh Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2020;10(1): 47-49

3.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 17(15):5574-5574, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693335

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected day to day life and slowed down the global economy Most countries are enforcing strict quarantine to control the havoc of this highly contagious disease Since the outbreak of COVID-19, many data analyses have been done to provide close support to decision-makers We propose a method comprising data analytics and machine learning classification for evaluating the effectiveness of lockdown regulations Lockdown regulations should be reviewed on a regular basis by governments, to enable reasonable control over the outbreak The model aims to measure the efficiency of lockdown procedures for various countries The model shows a direct correlation between lockdown procedures and the infection rate Lockdown efficiency is measured by finding a correlation coefficient between lockdown attributes and the infection rate The lockdown attributes include retail and recreation, grocery and pharmacy, parks, transit stations, workplaces, residential, and schools Our results show that combining all the independent attributes in our study resulted in a higher correlation (0 68) to the dependent value Interquartile 3 (Q3) Mean Absolute Error (MAE) was found to be the least value when combining all attributes

4.
Euroasian journal of hepato-gastroenterology ; 10(1):31-35, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been declared as pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) with increasing morbidity (more than 4 6 million patients) and mortality (300,000 deaths) The world-wide target of management COVID-19 is to reduce complications with available management options;this become highly variable from country to country and even within different regions of the same country AIM AND OBJECTIVE: This observational prospective study represents a single center study in which all patients in this cohort received almost similar medicines and care MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients in this cohort (N: 32) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with variable presenting symptoms The management strategy included Standard of Care (SoC) and administration of hydroxychloroquine and doxycycline Out of 32 patients, 9 patients also received favipiravir All patients were followed until they were discharged after negativity of SARS-CoV-2 confirmed by PCR on two consecutive occasions taken within 2 days RESULTS: No death has been recorded in this cohort of 32 patients within the study period The average hospital staying duration was 13 9 days with a range of 8-21 days All patients were discharged with improvement of subjective symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 negativity The vital signs (pulse, blood pressure) as well as and levels of electrolyte and blood counts were within normal and acceptable ranges at the time of discharge CONCLUSION: The study presented here provide and evidence of a real-life situation of management of limited numbers of COVID-19 patients at a tertiary center of Bangladesh This study inspires optimism that proper diagnosis, establishment of effective inclusion and exclusion criteria, ensuring application of proper SoC with drugs available in Bangladesh may be a practical option for management of COVID-19 in the country HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Huq AKMF, Rahman MF, Islam MA, et al Real-life Management Strategy of COVID-19 Patients in Bangladesh with No Death: An Observational and Cohort Study Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2020;10(1):31-35

5.
Euroasian journal of hepato-gastroenterology ; 10(1):27-30, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-693285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has induced a sense of panic around the world as the disease is highly contagious and has been spreading in full swing during last 5 months causing millions of COVID-19 patients and hundreds of thousands of deaths Bangladesh, a country of 170 million people, is not an exception regarding COVID-19;it has reported several thousand COVID-19 patients with several hundred of deaths This observational study has been planned to assess the scope and limitation of management strategy against COVID-19 patients in a medical college hospital of Bangladesh with available drugs in a real-life situation MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients in this cohort (N: 33) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and they attended the hospital with variable presenting symptoms those ranged from cough and fever to respiratory distress and pneumonia As per the protocol, the patients were regularly evaluated for several parameters of COVID-19-related pathology Before discharge, they were checked for SARS-CoV-2 for 2 consecutive times The management strategy included standard of care (SoC) and administration of hydroxychloroquine and azythromycin, available in Bangladesh RESULTS: Out of total 33 patients, 1 patient died at day 4 day after admission Two patients developed severe complications and were referred to tertiary hospital in Dhaka (2 and 3 days after admission), the capital of Bangladesh, where they recovered and were discharged from hospital after being SARS-CoV-2 negative The rest 30 patients were discharged from the medical college hospital after being negative for SARS-CoV-2 in two subsequent assessments and improvement of their COVID-related symptoms The average hospital stay of these patients was 14 5 days with a range of 10-24 days CONCLUSION: It seems that most of the COVID-19 patients may be adequately managed by standard of care management with drug support However, early diagnosis and hospitalization with adequate care may be important variables for better survival These factors may be properly ensured if the patient burden remains at a palatable level in forthcoming days in Bangladesh HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Bhuyan MAR, Al Mahtab M, Ashab E, et al Treatment of COVID-19 Patients at a Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2020;10(1):27-30

7.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 34(4)2020 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693392

ABSTRACT

IL-1 induces a significant number of metabolic and hematological changes. In experimental animals, IL-1 treatments cause hypotension due to rapid reduction of systemic blood pressure, reduced vascular resistance, increased heart rate and leukocyte aggregations. IL-1 causes endothelial dysfunction, the triggering factor of which may be of a different nature including pathogen infection. This dysfunction, which includes macrophage intervention and increased protein permeability, can be mediated by several factors including cytokines and arachidonic acid products. These effects are caused by the induction of IL-1 in various pathologies, including those caused by pathogenic viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2 which provokes COVID-19. Activation of macrophages by coronavirus-19 leads to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, metalloproteinases and other proteolytic enzymes that can cause thrombi formation and severe respiratory dysfunction. Patients with COVID-19, seriously ill and hospitalized in intensive care, present systemic inflammation, intravascular coagulopathy with high risk of thrombotic complications, and venous thromboembolism, effects mostly mediated by IL-1. In these patients the lungs are the most critical target organ as it can present an increase in the degradation products of fibrin, fibrinogen and D-dimer, with organ lesions and respiratory failure. It is well known that IL-1 induces itself and another very important pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF, which also participates in hemodynamic states, including shock syndrome in COVID-19. Both IL-1 and TNF cause pulmonary edema, thrombosis and bleeding. In addition to hypotension and resistance of systemic blood pressure, IL-1 causes leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. The formation of thrombi is the main complication of the circulatory system and functionality of the organ, and represents an important cause of morbidity and mortality. IL-1 causes platelet vascular thrombogenicity also on non-endothelial cells by stimulating the formation of thromboxane A2 which is released into the inflamed environment. IL-1 is the most important immune molecule in inducing fever, since it is involved in the metabolism of arachidonic acid which increases from vascular endothelial organs of the hypothalamus. The pathogenesis of thrombosis, vascular inflammation and angigenesis involves the mediation of the activation of the prostanoid thromboxane A2 receptor. In 1986, in an interesting article (Conti P, Reale M, Fiore S, Cancelli A, Angeletti PU, Dinarello CA. In vitro enhanced thromboxane B2 release by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages after treatment with human recombinant interleukin 1. Prostaglandins. 1986 Jul;32(1):111-5), we reported for the first time that IL-1 induces thromboxane B2 (TxB2) releases in activated neutrophils and macrophages. An increase in thromboxane can induce leukocyte aggregation and systemic inflammation, which would account for the dramatic thrombi formation and organ dysfunction. Hence, IL-1 stimulates endothelial cell-leukocyte adhesion, and TxB2 production. All these events are supported by the large increase in neutrophils that adhere to the lung and the decrease in lymphocytes. Therefore, ecosanoids such as TxA2 (detected as TxB2) have a powerful action on vascular inflammation and platelet aggregation, mediating the formation of thrombi. The thrombogenesis that occurs in COVID-19 includes platelet and cell aggregation with clotting abnormalities, and anti-clotting inhibitor agents are used in the prevention and therapy of thrombotic diseases. Prevention of or induction of TxA2 avoids thrombi formation induced by IL-1. However, in some serious vascular events where TxA2 increases significantly, it is difficult to inhibit, therefore, it would be much better to prevent its induction and generation by blocking its inductors including IL-1. The inhibition or lack of formation of IL-1 avoids all the above pathological events which can lead to death of the patient. The treatment of innate immune cells producing IL-1 with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) can avoid hemodynamic changes, septic shock and organ inflammation by carrying out a new therapeutic efficacy on COVID-19 induced by SARS-CoV-2.

9.
Journal of Infection and Public Health ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692147

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented challenge faced by mankind due to emergence of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has obligated researchers across the globe to develop effective medicine for prevention and treatment of this deadly infection The aim of this review is to compile recently published research articles on anti-COVID 19 management with their benefits and risk to facilitate decision making of the practitioners and policy makers Unfortunately, clinical outcomes reported for antivirals are not consistent Initial favorable reports on lopinavir/ritonavir contradicted by recent studies Ostalmovir has conflicting reports Short term therapy of remdesivir claimed to be beneficial Favipiravir demonstrated good recovery in some of the cases of COVID-19 Umifenovir (Arbidol) was associated with reduction in mortality in few studies Overall, until now, U S Food and Drug administration issued only emergency use authorization to remdesivir for the treatment of suspected or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in adults and children hospitalized with severe disease

10.
British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-691615

ABSTRACT

Virtual consultations and telemedicine have been an emerging trend in modern medicine, which has seen acceleration in uptake across a wide range of specialties as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic Following on from previous work by the authors in 2019 examining clinician and patient appetite for virtual consultations in maxillofacial surgery, we sought to evaluate whether there had been a change in attitudes as a result of the pandemic A clinician survey of the consultants at a large teaching hospital and prospective data collection of virtual consultation outcomes was carried out from the inception of UK government lockdown measures to tackle the pandemic From 151 consultations, 149 (98 7%) successfully established a working diagnosis and treatment plan and/or concluded an episode of patient care, without the need to convert to a face-to-face encounter between clinician and patient The total number of consultations (virtual or otherwise) was significantly lower than the same time period the preceding year however (1,223 compared with 465 consultations) All consultants surveyed felt the pandemic had altered their opinion of virtual clinics and their place in maxillofacial surgery but cited a number of issues Further work is required to understand the driving forces behind staff attitudes and the long-term adoption of telemedicine within the specialty as services return to some sense of normalcy

11.
International Social Work ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-691610

ABSTRACT

This article explores government and community efforts to combat the COVID-19 epidemic in Jordan The author evaluates Jordan?s response to this crisis through his preliminary survey of the day-to-day affairs of the average members of society, the official statements issued by the government and the initiatives launched by both individuals and community organizations The article concludes that because social workers did not play a significant role during this crisis, individuals and institutions had to step in to help the society better cope with the social and psychological impact of the spread of the disease and the extraordinary measures implemented by the government to combat it

12.
Int J Environ Health Res ; : 1-12, 2020 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691719

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has imposed threats on both physical and mental health since its outbreak. This study aimed to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health among a representative sample of home-quarantined Bangladeshi adults. A cross-sectional design was used with an online survey completed by a convenience sample recruited via social media. A total of 1,427 respondents were recruited, and their mental health was assessed by the DASS-21 measure. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms was 33.7% and 57.9%, respectively, and 59.7% reported mild to extremely severe levels of stress. Perceptions that the pandemic disrupted life events, affected mental health, jobs, the economy and education, predictions of a worsening situation, and uncertainty of the health care system capacities were significantly associated with poor mental health outcomes. Multivariate logistic regressions showed that sociodemographic factors and perceptions of COVID-19 significantly predict mental health outcomes. These findings warrant the consideration of easily accessible low-intensity mental health interventions during and beyond this pandemic.

13.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 2020 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691624

ABSTRACT

To date, the outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has infected more than 5 million people and caused around 350 000 deaths globally. In most countries, the world as we knew it came to a sudden stop and this led to the biggest shift of employees to remotely conduct their work. Academic institutions were extensively affected, as teaching and assessment activities were hampered, and graduation ceremonies were cancelled. In addition, there was an imminent disruption in academic and research activities including face-to-face conferences and conventions. Among many challenges, academics had to grapple to remain engaged professionally and socially with students and colleagues. Digital technology being an integral part of life has become essential for connectivity and communication. In this commentary, multidisciplinary academics from Kuwait and Saudi Arabia share perspectives and experiences in adapting to the COVID-19 reality. From healthcare sciences to engineering, and from business to education, this paper highlights the role academics play in combating professional and social challenges during COVID-19.

15.
Oman medical journal ; 35(4):e144-e144, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-690186
16.
Scientia Pharmaceutica ; 88(2):1-12, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-689392

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of 2020, the world was swept with a wave of a new coronavirus disease, named COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (WHO 2) The causative agent of this infection is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) The data available on one of the promising therapeutic agents—nucleotide analog remdesivir (Gilead Sciences number GS5734)—were evaluated These data were concerned with remdesivir activation from the prodrug to the active molecule—triphosphate containing 1′-cyano group and modified nucleobase This triphosphate competes with the natural substrate adenosine triphosphate Additionally, its mechanisms of action based on RNA and proofreading exonuclease inhibition, leading to the delayed RNA chain termination of infected cells, and basic pharmacological data were assessed Additionally, the analytical determination of remdesivir and its metabolites in cells and body liquids and also some data from remdesivir use in other RNA infections—such as Ebola, Nipah virus infection, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)—were summarized More recent and more detailed data on the clinical use of remdesivir in COVID-19 were reported, showing the intensive efforts of clinicians and scientists to develop a cure for this new disease Remdesivir as such represents one of the more promising alternatives for COVID-19 therapy, however the current understanding of this disease and the possible ways of dealing with it requires further investigation

17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 561, 2020 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus, named as 2019-nCoV or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has recently appeared in China and has spread worldwide, presenting a health threat to the global community. Therefore, it is important to understand the global scientific output of COVID-19 research during the early stage of the outbreak. Thus, to track the current hotspots, and highlight future directions, we performed a bibliometric analysis to obtain an approximate scenario of COVID-19 to date. METHODS: Relevant studies to COVID-19 were obtained from the Scopus database during the early stage of the outbreak. We then analysed the data by using well-established bibliometric indices: document type, country, collaboration patterns, affiliation, journal name, and citation patterns. VOSviewer was applied to map and determine hot topics in this field. RESULTS: The bibliometric analysis indicated that there were 19,044 publications on Scopus published on COVID-19 during the early stage of the outbreak (December 2019 up until June 19, 2020). Of all these publications, 9140 (48.0%) were articles; 4192 (22.0%) were letters; 1797 (9.4%) were reviews; 1754 (9.2%) were editorials; 1728 (9.1%) were notes; and 433 (2.3%) were others. The USA published the largest number of publications on COVID-19 (4479; 23.4%), followed by China (3310; 17.4%), Italy, (2314; 12.2%), and the UK (1981; 10.4%). British Medical Journal was the most productive. The Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Tongji Medical, and Harvard Medical School were the institutions that published the largest number of COVID-19 research. The most prevalent topics of research in COVID-19 include "clinical features studies", "pathological findings and therapeutic design", "care facilities preparation and infection control", and "maternal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes". CONCLUSIONS: This bibliometric study may reflect rapidly emerging topics on COVID-19 research, where substantial research activity has already begun extensively during the early stage of the outbreak. The findings reported here shed new light on the major progress in the near future for hot topics on COVID-19 research including clinical features studies, pathological findings and therapeutic design, care facilities preparation and infection control, and maternal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes.

18.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 81(7): 1-4, 2020 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691057

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic has caused major disruption of systems worldwide, including education and health services. The duration and scale of the impact is yet to be established. The effect of the pandemic on medical education should be managed on the basis of early response, alternative education options and future changes and actions.

19.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(7)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690906

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In March 2020, the WHO released a Global Research Roadmap in an effort to coordinate and accelerate the global research response to combat COVID-19 based on deliberations of 400 experts across the world. Three months on, the disease and our understanding have both evolved significantly. As we now tackle a pandemic in very different contexts and with increased knowledge, we sought to build on the work of the WHO to gain a more current and global perspective on these initial priorities. METHODS: We undertook a mixed methods study seeking the views of the global research community to (1) assess which of the early WHO roadmap priorities are still most pressing; (2) understand whether they are still valid in different settings, regions or countries; and (3) identify any new emerging priorities. RESULTS: Thematic analysis of the significant body of combined data shows the WHO roadmap is globally relevant; however, new important priorities have emerged, in particular, pertinent to low and lower middle-income countries (less resourced countries), where health systems are under significant competing pressures. We also found a shift from prioritising vaccine and therapeutic development towards a focus on assessing the effectiveness, risks, benefits and trust in the variety of public health interventions and measures. Our findings also provide insight into temporal nature of these research priorities, highlighting the urgency of research that can only be undertaken within the period of virus transmission, as well as other important research questions but which can be answered outside the transmission period. Both types of studies are key to help combat this pandemic but also importantly to ensure we are better prepared for the future. CONCLUSION: We hope these findings will help guide decision-making across the broad research system including the multilateral partners, research funders, public health practitioners, clinicians and civil society.

20.
Radiology ; : 202791, 2020 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690679

ABSTRACT

Background Neurological complications in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been described, but the understanding of their pathophysiology and neuroanatomical correlates remains limited. Purpose To report on the frequency and type of neuroradiological findings in COVID-19. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, all consecutive adult hospitalized patients with PCR-positivity for SARS-CoV-2, undergoing neuroimaging at Karolinska University Hospital between March 2 and May 24, 2020, were included. All examinations were systematically re-evaluated by 12 readers. Summary descriptive statistics were calculated. Results 185 patients with COVID-19 (62±14 years, 138 men) underwent neuroimaging. In total, 222 brain CT, 47 brain MRI and 7 spinal MRI scans were performed. Intra-axial susceptibility abnormalities were the most common finding (29 of 39 [74%, 95%-CI 58-87%]) in patients with brain MRI, often with an ovoid shape suggestive of microvascular pathology, and with a predilection to corpus callosum (23 of 39, [59%, 95%-CI 42-74%]) and juxtacortical areas (14 of 39, [36%, 95% CI 21-53%]). Ischemic and macrohemorrhagic manifestations were also seen, but vascular imaging did not reveal overt abnormalities. Dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI in 19 patients did not reveal consistent asymmetries between hemispheres or regions. Many patients (18 of 41 [44%, 95%-CI 28-60%]) had leukoencephalopathy and one patient had a cytotoxic lesion of the corpus callosum. Other findings included olfactory bulb signal abnormalities (7 of 37, 19%), prominent optic nerve subarachnoid spaces (20 of 36, 56%), and enhancement of the parenchyma (3 of 20, 15%), leptomeninges (3 of 20, 15%), cranial nerves (2 of 20, 10%), and spinal nerves (2 of 4, 50%). At MRI follow-up, regression of leukoencephalopathy and progressive leptomeningeal enhancement was observed in one patient respectively, suggestive of dynamic processes. Conclusion Patients with COVID-19 had a wide spectrum of vascular and inflammatory involvement of both the central and peripheral nervous system.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL