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2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305616

ABSTRACT

Despite the current pandemic season, reports on pathologic features of Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) are exceedingly rare at the present time. Here we describe the pathologic features of early lung involvement by COVID-19 in a surgical sample resected for carcinoma from a patient who developed SARS-CoV-2 infection soon after surgery. The main histologic findings observed were pneumocyte damage, alveolar hemorrhages with clustering of macrophages, prominent and diffuse neutrophilic margination within septal vessels and interstitial inflammatory infiltrates, mainly represented by CD8+ T lymphocytes. These features are similar to those previously described in SARS-CoV infection. Subtle histologic changes suggestive pulmonary involvement by Covid-19 may be accidentally encountered in routine pathology practice, especially when extensive sampling is performed for histology. These findings should be carefully interpreted in light of the clinical context of the patient and could prompt a pharyngeal swab PCR test to rule out the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection in asymptomatic patients.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309242

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare syndrome of unclear aetiology occurring after DNA-based vaccinations against COVID-19. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA vaccine-encoded Sars-cov-2 soluble spike protein (SP). as a potential trigger of platelet activation in VITT. Methods. We studied three VITT patients and seven healthy controls (HCs) within 3 weeks from the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, and one non vaccinated HC. Serum levels of SP and soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (sACE2), ACE2 expression in platelets and platelet response to VITT serum stimulation were studied. A thrombus retrieved during mechanical thrombectomy from one VITT patients, was analysed by immunohistochemistry for SP and ACE2. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) markers and coagulation parameters were also measured. Results. We detected serum SP (up to 35 days post-vaccination) and sACE2 in all VITT patients, and respectively in two and three out of 7 vaccinated HCs. Only platelets from one non-vaccinated HC expressed ACE2. VITT sera markedly activated platelets and this activation was inhibited by both anti-SP and anti-FcγRIIA blocking antibodies. The thrombus showed positive immunohistochemical labelling of platelets using an anti-SP antibody with reduced ACE2 expression, compared to a thrombus from a pre-pandemic stroke patient. Markers of endothelial dysfunction, NETs and hypercoagulability state were present in all VITT sera. Conclusions. The present data provides first evidence that DNA vaccine-encoded Sars-cov-2 SP is detectable in VITT sera (several weeks post-vaccination) and in a platelet-rich thrombus, and that may contribute to the initial platelet stimulation in VITT patients.

4.
Int J Cardiol ; 339: 235-242, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can occur in COVID-19 and has impact on clinical course. Data on CVD prevalence in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and sequelae in survivors is limited. Aim of this prospective study carried out on consecutive unselected COVID-19 population, was to assess: 1) CVD occurrence among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 2) persistence or new onset of CVD at one-month and one-year follow-up. METHODS: Over 30 days n = 152 COVID-19 patients underwent cardiovascular evaluation. Standard electrocardiogram (ECG), Troponin and echocardiography were integrated by further tests when indicated. Medical history, arterial blood gas, blood tests, chest computed tomography and treatment were recorded. CVD was defined as the occurrence of a new condition during the hospitalization for COVID-19. Survivors attended a one-month follow-up visit and a one-year telephone follow-up. RESULTS: Forty-two patients (28%) experienced a wide spectrum of CVD with acute myocarditis being the most frequent. Death occurred in 32 patients (21%) and more frequently in patients who developed CVD (p = 0.032). After adjustment for confounders, CVD was independently associated with death occurrence. At one-month follow-up visit, 7 patients (9%) presented persistent or delayed CVD. At one-year telephone follow-up, 57 patients (48%) reported persistent symptoms. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular evaluation in COVID-19 patients is crucial since the occurrence of CVD in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is common (28%), requires specific treatment and increases the risk of in-hospital mortality. Persistence or delayed presentation of CVD at 1-month (9%) and persistent symptoms at 1-year follow-up (48%) suggest the need for monitoring COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 51: 107314, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947147

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can involve several organs and systems, often with indirect and poorly clarified mechanisms. Different presentations of myocardial injury have been reported, with variable degrees of severity, often impacting on the prognosis of COVID-19 patients. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying cardiac damage in SARS-CoV-2 infection are under active investigation. We report the clinical and autopsy findings of a fatal case of Takotsubo Syndrome occurring in an 83-year-old patient with COVID-19 pneumonia. The patient was admitted to Emergency Department with dyspnea, fever and diarrhea. A naso-pharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2 was positive. In the following week his conditions worsened, requiring intubation and deep sedation. While in the ICU, the patient suddenly showed ST segment elevation. Left ventricular angiography showed decreased with hypercontractile ventricular bases and mid-apical ballooning, consistent with diagnosis of Takotsubo syndrome. Shortly after the patient was pulseless. After extensive resuscitation maneuvers, the patient was declared dead. Autopsy revealed a subepicardial hematoma, in absence of myocardial rupture. On histology, the myocardium showed diffuse edema, multiple foci of contraction band necrosis in both ventricles and occasional coagulative necrosis of single cardiac myocytes. Abundant macrophages CD68+ were detected in the myocardial interstitium. The finding of diffuse contraction band necrosis supports the pathogenic role of increased catecholamine levels; the presence of a significant interstitial inflammatory infiltrate, made up by macrophages, remains of uncertain significance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myocardium/pathology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Biopsy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/therapy
7.
Virchows Arch ; 477(5): 743-748, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-143976

ABSTRACT

Despite the current pandemic season, reports on pathologic features of coronavirus disease 19 (Covid-19) are exceedingly rare at the present time. Here we describe the pathologic features of early lung involvement by Covid-19 in a surgical sample resected for carcinoma from a patient who developed SARS-CoV-2 infection soon after surgery. The main histologic findings observed were pneumocyte damage, alveolar hemorrhages with clustering of macrophages, prominent and diffuse neutrophilic margination within septal vessels, and interstitial inflammatory infiltrates, mainly represented by CD8+ T lymphocytes. These features are similar to those previously described in SARS-CoV-1 infection. Subtle histologic changes suggestive pulmonary involvement by Covid-19 may be accidentally encountered in routine pathology practice, especially when extensive sampling is performed for histology. These findings should be carefully interpreted in light of the clinical context of the patient and could prompt a pharyngeal swab PCR test to rule out the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection in asymptomatic patients.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/virology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Humans , Lung/surgery , Lung/virology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonectomy , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Postoperative Complications/pathology , Postoperative Complications/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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