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1.
MEDLINE; 2022.
Preprint in English | MEDLINE | ID: ppcovidwho-329703

ABSTRACT

Understanding immune memory to Common Cold Coronaviruses (CCCs) is relevant for assessing its potential impact on the outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and for the prospects of pan-corona vaccines development. We performed a longitudinal analysis, of pre-pandemic samples collected from 2016-2019. CD4+ T cells and antibody responses specific for CCC and to other respiratory viruses, and chronic or ubiquitous pathogens were assessed. CCC-specific memory CD4+ T cells were detected in most subjects, and their frequencies were comparable to those for other common antigens. Notably, responses to CCC and other antigens such as influenza and Tetanus Toxoid (TT) were sustained over time. CCC-specific CD4+ T cell responses were also associated with low numbers of HLA-DR+CD38+ cells and their magnitude did not correlate with yearly changes in the prevalence of CCC infections. Similarly, spike RBD-specific IgG responses for CCC were stable throughout the sampling period. Finally, high CD4+ T cell reactivity to CCC, but not antibody responses, was associated with high pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 immunity. Overall, these results suggest that the steady and sustained CCC responses observed in the study cohort are likely due to a relatively stable pool of CCC-specific memory CD4+ T cells instead of fast decaying responses and frequent reinfections.

2.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-327028

ABSTRACT

We address whether T cell responses induced by different vaccine platforms (mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, Ad26.COV2.S, NVX-CoV2373) cross-recognize SARS-CoV-2 variants. Preservation of at least 83% and 85% for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses was found, respectively, regardless of vaccine platform or variants analyzed. By contrast, highly significant decreases were observed for memory B cell and neutralizing antibody recognition of variants. Bioinformatic analyses showed full conservation of 91% and 94% of class II and class I spike epitopes. For Omicron, 72% of class II and 86% of class I epitopes were fully conserved, and 84% and 85% of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were preserved. In-depth epitope repertoire analysis showed a median of 11 and 10 spike epitopes recognized by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from vaccinees. Functional preservation of the majority of the T cell responses may play an important role as a second-level defense against diverse variants.

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