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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1033364, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123418

ABSTRACT

This is the third year of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and yet most children remain unvaccinated. COVID-19 in children manifests as mostly mild or asymptomatic, however high viral titers and strong cellular and humoral responses are observed upon acute infection. It is still unclear how long these responses persist, and if they can protect from re-infection and/or disease severity. Here, we analyzed immune memory responses in a cohort of children and adults with COVID-19. Important differences between children and adults are evident in kinetics and profile of memory responses. Children develop early N-specific cytotoxic T cell responses, that rapidly expand and dominate their immune memory to the virus. Children's anti-N, but not anti-S, antibody titers increase over time. Neutralization titers correlate with N-specific antibodies and CD8+T cells. However, antibodies generated by infection do not efficiently cross-neutralize variants Gamma or Delta. Our results indicate that mechanisms that protect from disease severity are possibly different from those that protect from reinfection, bringing novel insights for pediatric vaccine design. They also underline the importance of vaccination in children, who remain at risk for COVID-19 despite having been previously infected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Adult , Child , Immunologic Memory , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Nucleocapsid , Antibodies
2.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 66(4): 512-521, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026070

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the association between obesity and hospitalization in mild COVID-19 adult outpatients in Brazil. Methods: Adults with signs and symptoms suggestive of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection who sought treatment in two hospital (public and private) emergency departments were prospectively enrolled. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 at inclusion were followed by phone calls at days D7, D14 and D28. Multivariable logistic regression models were employed to explore the association between obesity and other potential predictors for hospitalization. Results: A total of 1,050 participants were screened, and 297 completed the 28-day follow-up and were diagnosed with COVID-19 by RT-PCR. The median age was 37.2 (IQR 29.7-44.6) years, and 179 (60.0%) were female. The duration of symptoms was 3.0 (IQR 2.0-5.0) days, and 10.0 (IQR 8.0-12.0) was the median number of symptoms at inclusion. Ninety-five (32.0%) individuals had obesity, and 233 (78.5%) had no previous medical conditions. Twenty-three participants (7.7%) required hospitalization during the follow-up period. After adjusting, obesity (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) (OR = 2.69, 95% CI 1.63-4.83, P < 0.001) and older age (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.09, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with higher risks of hospitalization. Conclusion: Obesity, followed by aging, was the main factor associated with hospital admission for COVID-19 in a young population in a low-middle income country. Our findings highlighted the need to promote additional protection for individuals with obesity, such as vaccination, and to encourage lifestyle changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Outpatients , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Widespread respiratory infections with high morbidity rates caused by respiratory viruses represent a significant global public health problem. Our objective was to describe cases and deaths from severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in Brazil over the past 8 y as well as changes in the distribution and risk of illness and death from SARI before and in the first year of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (FYP). METHODS: We performed a descriptive epidemiological study of hospitalized SARI cases and deaths between 2013 and 2020 in Brazil, separated into pre-pandemic (2013 to 2019) and FYP (2020). We estimate the increase in SARI cases and deaths in the FYP as well as the mortality and infection risks attributable to the FYP (MRAP and IRAP, respectively). RESULTS: In 2020, an excess of 425 054 cases and 109 682 deaths was observed, with a significant increase in the risk of falling ill and dying from SARI, with an IRAP of 200.06 and an MRAP of 51.68 cases per 100 000 inhabitants. The increase in SARI cases and deaths was particularly prominent among patients with COVID-19, the elderly, males, those self-identifying as mixed race and patients with heart disease and diabetes. We conclude that an important increase in morbidity and mortality due to SARI was observed in the FYP. More vulnerable groups and those living in the Southeast, North and Center-West regions of the country suffered the most.

4.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 102(4): 115636, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637337

ABSTRACT

We aimed to describe the SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating early pandemic among samples with S gene dropout and characterize the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of viral spike protein. Adults and children older than 2 months with signs and symptoms of COVID-19 were prospectively enrolled from May to October in Porto Alegre, Brazil. All participants performed RT-PCR assay, and samples with S gene dropout and cycle threshold < 30 were submitted to high-throughput sequencing (HTS). 484 out of 1,557 participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The S gene dropout was detected in 7.4% (36/484) and a peak was observed in August. The B.1.1.28, B.1.91 and B.1.1.33 lineages were circulating in early pandemic. The RBD novel mutation (Y380Q) was found in one sample occurring simultaneously with C379W and V395A, and the B.1.91 lineage in the spike protein. The Y380Q and C379W may interfere with the binding of neutralizing antibodies (CR3022, EY6A, H014, S304).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Humans , Infant , Mutation , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
5.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(11): e413-e417, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The viral dynamics and the role of children in the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are not completely understood. Our aim was to evaluate reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) cycle threshold (Ct) values among children with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 compared with that of adult subjects. METHODS: Patients (from 2 months to ≤18 years of age and adults) with signs and symptoms of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection for less than 7 days were prospectively enrolled in the study from May to November 2020. All participants performed RT-PCR assay for SARS-CoV-2 detection; Ct values of ORF1ab, N and S gene targets and the average of all the 3 probes were used as surrogates of viral load. RESULTS: There were 21 infants (2 months to <2 years), 40 children (≥2 to <12 years), 22 adolescents (≥12 to <18 years) and 293 adults of 376 participants with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections. RT-PCR Ct values from all participants less than 18 years of age, as well as from all childhood subgroups, were not significantly different from adults, comparing ORF1ab, N, S and all the gene targets together (P = 0.453). CONCLUSIONS: Ct values for children were comparable with that of adults. Although viral load is not the only determinant of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, children may play a role in the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Brazil , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant , RNA, Viral , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Viral Load
6.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05007, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza are prevalent seasonal community viruses. Although not completely understood, SARS-CoV-2 may have the same means of transmission. Preventive social measures aimed at preventing SARS-CoV-2 spread could impact transmission of other respiratory viruses as well. The aim of this study is to report the detection of RSV and influenza during the period of social distancing due to COVID-19 pandemic in a heavily affected community. METHODS: Prospective study with pediatric and adult populations seeking care for COVID-19-like symptoms during the fall and winter of 2020 at two hospitals in Southern Brazil. RT-PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2, influenza A (Flu A), influenza B (Flu B) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was performed for all participants. RESULTS: 1435 suspected COVID-19 participants (1137 adults, and 298 children). were included between May and August. Median age was 37.7 years (IQR = 29.6-47.7), and 4.92 years (IQR = 1.96-9.53), for the adult and child cohorts, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 was positive in 469 (32.7%) while influenza and RSV were not detected at all. CONCLUSIONS: Measures to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission likely exerted a huge impact in the spread of alternate respiratory pathogens. These findings contribute to the knowledge about the dynamics of virus spread. Further, it may be considered for guiding therapeutic choices for these other viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/transmission , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seasons , Young Adult
7.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(8): 856-865, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690410

ABSTRACT

The first case of COVID-19 was detected in Brazil on 25 February 2020. We report and contextualize epidemiological, demographic and clinical findings for COVID-19 cases during the first 3 months of the epidemic. By 31 May 2020, 514,200 COVID-19 cases, including 29,314 deaths, had been reported in 75.3% (4,196 of 5,570) of municipalities across all five administrative regions of Brazil. The R0 value for Brazil was estimated at 3.1 (95% Bayesian credible interval = 2.4-5.5), with a higher median but overlapping credible intervals compared with some other seriously affected countries. A positive association between higher per-capita income and COVID-19 diagnosis was identified. Furthermore, the severe acute respiratory infection cases with unknown aetiology were associated with lower per-capita income. Co-circulation of six respiratory viruses was detected but at very low levels. These findings provide a comprehensive description of the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil and may help to guide subsequent measures to control virus transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Influenza, Human , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
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