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1.
Age Ageing ; 51(3)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: as the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic progressed diagnostics and treatment changed. OBJECTIVE: to investigate differences in characteristics, disease presentation and outcomes of older hospitalised COVID-19 patients between the first and second pandemic wave in The Netherlands. METHODS: this was a multicentre retrospective cohort study in 16 hospitals in The Netherlands including patients aged ≥ 70 years, hospitalised for COVID-19 in Spring 2020 (first wave) and Autumn 2020 (second wave). Data included Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), disease severity and Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). Main outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: a total of 1,376 patients in the first wave (median age 78 years, 60% male) and 946 patients in the second wave (median age 79 years, 61% male) were included. There was no relevant difference in presence of comorbidity (median CCI 2) or frailty (median CFS 4). Patients in the second wave were admitted earlier in the disease course (median 6 versus 7 symptomatic days; P < 0.001). In-hospital mortality was lower in the second wave (38.1% first wave versus 27.0% second wave; P < 0.001). Mortality risk was 40% lower in the second wave compared with the first wave (95% confidence interval: 28-51%) after adjustment for differences in patient characteristics, comorbidity, symptomatic days until admission, disease severity and frailty. CONCLUSIONS: compared with older patients hospitalised in the first COVID-19 wave, patients in the second wave had lower in-hospital mortality, independent of risk factors for mortality.The better prognosis likely reflects earlier diagnosis, the effect of improvement in treatment and is relevant for future guidelines and treatment decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Netherlands/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 61(2): 231-247, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In the randomized controlled trial REMAP-CAP, it was shown that next to dexamethasone, the interleukin (IL)-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab improves outcome, including survival in intensive care unit (ICU)-admitted coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID)-19 patients. Therefore tocilizumab has been added to many COVID-19 treatment guidelines. Because obesity is a risk factor for the development of severe COVID-19, concerns have been raised about overtreatment, as well as undertreatment, through weight-based dosing of tocilizumab. The currently applied dose of 8 mg/kg is based on the use of this drug for other indications, however it has not formally been investigated for COVID-19. In this study, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tocilizumab were investigated in ICU-admitted COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This was an open-label, single-centre, observational population pharmacokinetic and descriptive pharmacodynamic evaluation study. Enrolled patients, with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 were admitted to the ICU for mechanical ventilation or high flow nasal canula oxygen support. All patients were 18 years of age or older and received intravenous tocilizumab 8 mg/kg (maximum 800 mg) within 24 h after admission to the ICU and received dexamethasone 6 mg daily as concomitant therapy. For evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tocilizumab, all time points from day 0 to 20 days after dose administration were eligible for collection. A nonlinear mixed-effects model was developed to characterize the population pharmacokinetic parameters of tocilizumab in ICU-admitted COVID-19 patients. Covariate analysis was performed to identify potential covariates for dose individualization. For the development of alternative dosing schedules, Monte Carlo simulations using the final model were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 29 patients were enrolled between 15 December 2020 and 15 March 2021. A total of 139 tocilizumab plasma samples were obtained covering the pharmacokinetic curve of day 0 to day 20 after tocilizumab initiation. A population pharmacokinetic model with parallel linear and nonlinear clearance (CL) was developed and validated. Average CL was estimated to be 0.725 L/day, average volume of distribution (Vd) was 4.34 L, maximum elimination rate (Vmax) was 4.19 µg/day, and concentration at which the elimination pathway is half saturated (Km) was 0.22 µg/mL. Interindividual variability was identified for CL (18.9%) and Vd (21%). Average area under the concentration versus time curve from time zero to infinity of the first dose (AUCinf 1st DOSE) was 938 [±190] µg/mL*days. All patients had tocilizumab exposure above 1 µg/mL for at least 15 days. Bodyweight-based dosing increases variability in exposure compared with fixed dosing. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence to support a fixed dose of tocilizumab 600 mg in COVID-19 patients. Fixed dosing is a safe, logistically attractive, and drug expenses saving alternative compared with the current 8 mg/kg recommendation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(11): 4450-4454, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150102

ABSTRACT

For the treatment of Covid-19 patients with remdesivir, poor renal and liver function were both exclusion criteria in randomized clinical trials and contraindication for treatment. Also, nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity are reported as adverse events. We retrospectively reviewed renal and liver functions of Covid-19 103 patients who received remdesivir in the 15 days after treatment initiation. Approximately 20% of the patient population met randomized clinical trial exclusion criteria. In total, 11% of the patients had a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate >10 mL/min/1.73m2 . Also, 25 and 35% had increased alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels, respectively. However, serious adverse events were limited. Therefore, based on these preliminary results, contraindications based on kidney and liver function should not be absolute for remdesivir treatment in patients with Covid-19 if these functions are monitored regularly. A larger patient cohort is warranted to confirm our results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Kidney , Liver , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
Mycoses ; 64(6): 641-650, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has been reported, though histopathological evidence is frequently lacking. To assess the clinical significance of Aspergillus species in respiratory samples of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients, we implemented routine screening for Aspergillus in tracheal aspirate (TA). PATIENTS/METHODS: From all adult COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), TA samples were collected twice a week for Aspergillus screening by PCR and or culture. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) sampling was performed in patients with a positive screening result if possible. Clinical information was obtained from the electronic patient record and patients were categorised according to the recently published consensus case definition for CAPA. RESULTS: Our study population consisted of 63 predominantly (73%) male patients, with a median age of 62 years and total median ICU stay of 18 days. Aspergillus species were present in TA screening samples from 15 patients (24%), and probable CAPA was diagnosed in 11 (17%) patients. Triazole resistance was detected in one patient (14%). Concordance between TA and BAL was 86%, and all TA culture positives were confirmed in BAL. We were able to withhold treatment in three of fifteen patients with positive screening (20%) but negative BAL results. CONCLUSIONS: Positive culture, molecular detection and or antigen detection of Aspergillus species do not equal infection. Until we understand the clinical relevance of Aspergillus species detected in respiratory samples of COVID-19 patients, minimal-invasive screening by TA is a feasible method to monitor patients. Positive screening results should be an indication to perform a BAL to rule out upper airway colonisation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/microbiology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/virology , Aged , Aspergillus/genetics , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1516, 2020 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-818085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the association between crowding and transmission of viral respiratory infectious diseases, we investigated the change in transmission patterns of influenza and COVID-19 before and after a mass gathering event (i.e., carnival) in the Netherlands. METHODS: Information on individual hospitalizations related to the 2017/2018 influenza epidemic were accessed from Statistics Netherlands. The influenza cases were stratified between non-carnival and carnival regions. Distributions of influenza cases were plotted with time and compared between regions. A similar investigation in the early outbreak of COVID-19 was also conducted using open data from the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics between non-carnival and carnival regions were broadly similar. There were 13,836 influenza-related hospitalizations in the 2017/2018 influenza epidemic, and carnival fell about 1 week before the peak of these hospitalizations. The distributions of new influenza-related hospitalizations per 100,000 inhabitants with time between regions followed the same pattern with a surge of new cases in the carnival region about 1 week after carnival, which did not occur in the non-carnival region. The increase of new cases for COVID-19 in the carnival region exceeded that in the non-carnival region about 1 week after the first case was reported, but these results warrant caution as for COVID-19 there were no cases reported before the carnival and social measures were introduced shortly after carnival. CONCLUSION: In this study, a mass gathering event (carnival) was associated with aggravating the spread of viral respiratory infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Crowding , Epidemics , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology
6.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(1): 61-66, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808838

ABSTRACT

SCOPE: The Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy constituted a multidisciplinary expert committee to provide evidence-based recommendation for the use of antibacterial therapy in hospitalized adults with a respiratory infection and suspected or proven 2019 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: We performed a literature search to answer four key questions. The committee graded the evidence and developed recommendations by using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. QUESTIONS ADDRESSED BY THE GUIDELINE AND RECOMMENDATIONS: We assessed evidence on the risk of bacterial infections in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, the associated bacterial pathogens, how to diagnose bacterial infections and how to treat bacterial infections. Bacterial co-infection upon admission was reported in 3.5% of COVID-19 patients, while bacterial secondary infections during hospitalization occurred up to 15%. No or very low quality evidence was found to answer the other key clinical questions. Although the evidence base on bacterial infections in COVID-19 is currently limited, available evidence supports restrictive antibiotic use from an antibiotic stewardship perspective, especially upon admission. To support restrictive antibiotic use, maximum efforts should be undertaken to obtain sputum and blood culture samples as well as pneumococcal urinary antigen testing. We suggest to stop antibiotics in patients who started antibiotic treatment upon admission when representative cultures as well as urinary antigen tests show no signs of involvement of bacterial pathogens after 48 hours. For patients with secondary bacterial respiratory infection we recommend to follow other guideline recommendations on antibacterial treatment for patients with hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia. An antibiotic treatment duration of five days in patients with COVID-19 and suspected bacterial respiratory infection is recommended upon improvement of signs, symptoms and inflammatory markers. Larger, prospective studies about the epidemiology of bacterial infections in COVID-19 are urgently needed to confirm our conclusions and ultimately prevent unnecessary antibiotic use during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Bias , Blood Culture/methods , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Sputum/microbiology
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