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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2023 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230962

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are at increased risk of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Effective long-term protection against COVID-19 is therefore of great importance in these patients, but little is known about the decay of the immune response after primary vaccination. We studied the immune responses 6 months after two mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccines in 473 IEI patients and subsequently the response to a third mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in 50 patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). METHODS: In a prospective multicenter study, 473 IEI patients (including X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) (N = 18), combined immunodeficiency (CID) (N = 22), CVID (N = 203), isolated or undefined antibody deficiencies (N = 204), and phagocyte defects (N = 16)), and 179 controls were included and followed up to 6 months after two doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. Additionally, samples were collected from 50 CVID patients who received a third vaccine 6 months after primary vaccination through the national vaccination program. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG titers, neutralizing antibodies, and T cell responses were assessed. RESULTS: At 6 months after vaccination, the geometric mean antibody titers (GMT) declined in both IEI patients and healthy controls, when compared to GMT 28 days after vaccination. The trajectory of this decline did not differ between controls and most IEI cohorts; however, antibody titers in CID, CVID, and isolated antibody deficiency patients more often dropped to below the responder cut-off compared to controls. Specific T cell responses were still detectable in 77% of controls and 68% of IEI patients at 6 months post vaccination. A third mRNA vaccine resulted in an antibody response in only two out of 30 CVID patients that did not seroconvert after two mRNA vaccines. CONCLUSION: A similar decline in IgG titers and T cell responses was observed in patients with IEI when compared to healthy controls 6 months after mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccination. The limited beneficial benefit of a third mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in previous non-responder CVID patients implicates that other protective strategies are needed for these vulnerable patients.

2.
mBio ; : e0255822, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097926

ABSTRACT

New SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and waning immunity demonstrate the need for a quick and simple prophylactic agent to prevent infection. Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) are potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 binding and infection in vitro. The airways are a major route for infection and therefore inhaled LMWH could be a prophylactic treatment against SARS-CoV-2. We investigated the efficacy of in vivo inhalation of LMWH in humans to prevent SARS-CoV-2 attachment to nasal epithelial cells in a single-center, open-label intervention study. Volunteers received enoxaparin in the right and a placebo (NaCl 0.9%) in the left nostril using a nebulizer. After application, nasal epithelial cells were retrieved with a brush for ex-vivo exposure to either SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus or an authentic SARS-CoV-2 isolate and virus attachment as determined. LMWH inhalation significantly reduced attachment of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus as well as authentic SARS-CoV-2 to human nasal cells. Moreover, in vivo inhalation was as efficient as in vitro LMWH application. Cell phenotyping revealed no differences between placebo and treatment groups and no adverse events were observed in the study participants. Our data strongly suggested that inhalation of LMWH was effective to prevent SARS-CoV-2 attachment and subsequent infection. LMWH is ubiquitously available, affordable, and easy to apply, making them suitable candidates for prophylactic treatment against SARS-CoV-2. IMPORTANCE New SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and waning immunity demonstrate the need for a quick and simple agent to prevent infection. Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) have been shown to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in experimental settings. The airways are a major route for SARS-CoV-2 infection and inhaled LMWH could be a prophylactic treatment. We investigated the efficacy of inhalation of the LMWH enoxaparin in humans to prevent SARS-CoV-2 attachment because this is a prerequisite for infection. Volunteers received enoxaparin in the right and a placebo in the left nostril using a nebulizer. Subsequently, nasal epithelial cells were retrieved with a brush and exposed to SARS-CoV-2. LMWH inhalation significantly reduced the binding of SARS-Cov-2 to human nasal cells. Cell phenotyping revealed no differences between placebo and treatment groups and no adverse events were observed in the participants. Our data indicated that LMWH can be used to block SARS-CoV-2 attachment to nasal cells. LMWH was ubiquitously available, affordable, and easily applicable, making them excellent candidates for prophylactic treatment against SARS-CoV-2.

3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6103, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077053

ABSTRACT

Existing assays to measure antibody cross-reactivity against different SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein variants lack the discriminatory power to provide insights at the level of individual clones. Using a mass spectrometry-based approach we are able to monitor individual donors' IgG1 clonal responses following a SARS-CoV-2 infection. We monitor the plasma clonal IgG1 profiles of 8 donors who had experienced an infection by either the wild type Wuhan Hu-1 virus or one of 3 VOCs (Alpha, Beta and Gamma). In these donors we chart the full plasma IgG1 repertoires as well as the IgG1 repertoires targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein trimer VOC antigens. The plasma of each donor contains numerous anti-spike IgG1 antibodies, accounting for <0.1% up to almost 10% of all IgG1s. Some of these antibodies are VOC-specific whereas others do recognize multiple or even all VOCs. We show that in these polyclonal responses, each clone exhibits a distinct cross-reactivity and also distinct virus neutralization capacity. These observations support the need for a more personalized look at the antibody clonal responses to infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antigens, Viral , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
5.
Immunity ; 55(9): 1725-1731.e4, 2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036138

ABSTRACT

Large-scale vaccination campaigns have prevented countless hospitalizations and deaths due to COVID-19. However, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants that escape from immunity challenges the effectiveness of current vaccines. Given this continuing evolution, an important question is when and how to update SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to antigenically match circulating variants, similarly to seasonal influenza viruses where antigenic drift necessitates periodic vaccine updates. Here, we studied SARS-CoV-2 antigenic drift by assessing neutralizing activity against variants of concern (VOCs) in a set of sera from patients infected with viral sequence-confirmed VOCs. Infections with D614G or Alpha strains induced the broadest immunity, whereas individuals infected with other VOCs had more strain-specific responses. Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 were substantially resistant to neutralization by sera elicited by all other variants. Antigenic cartography revealed that Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 were antigenically most distinct from D614G, associated with immune escape, and possibly will require vaccine updates to ensure vaccine effectiveness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antigens, Viral/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
iScience ; 25(10): 105105, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007784

ABSTRACT

Antibodies against seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are known to cross-react with SARS-CoV-2, but data on cross-protective effects of prior HCoV infections are conflicting. In a prospective cohort of healthcare workers (HCWs), we studied the association between seasonal HCoV (OC43, HKU1, 229E and NL63) nucleocapsid protein IgG and SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first pandemic wave in the Netherlands (March 2020 - June 2020), by 4-weekly serum sampling. HCW with HCoV-OC43 antibody levels in the highest quartile, were less likely to become SARS-CoV-2 seropositive when compared with those with lower levels (6/32, 18.8%, versus 42/97, 43.3%, respectively: p = 0.019; HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.16-0.88). We found no significant association with HCoV-OC43 spike protein IgG, or with antibodies against other HCoVs. Our results indicate that the high levels of HCoV-OC43-nucleocapsid antibodies, as an indicator of a recent infection, are associated with protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection; this supports and informs efforts to develop pancoronavirus vaccines.

7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4539, 2022 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972604

ABSTRACT

Delineating the origins and properties of antibodies elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination is critical for understanding their benefits and potential shortcomings. Therefore, we investigate the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S)-reactive B cell repertoire in unexposed individuals by flow cytometry and single-cell sequencing. We show that ∼82% of SARS-CoV-2 S-reactive B cells harbor a naive phenotype, which represents an unusually high fraction of total human naive B cells (∼0.1%). Approximately 10% of these naive S-reactive B cells share an IGHV1-69/IGKV3-11 B cell receptor pairing, an enrichment of 18-fold compared to the complete naive repertoire. Following SARS-CoV-2 infection, we report an average 37-fold enrichment of IGHV1-69/IGKV3-11 B cell receptor pairing in the S-reactive memory B cells compared to the unselected memory repertoire. This class of B cells targets a previously undefined non-neutralizing epitope on the S2 subunit that becomes exposed on S proteins used in approved vaccines when they transition away from the native pre-fusion state because of instability. These findings can help guide the improvement of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes , Humans , Immunoglobulin Isotypes , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
8.
Vaccine ; 40(32): 4424-4431, 2022 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Symptoms of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) may improve following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. However few prospective data that also explore the underlying biological mechanism are available. We assessed the effect of vaccination on symptomatology of participants with PASC, and compared antibody dynamics between those with and without PASC. METHODS: RECoVERED is a prospective cohort study of adult patients with mild to critical COVID-19, enrolled from illness onset. Among participants with PASC, vaccinated participants were exact-matched 1:1 on age, sex, obesity status and time since illness onset to unvaccinated participants. Between matched pairs, we compared the monthly mean numbers of symptoms over a 3-month follow-up period, and, using exact logistic regression, the proportion of participants who fully recovered from PASC. Finally, we assessed the association between PACS status and rate of decay of spike- and RBD-binding IgG titers up to 9 months after illness onset using Bayesian hierarchical linear regression. FINDINGS: Of 349 enrolled participants, 316 (90.5%) had ≥3 months of follow-up, of whom 186 (58.9%) developed PASC. Among 36 matched pairs with PASC, the mean number of symptoms reported each month during 3 months of follow-up were comparable between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. Odds of full recovery from PASC also did not differ between matched pairs (OR 1.57 [95%CI 0.46-5.84]) within 3 months after the matched time-point. The median half-life of spike- and RBD-binding IgG levels were, in days (95%CrI), 233 (183-324) and 181 (147-230) among participants with PASC, and 170 (125-252) and 144 (113-196) among those without PASC, respectively. INTERPRETATION: Our study found no strong evidence to suggest that vaccination improves symptoms of PASC. This was corroborated by comparable spike- and RBD-binding IgG waning trajectories between those with and without PASC, refuting any immunological basis for a therapeutic effect of vaccination on PASC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
9.
PLoS Med ; 19(5): e1003991, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging and future SARS-CoV-2 variants may jeopardize the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns. Therefore, it is important to know how the different vaccines perform against diverse SARS-CoV-2 variants. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a prospective cohort of 165 SARS-CoV-2 naive health care workers in the Netherlands, vaccinated with either one of four vaccines (BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, AZD1222 or Ad26.COV2.S), we performed a head-to-head comparison of the ability of sera to recognize and neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs; Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron). Repeated serum sampling was performed 5 times during a year (from January 2021 till January 2022), including before and after booster vaccination with BNT162b2. Four weeks after completing the initial vaccination series, SARS-CoV-2 wild-type neutralizing antibody titers were highest in recipients of mRNA-1273, followed by recipients of BNT162b2 (geometric mean titers (GMT) of 358 [95% CI 231-556] and 214 [95% CI 153-299], respectively; p<0.05), and substantially lower in those vaccinated with the adenovirus vector-based vaccines AZD1222 and Ad26.COV2.S (GMT of 18 [95% CI 11-30] and 14 [95% CI 8-25] IU/ml, respectively; p<0.001). VOCs neutralization was reduced in all vaccine groups, with the greatest reduction in neutralization GMT observed against the Omicron variant (fold change 0.03 [95% CI 0.02-0.04], p<0.001). The booster BNT162b2 vaccination increased neutralizing antibody titers for all groups with substantial improvement against the VOCs including the Omicron variant. We used linear regression and linear mixed model analysis. All results were adjusted for possible confounding of age and sex. Study limitations include the lack of cellular immunity data. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study shows that the mRNA vaccines appear superior to adenovirus vector-based vaccines in inducing neutralizing antibodies against VOCs four weeks after initial vaccination and after booster vaccination, which implies the use of mRNA vaccines for both initial and booster vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Cohort Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
10.
Frontiers in medical technology ; 4, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1782260

ABSTRACT

One of the major breakthroughs to combat the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been the development of highly effective vaccines against the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Still, alternatives are needed for individuals who are at high risk of developing severe COVID-19 and are not protected by vaccination. Monoclonal antibodies against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 have been shown to be effective as prophylaxis and treatment against COVID-19. However, the emergence of variants of concern (VOCs) challenges the efficacy of antibody therapies. This review describes the neutralization resistance of the clinically-approved monoclonal antibody therapies against the Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and the Omicron (B.1.1.529) variants. To guide the development of monoclonal antibody therapies and to anticipate on the continuous evolution of SARS-CoV-2, we highlight different strategies to broaden the antibody activity by targeting more conserved epitopes and/or simultaneously targeting multiple sites of vulnerability of the virus. This review further describes the contribution of antibody Fc effector functions to optimize the antibody efficacy. In addition, the main route of SARS-CoV-2 antibody administration is currently intravenously and dictates a monthly injection when used as prophylactic. Therefore, we discusses the concept of long-acting antibodies (LAABs) and non-intravenously routes of antibody administration in order to broaden the clinical applicability of antibody therapies.

11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(6): 1949-1957, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are at increased risk of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Effective vaccination against COVID-19 is therefore of great importance in this group, but little is known about the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in these patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to study humoral and cellular immune responses after mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccination in adult patients with IEI. METHODS: In a prospective, controlled, multicenter study, 505 patients with IEI (common variable immunodeficiency [CVID], isolated or undefined antibody deficiencies, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, phagocyte defects) and 192 controls were included. All participants received 2 doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. Levels of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2-specific binding antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, and T-cell responses were assessed at baseline, 28 days after first vaccination, and 28 days after second vaccination. RESULTS: Seroconversion rates in patients with clinically mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects were similar to those in healthy controls, but seroconversion rates in patients with more severe IEI, such as CVID and combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, were lower. Binding antibody titers correlated well to the presence of neutralizing antibodies. T-cell responses were comparable to those in controls in all IEI cohorts, with the exception of patients with CVID. The presence of noninfectious complications and the use of immunosuppressive drugs in patients with CVID were negatively correlated with the antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination with mRNA-1273 was immunogenic in mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects and in most patients with combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency and CVID. Lowest response was detected in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and in patients with CVID with noninfectious complications. The assessment of longevity of immune responses in these vulnerable patient groups will guide decision making for additional vaccinations.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/blood , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Adult , Agammaglobulinemia/genetics , Agammaglobulinemia/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/genetics , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/blood , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/immunology , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/blood , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/genetics , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/genetics , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
12.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(1): 100486, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569129

ABSTRACT

The urgent need for, but limited availability of, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines worldwide has led to widespread consideration of dose-sparing strategies. Here, we evaluate the SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses following BNT162b2 vaccination in 150 previously SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals from a population-based cohort. One week after first vaccine dose, spike protein antibody levels are 27-fold higher and neutralizing antibody titers 12-fold higher, exceeding titers of fully vaccinated SARS-CoV-2-naive controls, with minimal additional boosting after the second dose. Neutralizing antibody titers against four variants of concern increase after vaccination; however, overall neutralization breadth does not improve. Pre-vaccination neutralizing antibody titers and time since infection have the largest positive effect on titers following vaccination. COVID-19 severity and the presence of comorbidities have no discernible impact on vaccine response. In conclusion, a single dose of BNT162b2 vaccine up to 15 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection offers higher neutralizing antibody titers than 2 vaccine doses in SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Treatment Outcome
13.
Elife ; 102021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1529013

ABSTRACT

Current SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are losing efficacy against emerging variants and may not protect against future novel coronavirus outbreaks, emphasizing the need for more broadly protective vaccines. To inform the development of a pan-coronavirus vaccine, we investigated the presence and specificity of cross-reactive antibodies against the spike (S) proteins of human coronaviruses (hCoV) after SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. We found an 11- to 123-fold increase in antibodies binding to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV as well as a 2- to 4-fold difference in antibodies binding to seasonal hCoVs in COVID-19 convalescent sera compared to pre-pandemic healthy donors, with the S2 subdomain of the S protein being the main target for cross-reactivity. In addition, we detected cross-reactive antibodies to all hCoV S proteins after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in macaques and humans, with higher responses for hCoV more closely related to SARS-CoV-2. These findings support the feasibility of and provide guidance for development of a pan-coronavirus vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Macaca , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Principal Component Analysis , Protein Domains/immunology , Serum/immunology , Serum/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tetanus Toxoid/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/immunology
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6097, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475295

ABSTRACT

Effective treatments against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are urgently needed. Monoclonal antibodies have shown promising results in patients. Here, we evaluate the in vivo prophylactic and therapeutic effect of COVA1-18, a neutralizing antibody highly potent against the B.1.1.7 isolate. In both prophylactic and therapeutic settings, SARS-CoV-2 remains undetectable in the lungs of treated hACE2 mice. Therapeutic treatment also causes a reduction in viral loads in the lungs of Syrian hamsters. When administered at 10 mg kg-1 one day prior to a high dose SARS-CoV-2 challenge in cynomolgus macaques, COVA1-18 shows very strong antiviral activity in the upper respiratory compartments. Using a mathematical model, we estimate that COVA1-18 reduces viral infectivity by more than 95% in these compartments, preventing lymphopenia and extensive lung lesions. Our findings demonstrate that COVA1-18 has a strong antiviral activity in three preclinical models and could be a valuable candidate for further clinical evaluation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Macaca fascicularis , Male , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tissue Distribution , Viral Load
15.
EMBO J ; 40(20): e106765, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436404

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and outbreaks of new variants highlight the need for preventive treatments. Here, we identified heparan sulfate proteoglycans as attachment receptors for SARS-CoV-2. Notably, neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 isolated from COVID-19 patients interfered with SARS-CoV-2 binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans, which might be an additional mechanism of antibodies to neutralize infection. SARS-CoV-2 binding to and infection of epithelial cells was blocked by low molecular weight heparins (LMWH). Although dendritic cells (DCs) and mucosal Langerhans cells (LCs) were not infected by SARS-CoV-2, both DC subsets efficiently captured SARS-CoV-2 via heparan sulfate proteoglycans and transmitted the virus to ACE2-positive cells. Notably, human primary nasal cells were infected by SARS-CoV-2, and infection was blocked by pre-treatment with LMWH. These data strongly suggest that heparan sulfate proteoglycans are important attachment receptors facilitating infection and transmission, and support the use of LMWH as prophylaxis against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans/metabolism , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/virology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Mucous Membrane/cytology , Mucous Membrane/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Syndecan-1/metabolism , Syndecan-4/metabolism , Vero Cells , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
16.
Sci Adv ; 7(36): eabj5365, 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403006

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) pose a threat to human immunity induced by natural infection and vaccination. We assessed the recognition of three VOCs (B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1) in cohorts of COVID-19 convalescent patients (n = 69) and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine recipients (n = 50). Spike binding and neutralization against all three VOCs were substantially reduced in most individuals, with the largest four- to sevenfold reduction in neutralization being observed against B.1.351. While hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and vaccinees maintained sufficient neutralizing titers against all three VOCs, 39% of nonhospitalized patients exhibited no detectable neutralization against B.1.351. Moreover, monoclonal neutralizing antibodies show sharp reductions in their binding kinetics and neutralizing potential to B.1.351 and P.1 but not to B.1.1.7. These data have implications for the degree to which pre-existing immunity can protect against subsequent infection with VOCs and informs policy makers of susceptibility to globally circulating SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.

17.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(596)2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225692

ABSTRACT

Patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) become critically ill primarily around the time of activation of the adaptive immune response. Here, we provide evidence that antibodies play a role in the worsening of disease at the time of seroconversion. We show that early-phase severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum of critically ill COVID-19 patients induces excessive inflammatory responses by human alveolar macrophages. We identified that this excessive inflammatory response is dependent on two antibody features that are specific for patients with severe COVID-19. First, inflammation is driven by high titers of anti-spike IgG, a hallmark of severe disease. Second, we found that anti-spike IgG from patients with severe COVID-19 is intrinsically more proinflammatory because of different glycosylation, particularly low fucosylation, of the antibody Fc tail. Low fucosylation of anti-spike IgG was normalized in a few weeks after initial infection with SARS-CoV-2, indicating that the increased antibody-dependent inflammation mainly occurs at the time of seroconversion. We identified Fcγ receptor (FcγR) IIa and FcγRIII as the two primary IgG receptors that are responsible for the induction of key COVID-19-associated cytokines such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor. In addition, we show that anti-spike IgG-activated human macrophages can subsequently break pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity and induce microvascular thrombosis in vitro. Last, we demonstrate that the inflammatory response induced by anti-spike IgG can be specifically counteracted by fostamatinib, an FDA- and EMA-approved therapeutic small-molecule inhibitor of Syk kinase.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Glycosylation , Humans , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
18.
Lancet Microbe ; 1(7): e290-e299, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) targets multiple organs and causes severe coagulopathy. Histopathological organ changes might not only be attributable to a direct virus-induced effect, but also the immune response. The aims of this study were to assess the duration of viral presence, identify the extent of inflammatory response, and investigate the underlying cause of coagulopathy. METHODS: This prospective autopsy cohort study was done at Amsterdam University Medical Centers (UMC), the Netherlands. With informed consent from relatives, full body autopsy was done on 21 patients with COVID-19 for whom autopsy was requested between March 9 and May 18, 2020. In addition to histopathological evaluation of organ damage, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein and the composition of the immune infiltrate and thrombi were assessed, and all were linked to disease course. FINDINGS: Our cohort (n=21) included 16 (76%) men, and median age was 68 years (range 41-78). Median disease course (time from onset of symptoms to death) was 22 days (range 5-44 days). In 11 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 tropism, SARS-CoV-2 infected cells were present in multiple organs, most abundantly in the lungs, but presence in the lungs became sporadic with increased disease course. Other SARS-CoV-2-positive organs included the upper respiratory tract, heart, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. In histological analyses of organs (sampled from nine to 21 patients per organ), an extensive inflammatory response was present in the lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, and brain. In the brain, extensive inflammation was seen in the olfactory bulbs and medulla oblongata. Thrombi and neutrophilic plugs were present in the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, and brain and were most frequently observed late in the disease course (15 patients with thrombi, median disease course 22 days [5-44]; ten patients with neutrophilic plugs, 21 days [5-44]). Neutrophilic plugs were observed in two forms: solely composed of neutrophils with neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), or as aggregates of NETs and platelets.. INTERPRETATION: In patients with lethal COVID-19, an extensive systemic inflammatory response was present, with a continued presence of neutrophils and NETs. However, SARS-CoV-2-infected cells were only sporadically present at late stages of COVID-19. This suggests a maladaptive immune response and substantiates the evidence for immunomodulation as a target in the treatment of severe COVID-19. FUNDING: Amsterdam UMC Corona Research Fund.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Adult , Aged , Autopsy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Cell ; 184(5): 1188-1200.e19, 2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046538

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is continuing to disrupt personal lives, global healthcare systems, and economies. Hence, there is an urgent need for a vaccine that prevents viral infection, transmission, and disease. Here, we present a two-component protein-based nanoparticle vaccine that displays multiple copies of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Immunization studies show that this vaccine induces potent neutralizing antibody responses in mice, rabbits, and cynomolgus macaques. The vaccine-induced immunity protects macaques against a high-dose challenge, resulting in strongly reduced viral infection and replication in the upper and lower airways. These nanoparticles are a promising vaccine candidate to curtail the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Macaca fascicularis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Models, Animal , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Load
20.
Science ; 369(6504): 643-650, 2020 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599037

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has had a large impact on global health, travel, and economy. Therefore, preventative and therapeutic measures are urgently needed. Here, we isolated monoclonal antibodies from three convalescent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients using a SARS-CoV-2 stabilized prefusion spike protein. These antibodies had low levels of somatic hypermutation and showed a strong enrichment in VH1-69, VH3-30-3, and VH1-24 gene usage. A subset of the antibodies was able to potently inhibit authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection at a concentration as low as 0.007 micrograms per milliliter. Competition and electron microscopy studies illustrate that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein contains multiple distinct antigenic sites, including several receptor-binding domain (RBD) epitopes as well as non-RBD epitopes. In addition to providing guidance for vaccine design, the antibodies described here are promising candidates for COVID-19 treatment and prevention.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Affinity , Antigens, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19 , Cell Line, Tumor , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Immunophenotyping , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Protein Domains , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/immunology , Receptors, Coronavirus , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
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