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Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3316, 2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713215


The new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, caused the COVID-19 pandemic, characterized by its high rate of contamination, propagation capacity, and lethality rate. In this work, we approach the use of phthalocyanines as an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2, as they present several interactive properties of the phthalocyanines (Pc) of Cobalt (CoPc), Copper (CuPc) and without a metal group (NoPc) can interact with SARS-CoV-2, showing potential be used as filtering by adsorption on paints on walls, masks, clothes, and air conditioning filters. Molecular modeling techniques through Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics were used, where the target was the external structures of the virus, but specifically the envelope protein, main protease, and Spike glycoprotein proteases. Using the g_MM-GBSA module and with it, the molecular docking studies show that the ligands have interaction characteristics capable of adsorbing the structures. Molecular dynamics provided information on the root-mean-square deviation of the atomic positions provided values between 1 and 2.5. The generalized Born implicit solvation model, Gibbs free energy, and solvent accessible surface area approach were used. Among the results obtained through molecular dynamics, it was noticed that interactions occur since Pc could bind to residues of the active site of macromolecules, demonstrating good interactions; in particular with CoPc. Molecular couplings and free energy showed that S-gly active site residues interacted strongly with phthalocyanines with values ​​of - 182.443 kJ/mol (CoPc), 158.954 kJ/mol (CuPc), and - 129.963 kJ/mol (NoPc). The interactions of Pc's with SARS-CoV-2 may predict some promising candidates for antagonists to the virus, which if confirmed through experimental approaches, may contribute to resolving the global crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 , Cobalt/chemistry , Coordination Complexes/chemistry , Copper/chemistry , Isoindoles/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Humans
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19998, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462031


Understanding the effects of metabolism on the rational design of novel and more effective drugs is still a considerable challenge. To the best of our knowledge, there are no entirely computational strategies that make it possible to predict these effects. From this perspective, the development of such methodologies could contribute to significantly reduce the side effects of medicines, leading to the emergence of more effective and safer drugs. Thereby, in this study, our strategy is based on simulating the electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS) fragmentation of the drug molecules and combined with molecular docking and ADMET models in two different situations. In the first model, the drug is docked without considering the possible metabolic effects. In the second model, each of the intermediates from the EI-MS results is docked, and metabolism occurs before the drug accesses the biological target. As a proof of concept, in this work, we investigate the main antiviral drugs used in clinical research to treat COVID-19. As a result, our strategy made it possible to assess the biological activity and toxicity of all potential by-products. We believed that our findings provide new chemical insights that can benefit the rational development of novel drugs in the future.

Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenine/adverse effects , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adenine/metabolism , Adenine/pharmacology , Adenosine/adverse effects , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/metabolism , Adenosine/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/metabolism , Alanine/pharmacology , Amides/adverse effects , Amides/metabolism , Amides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Chloroquine/metabolism , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Drug Design , Humans , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nitro Compounds/adverse effects , Nitro Compounds/metabolism , Nitro Compounds/pharmacology , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Pyrazines/metabolism , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/adverse effects , Pyrrolidines/metabolism , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Ribavirin/metabolism , Ribavirin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thiazoles/adverse effects , Thiazoles/metabolism , Thiazoles/pharmacology