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1.
Biosci Rep ; 41(7)2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290282

ABSTRACT

Patients with sepsis display increased concentrations of sTREM-1 (soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells 1), and a phase II clinical trial focusing on TREM-1 modulation is ongoing. We investigated whether sTREM-1 circulating concentrations are associated with the outcome of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to assess the role of this pathway in COVID-19. This observational study was performed in two independent cohorts of patients with COVID-19. Plasma concentrations of sTREM-1 were assessed after ICU admission (pilot cohort) or after COVID-19 diagnosis (validation cohort). Routine laboratory and clinical parameters were collected from electronic patient files. Results showed sTREM-1 plasma concentrations were significantly elevated in patients with COVID-19 (161 [129-196] pg/ml) compared to healthy controls (104 [75-124] pg/ml; P<0.001). Patients with severe COVID-19 needing ICU admission displayed even higher sTREM-1 concentrations compared to less severely ill COVID-19 patients receiving clinical ward-based care (235 [176-319] pg/ml and 195 [139-283] pg/ml, respectively, P = 0.017). In addition, higher sTREM-1 plasma concentrations were observed in patients who did not survive the infection (326 [207-445] pg/ml) compared to survivors (199 [142-278] pg/ml, P<0.001). Survival analyses indicated that patients with higher sTREM-1 concentrations are at higher risk for death (hazard ratio = 3.3, 95%CI: 1.4-7.8). In conclusion, plasma sTREM-1 concentrations are elevated in patients with COVID-19, relate to disease severity, and discriminate between survivors and non-survivors. This suggests that the TREM-1 pathway is involved in the inflammatory reaction and the disease course of COVID-19, and therefore may be considered as a therapeutic target in severely ill patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
2.
Journal of the Endocrine Society ; 5(Supplement_1):A835-A836, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1221835

ABSTRACT

Background: Lymphopenia is a key feature of immune dysfunction in bacterial sepsis and COVID-19 patients and is associated with poor clinical outcomes, but the cause is largely unknown. These severely ill patients may also present with thyroid function abnormalities, so-called non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), and several studies have suggested that TSH, thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) play a crucial role in the homeostatic regulation and function of lymphocyte populations.

4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(7): 1994-2009, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133638

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Lymphopenia is a key feature of immune dysfunction in patients with bacterial sepsis and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with poor clinical outcomes, but the cause is largely unknown. Severely ill patients may present with thyroid function abnormalities, so-called nonthyroidal illness syndrome, and several studies have linked thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH) and the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) to homeostatic regulation and function of lymphocyte populations. OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to test the hypothesis that abnormal thyroid function correlates with lymphopenia in patients with severe infections. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of absolute lymphocyte counts, circulating TSH, T4, free T4 (FT4), T3, albumin, and inflammatory biomarkers was performed in 2 independent hospitalized study populations: bacterial sepsis (n = 224) and COVID-19 patients (n = 161). A subgroup analysis was performed in patients with severe lymphopenia and normal lymphocyte counts. RESULTS: Only T3 significantly correlated (ρ = 0.252) with lymphocyte counts in patients with bacterial sepsis, and lower concentrations were found in severe lymphopenic compared to nonlymphopenic patients (n = 56 per group). Severe lymphopenic COVID-19 patients (n = 17) showed significantly lower plasma concentrations of TSH, T4, FT4, and T3 compared to patients without lymphopenia (n = 18), and demonstrated significantly increased values of the inflammatory markers interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and ferritin. Remarkably, after 1 week of follow-up, the majority (12 of 15) of COVID-19 patients showed quantitative recovery of their lymphocyte numbers, whereas TSH and thyroid hormones remained mainly disturbed. CONCLUSION: Abnormal thyroid function correlates with lymphopenia in patients with severe infections, like bacterial sepsis and COVID-19, but future studies need to establish whether a causal relationship is involved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/immunology , Sepsis/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/blood , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/immunology , Female , Greece , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Male , Netherlands , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/immunology , Thyroid Hormones/blood , Thyroid Hormones/immunology , Thyrotropin/blood , Thyrotropin/immunology
5.
J Infect Dis ; 223(2): 214-224, 2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Excessive activation of immune responses in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is considered to be related to disease severity, complications, and mortality rate. The complement system is an important component of innate immunity and can stimulate inflammation, but its role in COVID-19 is unknown. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal, single center study was performed in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Plasma concentrations of complement factors C3a, C3c, and terminal complement complex (TCC) were assessed at baseline and during hospital admission. In parallel, routine laboratory and clinical parameters were collected from medical files and analyzed. RESULTS: Complement factors C3a, C3c, and TCC were significantly increased in plasma of patients with COVID-19 compared with healthy controls (P < .05). These complement factors were especially elevated in intensive care unit patients during the entire disease course (P < .005 for C3a and TCC). More intense complement activation was observed in patients who died and in those with thromboembolic events. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 demonstrate activation of the complement system, which is related to disease severity. This pathway may be involved in the dysregulated proinflammatory response associated with increased mortality rate and thromboembolic complications. Components of the complement system might have potential as prognostic markers for disease severity and as therapeutic targets in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Complement Activation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Complement C3c/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
6.
J Infect Dis ; 223(8): 1322-1333, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057852

ABSTRACT

The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 varies and the differences in host response characterizing this variation have not been fully elucidated. COVID-19 disease severity correlates with an excessive proinflammatory immune response and profound lymphopenia. Inflammatory responses according to disease severity were explored by plasma cytokine measurements and proteomics analysis in 147 COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine production assays and whole blood flow cytometry were performed. Results confirm a hyperinflammatory innate immune state, while highlighting hepatocyte growth factor and stem cell factor as potential biomarkers for disease severity. Clustering analysis revealed no specific inflammatory endotypes in COVID-19 patients. Functional assays revealed abrogated adaptive cytokine production (interferon-γ, interleukin-17, and interleukin-22) and prominent T-cell exhaustion in critically ill patients, whereas innate immune responses were intact or hyperresponsive. Collectively, this extensive analysis provides a comprehensive insight into the pathobiology of severe to critical COVID-19 and highlights potential biomarkers of disease severity.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(3): 687-694, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity appears to be an independent risk factor for ICU admission and a severe disease course in COVID-19 patients. An aberrant inflammatory response and impaired respiratory function have been suggested as underlying mechanisms. We investigated whether obesity is associated with differences in inflammatory, respiratory, and clinical outcome parameters in critically ill COVID-19 patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Sixty-seven COVID-19 ICU patients were divided into obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, n = 18, 72% class I obesity, 28% class II obesity) and non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m2, n = 49) groups. Concentrations of circulating interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interferon gamma-induced protein (IP)-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA) were determined from ICU admission until 10 days afterward, and routine laboratory and clinical parameters were collected. RESULTS: BMI was 32.6 [31.2-34.5] and 26.0 [24.4-27.7] kg/m2 in the obese and non-obese group, respectively. Apart from temperature, which was significantly lower in obese patients (38.1 [36.9-38.9] vs. 38.7 [38.0 -39.5] °C, p = 0.02), there were no between-group differences on ICU admission. Plasma cytokine concentrations declined over time (p < 0.05 for all), but no differences between obese and non-obese patients were observed. Also, BMI did not correlate with the cytokine response (IL-6 r = 0.09, p = 0.61, TNF-α r = 0.03, p = 0.99, IP-10 r = 0.28, p = 0.11). The kinetics of clinical inflammatory parameters and respiratory mechanics were also similar in both groups. Finally, no differences in time on ventilator, ICU length of stay or 40-day mortality between obese and non-obese patients were apparent. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 patients requiring mechanical ventilation in the ICU, a higher BMI is not related to a different immunological response, unfavorable respiratory mechanics, or impaired outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obesity/complications , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
8.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 688, 2020 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967530

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A subset of critically ill COVID-19 patients develop a hyperinflammatory state. Anakinra, a recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, is known to be effective in several hyperinflammatory diseases. We investigated the effects of anakinra on inflammatory parameters and clinical outcomes in critically ill, mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients with clinical features of hyperinflammation. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 21 critically ill COVID-19 patients treated with anakinra were compared to a group of standard care. Serial data of clinical inflammatory parameters and concentrations of multiple circulating cytokines were determined and aligned on start day of anakinra in the treatment group, and median start day of anakinra in the control group. Analysis was performed for day - 10 to + 10 relative to alignment day. Clinical outcomes were analyzed during 28 days. Additionally, three sensitivity analyses were performed: (1) using propensity score-matched groups, (2) selecting patients who did not receive corticosteroids, and (3) using a subset of the control group aimed to match the criteria (fever, elevated ferritin) for starting anakinra treatment. RESULTS: Baseline patient characteristics and clinical parameters on ICU admission were similar between groups. As a consequence of bias by indication, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) (p = 0.0002), ferritin (p = 0.009), and temperature (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in the anakinra group on alignment day. Following treatment, no relevant differences in kinetics of circulating cytokines were observed between both groups. Decreases of clinical parameters, including temperature (p = 0.03), white blood cell counts (p = 0.02), and plasma levels of ferritin (p = 0.003), procalcitonin (p = 0.001), creatinine (p = 0.01), and bilirubin (p = 0.007), were more pronounced in the anakinra group. No differences in duration of mechanical ventilation or ICU length of stay were observed between groups. Sensitivity analyses confirmed these results. CONCLUSIONS: Anakinra is effective in reducing clinical signs of hyperinflammation in critically ill COVID-19 patients. A randomized controlled trial is warranted to draw conclusion about the effects of anakinra on clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Receptors, Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/adverse effects , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/pharmacology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Receptors, Interleukin-1/therapeutic use , Statistics, Nonparametric
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