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Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023649


Evidence exists on the health impacts of the current COVID-19 pandemic on health workers, but less is known about its impact on their work dynamics and livelihoods. This matters, as health workers-and physicians in particular-are a scarce and expensive resource in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our cross-sectional survey set out to explore changes in working hours and earnings during the second year of the pandemic in a representative sample of 1183 physicians in Brazil's São Paulo (SP) and Maranhão (MA) states. Descriptive analysis and inferential statistics were employed to explore differences in working hours and earnings among public and private sector physicians across the two locations. The workloads and earnings of doctors working exclusively in the public sector increased the most in the second year of the epidemic, particularly in MA. Conversely, the largest proportion of private-only doctors in our sample saw a decrease in their working hours (48.4%, 95% CI 41.8-55.0), whereas the largest proportion of public-only doctors in MA saw an increase in their working hours (44.4%, 95% CI 38.0-50.8). Although earnings remained broadly stable in the public sector, a third of public sector-only physicians in MA saw an increase in their earnings (95% CI 24.4-36.2). More than half of private-only doctors across both states saw a decrease in their earnings (52.2%, 95% CI 45.6-58.8). The largest proportion of dual practitioners (the majority in Brazil and in our sample) maintained their pre-pandemic levels of income (38.8%, 95% CI 35.3-42.3). As public-sector doctors have been key in the fight against the pandemic, it is critical to invest in these cadres in order to develop epidemic preparedness in LMICs, and to find new ways to harness for-profit actors to deliver social benefits.

COVID-19 , Physicians , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54:131-131, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: grc-745404


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: A population-based household survey was performed, from July 27, 2020 to August 8, 2020. The estimates considered clustering, stratification and non-response. Qualitative detection of IgM and IgG antibodies was performed in a fully-automated Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 electrochemiluminescence immunoassay on the Cobas® e601 analyzer (Roche Diagnostics). RESULTS: In total, 3,156 individuals were interviewed. Seroprevalence of total antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was 40.4% (95%CI 35.6-45.3). Population adherence to non-pharmaceutical interventions was higher at the beginning of the pandemic than in the last month. SARS-CoV-2 infection rates were significantly lower among mask wearers and among those who maintained social and physical distancing in the last month compared to their counterparts. Among the infected, 26.0% were asymptomatic. The infection fatality rate (IFR) was 0.14%, higher for men and older adults. The IFR based on excess deaths was 0.28%. The ratio of estimated infections to reported cases was 22.2. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 estimated in this population-based survey is one of the highest reported. The local herd immunity threshold may have been reached or might be reached soon.