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1.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(5): 575-584, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452989

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Obesity is characterized by elevated pleural pressure (Ppl) and worsening atelectasis during mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).Objectives: To determine the effects of a lung recruitment maneuver (LRM) in the presence of elevated Ppl on hemodynamics, left and right ventricular pressure, and pulmonary vascular resistance. We hypothesized that elevated Ppl protects the cardiovascular system against high airway pressure and prevents lung overdistension.Methods: First, an interventional crossover trial in adult subjects with ARDS and a body mass index ≥ 35 kg/m2 (n = 21) was performed to explore the hemodynamic consequences of the LRM. Second, cardiovascular function was studied during low and high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in a model of swine with ARDS and high Ppl (n = 9) versus healthy swine with normal Ppl (n = 6).Measurements and Main Results: Subjects with ARDS and obesity (body mass index = 57 ± 12 kg/m2) after LRM required an increase in PEEP of 8 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 7-10) cm H2O above traditional ARDS Network settings to improve lung function, oxygenation and [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] matching, without impairment of hemodynamics or right heart function. ARDS swine with high Ppl demonstrated unchanged transmural left ventricular pressure and systemic blood pressure after the LRM protocol. Pulmonary arterial hypertension decreased (8 [95% CI, 13-4] mm Hg), as did vascular resistance (1.5 [95% CI, 2.2-0.9] Wood units) and transmural right ventricular pressure (10 [95% CI, 15-6] mm Hg) during exhalation. LRM and PEEP decreased pulmonary vascular resistance and normalized the [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] ratio.Conclusions: High airway pressure is required to recruit lung atelectasis in patients with ARDS and class III obesity but causes minimal overdistension. In addition, patients with ARDS and class III obesity hemodynamically tolerate LRM with high airway pressure.Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02503241).


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Atelectasis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Shock , Animals , Hemodynamics/physiology , Humans , Obesity/complications , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Swine
3.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(7): e0461, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301383

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether individualized optimization of mechanical ventilation through the implementation of a lung rescue team could reduce the need for venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients with obesity and acute respiratory distress syndrome and decrease ICU and hospital length of stay and mortality. DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective study at the Massachusetts General Hospital from June 2015 to June 2019. PATIENTS: All patients with obesity and acute respiratory distress syndrome who were referred for venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation evaluation due to hypoxemic respiratory failure. INTERVENTION: Evaluation and individualized optimization of mechanical ventilation by the lung rescue team before the decision to proceed with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The control group was those patients managed according to hospital standard of care without lung rescue team evaluation. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: All 20 patients (100%) allocated in the control group received venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, whereas 10 of 13 patients (77%) evaluated by the lung rescue team did not receive venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Patients who underwent lung rescue team evaluation had a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.03) and shorter ICU length of stay (p = 0.03). There were no differences between groups in in-hospital, 30-day, or 1-year mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In this hypothesis-generating study, individualized optimization of mechanical ventilation of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and obesity by a lung rescue team was associated with a decrease in the utilization of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU length of stay. Mortality was not modified by the lung rescue team intervention.

6.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1626, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646832

ABSTRACT

Most SARS-CoV2 infections will not develop into severe COVID-19. However, in some patients, lung infection leads to the activation of alveolar macrophages and lung epithelial cells that will release proinflammatory cytokines. IL-6, TNF, and IL-1ß increase expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and VEGF, thereby increasing permeability of the lung endothelium and reducing barrier protection, allowing viral dissemination and infiltration of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes. In the blood, these cytokines will stimulate the bone marrow to produce and release immature granulocytes, that return to the lung and further increase inflammation, leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This lung-systemic loop leads to cytokine storm syndrome (CSS). Concurrently, the acute phase response increases the production of platelets, fibrinogen and other pro-thrombotic factors. Systemic decrease in ACE2 function impacts the Renin-Angiotensin-Kallikrein-Kinin systems (RAS-KKS) increasing clotting. The combination of acute lung injury with RAS-KKS unbalance is herein called COVID-19 Associated Lung Injury (CALI). This conservative two-hit model of systemic inflammation due to the lung injury allows new intervention windows and is more consistent with the current knowledge.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Lung/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Acute Lung Injury/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Lung/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
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