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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1967, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159789

ABSTRACT

Type III interferons have been touted as promising therapeutics in outpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial (NCT04331899) in 120 outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19 to determine whether a single, 180 mcg subcutaneous dose of Peginterferon Lambda-1a (Lambda) within 72 hours of diagnosis could shorten the duration of viral shedding (primary endpoint) or symptoms (secondary endpoint). In both the 60 patients receiving Lambda and 60 receiving placebo, the median time to cessation of viral shedding was 7 days (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56 to 1.19). Symptoms resolved in 8 and 9 days in Lambda and placebo, respectively, and symptom duration did not differ significantly between groups (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.64 to 1.39). Both Lambda and placebo were well-tolerated, though liver transaminase elevations were more common in the Lambda vs. placebo arm (15/60 vs 5/60; p = 0.027). In this study, a single dose of subcutaneous Peginterferon Lambda-1a neither shortened the duration of SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding nor improved symptoms in outpatients with uncomplicated COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukins/administration & dosage , Polyethylene Glycols/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Failure , Virus Shedding/drug effects , Young Adult
3.
Curr Opin Biotechnol ; 68: 160-165, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970472

ABSTRACT

Bacteriophages have attracted extensive interest in vaccine design. This includes the use of phage display technology to select antigens, the use of engineered phages displaying target antigens in vaccine formulations, and phage DNA vaccines. However, the development of these approaches is limited in part by uncertainty regarding the underlying mechanisms by which phages elicit immunity. This has stymied the clinical development of this technology. Here we review the immunology of phage vaccines and highlight the gaps in our knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms. First, we review the basic biology of phages and their use in vaccines. Next we discuss what is known about the mechanisms of immunity against engineered phages and phage DNA. Finally, we highlight the gaps in our understanding regarding the immunogenicity of these preparations. We argue that mechanistic insight into the immunology of phage vaccines is essential for the further development and clinical utility of these technologies.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , Vaccines , Bacteriophages/genetics , Cell Surface Display Techniques
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