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1.
Journal of Teaching in Physical Education ; 42(1):23-33, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20239188

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To identify motivational determinants explaining Physical Education teachers' behaviors promoting students' physical activity (PA) amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Nine hundred thirty-one Italian and French teachers completed a questionnaire assessing motivational determinants (self-determined motivation, self-efficacy, perceived ease and usefulness toward digital technologies, engagement at work), their intention and behaviors promoting PA, in reference to before and during the pandemic. Path analyses tested the associations of changes in motivational determinants with changes in intention and behaviors. Results: Increases in autonomous, controlled motivation, self-efficacy, and perceived usefulness toward digital technologies, and a decrease in amotivation were associated with an increase in the intention to promote PA. In turn, an increase in intention, but also in self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and perceived usefulness toward digital technologies were paired with an increase in behaviors promoting PA. Conclusion: Implications regarding the commitment of Physical Education teachers to challenging pedagogical situations, such as promoting PA amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, are discussed.

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818137

ABSTRACT

Since the end of 2019 and throughout 2020, the world has been devastated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The sports world suddenly had to deal with a massive reorganization of events with important implications for the physical and psychological preparation of athletes and coaches. The purpose of this study was to explore how these changes impacted coaches' and athletes' goal-setting strategies and their experience of goal adjustment. As part of a wider mixed-method project involving 2162 coaches and 1354 athletes, an online qualitative survey was used, and data collected were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Findings highlighted three overarching themes, in response to goal adjustment: "Moving on toward new goals", "Letting go of goals", and "Trying to hold on", with several themes and sub-themes identifying different nuances of athletes' and coaches' experiences. The implications of such findings for the mental preparation of high-level athletes are discussed in two ways. Firstly, in light of existing literature on goal setting from an applied perspective; secondly, in the broader perspective of the sports culture and the application of our themes to other challenging moments that sports professionals might encounter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sports , Athletes/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Goals , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sports/psychology
3.
Sustainability ; 13(17):9830, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1390759

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate whether primary school classroom teachers reported changes in physical education teaching self-efficacy (SE-PE) and work engagement (WE) during the first COVID-19 wave. A total of 622 classroom teachers filled in an online questionnaire on SE-PE and WE, referring to before and during the lockdown, and on perceived digital competence. While controlling for perceived digital competence, a mixed between-within Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (RM-MANCOVA) was performed, using a factorial design with two time categories (before vs. during the lockdown) and three age categories (≤40 vs. 41–50 vs. ≥51 years). The RM-MANCOVA revealed that perceived digital competence significantly adjusted teachers’ SE-PE and WE values (p <0.001). The analysis yielded a significant multivariate main effect by time (p <0.001) and by time × age categories (p = 0.001). Follow-up univariate ANCOVA showed significant differences by time in teachers’ SE-PE (p <0.001) and WE (p <0.001), with a reduction in both values from before to during the lockdown. A Bonferroni post hoc pairwise comparison showed teachers’ SE-PE significantly decreased in all age categories (p <0.001). The present findings confirm the importance of promoting SE-PE among primary school teachers, regardless of the crisis due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Teachers’ self-efficacy and WE are essential to master the challenges of PE teaching.

4.
Front Psychol ; 11: 601743, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063358

ABSTRACT

The recent global outspread of the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced the lives of people across multiple countries including athletes, coaches, and supporting staff. Along with everybody else, coaches found themselves constrained to an at-home self-isolation, which limited their ability to normally engage with their profession and to interact with their athletes. This situation may also have impacted their own psychological well-being. With this study, we explored coaches' perceptions of stress in relation to their emotion regulation strategies depending upon their gender and competitive level (elite vs. non-elite). A sample of 2272 Italian coaches were surveyed during the period of lockdown. Mean values for perceived stress and emotion regulation strategies were compared to normative data of the two instruments as reported in the original studies. Furthermore, two Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) were completed to observe the potential differences in the coaches' emotion regulation strategies and perception of stress. Finally, a blockwise regression analysis was run to assess how coaches' emotion regulation strategies impacted upon their perception of stress. Both women and men reported higher levels of perceived stress than those reported in the normative data. Similarly, average scores for emotion regulation strategies were significantly different from those reported for normative data, in particular, coaches reported slightly higher use of emotion regulation strategies than participants in the original study. Significant gender-based differences emerged in terms of emotional regulations, with men adopting more suppression than women. No differences by competitive level were found. In terms of perceived stress, male coaches and elite coaches showed to be more in control of the situation (positive stress) than female coaches and non-elite coaches, respectively, while women experienced more negative stress than men. The blockwise regression evidenced how reappraisal resulted to be predictive in helping coaches to reduce their perception of stress, while suppression predicted higher stress perceptions.

5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(24)2020 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979101

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically reduced physical activity (PA) behaviors of many people. Physical education (PE) is considered one of the privileged instruments to promote youths' PA. We aimed to investigate the effects of lockdown on PE teachers' behaviors promoting their students' out-of-school PA and differences between three European countries. A sample of 1146 PE teachers (59.5% females) from France, Italy, and Turkey answered an online questionnaire about guiding students to engage in out-of-school PA, helping them to set PA goals, encouraging in self-monitoring PA, the pedagogical formats of these behaviors and feedback asked to students. RM-MANCOVAs were performed with a two-time (before and during the lockdown), three country (France, Italy, Turkey), two gender factorial design, using teaching years and perceived health as covariates. A significant multivariate main effect time × country × gender (p < 0.001) was reported for the behaviors promoting students' PA, with French and Italian teachers increasing some behaviors, while Turkish teachers showing opposite trends. Significant multivariate main effects time × country were found for formats supporting the behaviors (p < 0.001) and for asked feedback formats (p < 0.001). The massive contextual change imposed by lockdown caused different reactions in teachers from the three countries. Findings are informative for PA promotion and PE teachers' education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Health Promotion/methods , Pandemics , Physical Education and Training , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , School Teachers , Schools , Turkey/epidemiology
6.
Sport Sci Health ; 16(4): 609-618, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-754351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic impacted on the sporting field, with athletes constrained in home isolation without the possibility to train and compete in their usual environments. This situation has been investigated within the theoretical frameworks of athletic identity and cognitive emotion regulation. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of our investigation were to: (a) validate the athletic identity measurement scale (AIMS) for use in Italian language; and (b) explore differences by gender, typology of sport (individual vs. team), and competitive level (elite vs. non-elite) in athletic identity and in cognitive emotion regulation during the Covid-19 lockdown period. METHODS: To achieve these objectives, the reliability and construct validity of the Italian version of the AIMS have been tested in Study 1. Multivariate and univariate analyses were run to evaluate differences between different groups of athletes in Study 2. RESULTS: Results from Study 1 suggest a 3-factor higher order model of athletic identity. Results from Study 2 highlight that, during this lockdown period, elite athletes and team sports athletes show higher athletic identity. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies are different for gender and for competitive level. Finally, athletes with higher athletic identity tend to ruminate and catastrophize more. CONCLUSIONS: The present multi-study paper contributes to the theoretical field with a validated measure of athletic identity in Italian language. It also provides some practical implications that could apply in this situation of isolation and can be extended to cases such as those of injury or illness.

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