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1.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 23(Suppl C): C154-C163, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456642

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented event that has brought deep changes in hospital facilities with reshaping of the health system organization, revealing inadequacies of current hospital and local health systems. When the COVID-19 emergency will end, further evaluation of the national health system, new organization of acute wards, and a further evolution of the entire health system will be needed to improve care during the chronic phase of disease. Therefore, new standards for healthcare personnel, more efficient organization of hospital facilities for patients with acute illnesses, improvement of technological approaches, and better integration between hospital and territorial services should be pursued. With experience derived from the COVID-19 pandemic,new models, paradigms, interventional approaches, values and priorities should be suggested and implemented.

2.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 23(Suppl C): C196-C203, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456646

ABSTRACT

The European Society of Cardiology guidelines on non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes suggest different temporal strategies for the angiographic study depending on the risk profile. The scientific evidence underlying the guideline recommendations and the critical issues currently existing in Italy, that often do not allow either an extended strategy of revascularization within 24 h or the application of the principle of the same day transfer from a spoke to a hub centre, are analysed. The position paper focuses, in particular, on the subgroup of patients with a defined diagnosis of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction by proposing a timing of coronary angiography/revascularization that takes into account the available scientific evidence and the organizational possibilities of a considerable part of national cardiology services.

3.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(8): 609-617, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651721

ABSTRACT

Bloodstream cholesterol is a central contributor to atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. For several decades, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been the main biomarker for the prediction of cardiovascular events and therapeutic target of lipid-lowering treatments. More recently, several findings have supported the greater reliability of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) as a predictive factor and possible therapeutic target in refining antiatherogenic treatments, especially among patients with lower LDL-C and higher triglyceride values. This article discusses the limits of current standard methods for assessing LDL-C levels and emphasizes the persistent residual cardiovascular risk in patients treated with lipid-lowering agents on the basis of recommended LDL-C targets. It highlights that patients with controlled LDL-C and non-targeted non-HDL-C have a higher cardiovascular risk. The article focuses on the role of non-HDL-C as a better predictor of atherosclerotic disease as compared with LDL-C and as a therapeutic target. Finally, this article includes an executive summary aimed at refining preventive approaches in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Cholesterol , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Risk Assessment/methods , Atherosclerosis/blood , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cholesterol/analysis , Cholesterol/metabolism , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Humans , Italy , Preventive Health Services/methods , Standard of Care , Triglycerides/blood
4.
Trends Cardiovasc Med ; 32(2): 92-100, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453416

ABSTRACT

The growing use of imaging examinations has led to increased detection of spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) as a non-atherosclerotic cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Since a greater awareness of pathophysiologic mechanisms has relevant implications in clinical practice, we aim to provide an update to current knowledge of SCAD pathophysiology. We discuss the most common conditions associated with SCAD, including predisposing factors and triggers, and focus on potential mechanisms leading to SCAD development. Furthermore, we report the main genetic research findings that have shed further light on SCAD pathophysiology. Finally, we summarize practical considerations in SCAD management based on pathophysiologic insights.


Subject(s)
Coronary Vessel Anomalies , Vascular Diseases , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/therapy , Humans , Risk Factors , Vascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Vascular Diseases/therapy
6.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 20(Suppl F): F1-F74, 2018 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867293

ABSTRACT

Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor is the cornerstone of pharmacologic management of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and/or those receiving coronary stents. Long-term (>1 year) DAPT may further reduce the risk of stent thrombosis after a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and may decrease the occurrence of non-stent-related ischaemic events in patients with ACS. Nevertheless, compared with aspirin alone, extended use of aspirin plus a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor may increase the risk of bleeding events that have been strongly linked to adverse outcomes including recurrent ischaemia, repeat hospitalisation and death. In the past years, multiple randomised trials have been published comparing the duration of DAPT after PCI and in ACS patients, investigating either a shorter or prolonged DAPT regimen. Although the current European Society of Cardiology guidelines provide a backup to individualised treatment, it appears to be difficult to identify the ideal patient profile which could safely reduce or prolong the DAPT duration in daily clinical practice. The aim of this consensus document is to review contemporary literature on optimal DAPT duration, and to guide clinicians in tailoring antiplatelet strategies in patients undergoing PCI or presenting with ACS.

7.
J Thorac Dis ; 9(Suppl 9): S969-S978, 2017 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28894603

ABSTRACT

Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BRS) represent the latest innovation in the field of interventional cardiology. BRS have recently been introduced in routine clinical practice and their use has progressively extended in everyday clinical practice. The BRS use appears theoretically attractive in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) as they are generally young with long life expectancy, thus possibly benefiting more of the so-called vascular reparative therapy. Furthermore, "culprit" lesions are usually softer and more easily expandable by current BRS compared to stable chronic lesions. However an increased risk of BRS thrombosis has been reported in clinical trials excluding ACS patients. Therefore, concerns have been raised on the safety of BRS implantation in the ACS setting in which the risk of thrombotic recurrences is definitely higher (compared to stable lesions) independently by the device implanted. Aim of this review is to provide an overview of the available data on the BRS performance in ACS patients.

8.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 89(7): 1129-1138, 2017 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27774758

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility and the clinical results following a prespecified bioresorbable vascular scaffold (Absorb BVS) implantation strategy in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. BACKGROUNDS: Concerns raised about the BVS safety in STEMI setting because a not negligible thrombosis rate was reported within 30 days and 12 months after implantation. Technical procedural issues related to the structural BVS features were advocated as probable causes for the thrombotic events. METHODS: This is an investigators-owned and -directed, prospective, nonrandomized, single-arm multicenter registry intended to obtain data from 500 consecutive STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI with BVS (1.1 or GT1) following a prespecified implantation protocol. The study is recorded in ClinicalTrials.gov with the identifier: NCT02601781. RESULTS: The primary endpoint is a device-oriented composite end-point (DOCE) of cardiac death, any myocardial infarction clearly attributable to the intervention culprit vessel and ischemic-driven target lesion revascularization within 30 days after the index procedure. The DOCE will be assessed even at 6-month, 1-, 3-, and 5-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This will be the first study investigating the feasibility and the early- and long-term clinical impact of a prespecified BVS implantation protocol in thrombotic lesions causing STEMI. Here, we describe the rationale and the design of the study. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Subject(s)
Absorbable Implants , Cardiovascular Agents/administration & dosage , Coated Materials, Biocompatible , Coronary Thrombosis/therapy , Everolimus/administration & dosage , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/instrumentation , Polymers/chemistry , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cardiovascular Agents/adverse effects , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Thrombosis/mortality , Everolimus/adverse effects , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/mortality , Prospective Studies , Prosthesis Design , Recurrence , Registries , Research Design , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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