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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 891711, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039697

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the "post-2015 End TB strategy", that aims to end the global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic by 2030. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted global public health and the strict measures to control the coronavirus spread can affect the management of other diseases, such as TB. Herein, we aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the diagnosis of TB in Brazil, during 2020. Methods: We carried out an ecological and population-based study, using spatial analysis techniques. The variables used were the new cases of TB, pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), and also baciloscopy-positive (BP) cases in Brazil between 2015 and 2020. The percentage of changes (% change) was calculated to verify if there was an increase or decrease of TB cases in 2020, along with time trend analyses given by Joinpoint regression model. Also, interrupted time series analyses were used to assess the trend of TB diagnosis before and after the onset of the COVID-19 in Brazil. Spatial distribution maps were elaborated, considering the % change of each Brazilian state. Findings: Data analyses showed a reduction in the diagnosis of TB (-8.3%) and PTB (-8.1%) in Brazil after the irruption of the COVID-19 pandemic. Likewise, 22 states depicted a reduction in TB diagnosis. An expressive reduction of BP cases (-17.1%) was also observed. Interestingly, interrupted time series analysis showed decline in TB and PTB diagnoses from March 2020. Spatial analyses revealed that all states had a progressive reduction of TB, PTB and PB cases, from March on, with the highest percentages of reduction in December (-100% to -75%). Interpretation: Taken together, our analyses demonstrated a reduction in TB diagnosis after the irruption of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil and its regions, signaling a serious impact on the WHO "End TB Strategy" global plan.

2.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1940270

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the “post-2015 End TB strategy”, that aims to end the global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic by 2030. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted global public health and the strict measures to control the coronavirus spread can affect the management of other diseases, such as TB. Herein, we aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the diagnosis of TB in Brazil, during 2020. Methods: We carried out an ecological and population-based study, using spatial analysis techniques. The variables used were the new cases of TB, pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), and also baciloscopy-positive (BP) cases in Brazil between 2015 and 2020. The percentage of changes (% change) was calculated to verify if there was an increase or decrease of TB cases in 2020, along with time trend analyses given by Joinpoint regression model. Also, interrupted time series analyses were used to assess the trend of TB diagnosis before and after the onset of the COVID-19 in Brazil. Spatial distribution maps were elaborated, considering the % change of each Brazilian state. Findings: Data analyses showed a reduction in the diagnosis of TB (−8.3%) and PTB (−8.1%) in Brazil after the irruption of the COVID-19 pandemic. Likewise, 22 states depicted a reduction in TB diagnosis. An expressive reduction of BP cases (−17.1%) was also observed. Interestingly, interrupted time series analysis showed decline in TB and PTB diagnoses from March 2020. Spatial analyses revealed that all states had a progressive reduction of TB, PTB and PB cases, from March on, with the highest percentages of reduction in December (−100% to −75%). Interpretation: Taken together, our analyses demonstrated a reduction in TB diagnosis after the irruption of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil and its regions, signaling a serious impact on the WHO “End TB Strategy” global plan.

3.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 9: 100181, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic caused by COVID-19 has seriously affected global health, resulting in the suspension of many regular health services, making the diagnosis of other infections difficult. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the diagnosis of leprosy in Brazil during the year 2020. METHODS: We evaluated the monthly incidence of leprosy and calculated the percentage change to verify whether there was an increase or decrease in the number of leprosy cases in 2020, considering the monthly average of cases over the previous 5 years. We used interrupted time series analysis to assess the trend in the diagnosis of leprosy before and after the start of COVID-19 in Brazil and prepared spatial distribution maps, considering the percentage variation in each state. FINDINGS: We verified a reduction of 41.4% of leprosy cases in Brazil in 2020. Likewise, there was a reduction of leprosy notifications in children under 15 years-old (-56.82%). Conversely, the diagnosis of multibacillary leprosy increased (8.1%). There was a decreasing trend in the leprosy incidence in the general population between 2015 and 2020 in Brazil. Spatial distribution maps depicted a reduction of up to 100% in new cases of leprosy in some states. INTERPRETATION: Along with COVID-19 spread there was a reduction in leprosy diagnosis in the general population and children under 15 years-old, and also an increase in multibacillary cases diagnosed, signalling a serious impact of the pandemic on leprosy control strategies in Brazil. FUNDING: This research received no specific grants.

5.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67Suppl 1(Suppl 1): 29-34, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309989

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the disease caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In the ongoing obesity pandemic, its coexistence with COVID-19 becomes worrying and has a less favorable outcome. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the clinical and epidemiological profiles of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in individuals with obesity in the state of Alagoas. METHODS: The observational cross-sectional study involving 138 confirmed cases of COVID-19 who had obesity as a comorbidity reported at the time of notification of the disease. The data were collected from the COVID-19 database in the state of Alagoas, and the variables analyzed were sex, age (and age group), race/color, outcome, clinical manifestations, and associated comorbidities. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney U, χ², or Fisher's exact tests were performed as appropriate. The significance was set at 5 and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: There was a predominance of females (55.1%; n=76), aged <60 years (70.3%; n=97) and brown race/color (n=76; 55.1%). The most prevalent symptoms were cough (n=84; 60.9%), fever (n=78; 56.5%), headache (n=36; 26.1%), and adynamia (n=28; 20.3%). The median age was 49 years, with no difference between genders (p=0.340). The lethality rate was 17.4% (n=24), being higher in the male population (22.6% in males and 13.2% in females). Of the 24 deaths, 13 (54.2%) were recorded in the elderly people. In addition to obesity, 54.3% (n=75) had systemic arterial hypertension and 30.4% (n=42) had diabetes mellitus. There was no difference in the prevalence of comorbidity between genders. CONCLUSIONS: The profile studied demonstrates that obesity represents a challenge for coping with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Dermatol ; 60(8): 1003-1006, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280318

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the detection of new cases of leprosy in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The periods January-September 2019 and January-September 2020 were compared. There was a 44.40% reduction in the diagnosis of leprosy when comparing the two periods (1,705 in 2019 and 948 in 2020). There was a reduction in the number of municipalities with reported cases: 251 municipalities in 2019 and 202 in 2020, expressing a reduction of 24.25%. Considering only the months following the arrival of the virus (April-September), the reduction was 51.10%. An inverse correlation was observed between the number of new cases of leprosy and the cumulative number of cases of COVID-19 (Spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.840; P < 0.001) and the number of new monthly cases of COVID-19 (Spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.817; P < 0.001). A slight increase was also observed in the proportion of multibacillary cases in the state (70.38% in 2019 and 72.69% in 2020) as well as in the proportion of individuals with the degree of physical disability not assessed at diagnosis, whose proportion rose from 16.39% in 2019 to 22.53% in 2020. The negative impact of COVID-19 in tackling leprosy should be seen as a warning sign for health and political authorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leprosy , Brazil/epidemiology , Endemic Diseases , Humans , Leprosy/diagnosis , Leprosy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 124, 2020 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was confirmed in Brazil in February 2020. Since then, the disease has spread throughout the country, reaching the poorest areas. This study analyzes the relationship between COVID-19 and the population's living conditions. We aimed to identify social determinants related to the incidence, mortality, and case fatality rate of COVID-19 in Brazil, in 2020. METHODS: This is an ecological study evaluating the relationship between COVID-19 incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates and 49 social indicators of human development and social vulnerability. For the analysis, bivariate spatial correlation and multivariate and spatial regression models (spatial lag model and spatial error models) were used, considering a 95% confidence interval and a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: A total of 44.8% of municipalities registered confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 14.7% had deaths. We observed that 56.2% of municipalities with confirmed cases had very low human development (COVID-19 incidence rate: 59.00/100 000; mortality rate: 36.75/1 000 000), and 52.8% had very high vulnerability (COVID-19 incidence rate: 41.68/100 000; mortality rate: 27.46/1 000 000). The regression model showed 17 indicators associated with transmission of COVID-19 in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Although COVID-19 first arrived in the most developed and least vulnerable municipalities in Brazil, it has already reached locations that are farther from large urban centers, whose populations are exposed to a context of intense social vulnerability. Based on these findings, it is necessary to adopt measures that take local social aspects into account in order to contain the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health , Adolescent , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Confidence Intervals , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Education , Employment , Humans , Incidence , Income , Longevity , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Poverty , Regression Analysis , Sanitation , Sewage , Social Conditions , Spatial Analysis , Water Supply/standards , Young Adult
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