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1.
Indian Journal of Transplantation ; 16(4):397-404, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2217244

ABSTRACT

Cellular and humoral responses are required for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) eradication. Antigen-presenting cells load SARS-CoV-2 peptides on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) with different avidities and present to T- and B-cells for imposing humoral and cellular responses. Due to immunosuppression, renal transplant recipient (RTR) patients are speculated to poorly form the antibody against the SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, determining the association of specific HLA alleles with anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody formation will be helpful in managing the RTR having specific HLA alleles from SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. Material(s) and Method(s): In this study, anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody in 161 RTRs was determined by the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay methods, and HLA alleles were determined by the polymerase chain reaction-single-strand oligonucleotide methods and analyzed to study the HLA allele association with anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-specific humoral response and severity of COVID-19 symptoms in recently SARS-CoV-2-infected RTRs. Result(s): The anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein specific antibody seroconversion rate in RTRs was 90.06% with a median titer of 751.80 AU/ml. The HLA class I alleles, A*11 in 22.1%, A*24 in 21.37%, A*33 in 20.68%, HLA B*15 in 11%, B*07 in 8.27%, HLA-C*30 in 20.93%, C*70 in 23.25% and HLA Class II alleles, DRB1*07 in 18.62%, DRB1*04 in 13.8%, HLA-DRB1*10 in 14.48%, HLA-DQA1*50 in 32.55% of RTRs were associated with the seroconversion. The mean SARS-CoV-2 clearance time was 18.25 +/- 8.14 days. Conclusion(s): RTRs with SARS-CoV-2 infection developed a robust seroconversion rate of 90.0% and different alleles of HLA-B, DRB1, and DQA1 were significantly associated with the seroconversion. Copyright © 2022 Indian Journal of Transplantation.

2.
Emerging Infectious Diseases ; 29(2):371-380, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215191

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 has become dominant in most countries and has raised significant global health concerns. As a global commerce center, New York, New York, USA, constantly faces the risk for multiple variant introductions of SARS-CoV-2. To elucidate the introduction and transmission of the Omicron variant in the city of New York, we created a comprehensive genomic and epidemiologic analysis of 392 Omicron virus specimens collected during November 25-December 11, 2021. We found evidence of 4 independent introductions of Omicron subclades, including the Omicron subclade BA.1.1 with defining substitution of R346K in the spike protein. The continuous genetic divergence within each Omicron subclade revealed their local community transmission and co-circulation in New York, including both household and workplace transmissions supported by epidemiologic evidence. Our study highlights the urgent need for enhanced genomic surveillance and effective response planning for better prevention and management of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

3.
Indian Journal of Nephrology ; 32(7 Supplement 1):S15-S16, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2201608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Different vaccines have been developed against SARS nCoV 19 and deployed in mass immunization campaigns across the world. In India, Covishield (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) manufactured by Serum Institute of India) and Covaxin (BBV152) manufactured by Bharat Biotech are two such vaccines that have been made available. The former is a replication-deficient adenovirus vaccine while the latter is an inactivated whole virion vaccine. There has been many case reports of new onset or relapse of glomerular disease occurring after Covid-19 vaccination. This is attributed to heighten off target effect of immune response of the vaccine. AIM OF THE STUDY: We present a case series of four patients where glomerular disease manifested for the first time after Covid-19 vaccination in our center. METHOD(S): We have included in our case series those patients whose clinical features manifested for the first time within 1 month of Covid-19 vaccination and whose renal biopsy showed glomerular pathology. RESULT(S): Case 1: A 12-year-old male presented to us with abrupt onset of edema leading to anasarca on 30/4/2022. He had received first dose of Covid-19 vaccine (Covaxin) on 26/4/2022. His labs showed urine protein of 3+ and nil RBC, serum creatinine 0.7 mg/dl, serum albumin 1.9 mg/dl, and dyslipidemia (total cholesterol 378 mg/dl, triglycerides 191 mg/ dl). He underwent renal biopsy in view of nephrotic syndrome. It was suggestive of minimal change disease. He was started on prednisolone at 2 mg/kg/day. Case 2: A 39-year-old female presented to us with abrupt onset of maculopapular rash, fever, and bilateral lower limb swelling on 25/1/2022. She had received second dose of Covid-19 vaccine (Covishield) on the same day in the morning. She was found to have hypertension with BP of 160/100 mm Hg. Her labs showed urine protein of 2+ and 18-20 RBC/high power field, serum creatinine 1.9 mg/dl, serum albumin 3.7 mg/dl, negative ANA and ANCA, and normal complement levels. She underwent renal biopsy in view of renal failure with active urinary sediments. It was suggestive of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Case 3: A 37-year-old male patient with history of hypertension (on irregular treatment) presented to us with history of gross hematuria without passage of clots in May 2022 about three days after receiving booster dose of Covishield vaccine. He did not have edema, rash, joint pain, or decreased urine output. His labs showed urine protein of 2+ and 5-6 RBC/high power field, serum creatinine 2.0 mg/dl, serum albumin 4.0 mg/dl, negative ANA and ANCA, and normal complement levels. He underwent renal biopsy in view of renal failure with active urinary sediments. It was suggestive of IgA nephropathy (M1E0S1T1C0). Case 4: An 18-year-old female with family history of nail patella syndrome presented to us with history of abrupt onset of edema of both lower limbs on 21/11/2021. She also had rash at the time of presentation. She had received first dose of Covid-19 vaccine (Covaxin) on 20/11/2021. Her labs showed urine protein of 2+ and numerous RBC/high power field, serum creatinine 1.4 mg/dl, serum albumin 2.98 mg/dl, negative ANA, and dsDNA and low complement levels (C3 14.1 mg/dl, C4 10.1 mg/dl: both being low). She underwent renal biopsy in view of renal failure with active urinary sediments. It was suggestive of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). She was started on prednisolone at 1 mg/kg/day. CONCLUSION(S): Different vaccines have different mechanisms of action, but their target remains the spike protein of the SARS Cov2 virus. Glomerular disease has mostly been reported with mRNA-based vaccines. Here we have reported glomerular disease occurring in close temporal relation to Covishield and Covaxin which have different mechanism of action. There have been reports of IgA nephropathy, minimal change disease and FSGS which manifested soon after vaccination. MPGN after Covid-19 vaccination is rarely seen. Thus, this case series shows that post- Covid vaccination glomerular disease can have varied pathologies.

4.
Indian Journal of Nephrology ; 32(7 Supplement 1):S42, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2201607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) affected multiple organs including kidney. SARSCoV- 2 open reading frame protein 3a induces necroptosis in infected cell leading release of mtDNA which binds to TLR9 and trigger innate immunity which may lead to acute allograft injury. AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the specificity and sensitivity of urinary mitochondrial DNA (umt-DNA) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in predicting COVID-19-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) mitochondrial stress and inflammation. METHOD(S): Live-related RTRs (n = 66) who acquired SARSCoV- 2 infection and were admitted to a COVID hospital were included and subclassified into AKI (N = 19) with >25% spike in serum creatinine level from the pre-COVID-19 serum creatinine level and non-AKI (N = 47) whose serum creatinine value remained stable similar to the baseline value or a rise of < 25% of the baseline values of pre-COVID-19. A 50 ml urine sample was collected and umt-DNA and N-GAL was determined by the RT-PCR and ELISA methods respectively. A 1 x 106 PBMCs were stimulated for 24 hrs. with 1mug/ml of urinary DNA or CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (5) in duplicate. Unstimulated PBMCs served as control. The gene expression of IL-10 IL-6 and MYD88 was analyzed by the RT-PCR and IL-6 IL-10 level in supernatants by the ELISA. RESULT(S): Both the urinary mitochondrial gene ND-1 and NGAL level were significantly higher in AKI group compared to non-AKI. The mean ND-1 gene Ct in AKI group was (19.44 +/- 2.58 a.u) compared to non-AKI (21.77 +/- 3.60;p = 0.013). The normalized ND-1 gene Ct in AKI was (0.79 +/- 0.11 a.u) compared to non- AKI (0.89+0.14;P = 0.007). The median urinary NGAL level in AKI group was (453.53;range, 320.22-725.02, 95% CI) ng/ml compared to non-AKI (212.78;range, 219.80-383.06, 95%CI;p = 0.015). The median urine creatinine normalized uNGAL was 4.78 (0.58-70.39) ng/mg in AKI group compared to 11.26 ng/mg (0.41-329.71) in non-AKI group. The area under curve of ND-1 gene Ct was 0.725, normalized ND-1 Ct was 0.713, and uNGAL was 0.663 and normalized uNGAL was 0.667 for detecting the AKI and mitochondrial stress. The IL-10 gene expression was downregulated in umt-DNA-treated PBMCs compared to control (-3.5 +/- 0.40 vs 1.02 +/- 0.02, p < 0.001). IL-6 and Myd88 gene expression was upregulated. The culture supernatant IL-10 and IL-6 level in umt-DNA treatment PBMCs vs control was 10.65 +/- 2.02 vs 30.3 +/- 5.47, p = 0.001 pg/ml;and 200.2 +/- 33.67 vs 47.6 +/- 12.83pg/ml, p = 0.001 respectively. CONCLUSION(S): Urinary mt-DNA quantification can detect the Covid-associated AKI and mitochondrial distress with higher sensitivity than uNGAL in RTRs and induces inflammation in PBMCs.

5.
Indian Journal of Nephrology ; 32(7 Supplement 1):S103-S104, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2201605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term outcomes of renal transplant recipients (RTR) affected by SARS-COV2 infection are an unexplored area particularly given the heightened immunosuppression and post-COVID-19 sequelae and increased fungal infections. We aimed to analyze the patient and graft outcomes, infectious and non-infectious sequelae in RTR with COVID-19 over a long-term follow-up of 24 months. AIM OF THE STUDY: To analyze the patient and graft outcomes, infectious and non-infectious sequelae in RTR with COVID-19 over a long-term follow-up of 24 months. METHOD(S): This retrospective study included the RTR admitted during the two pandemic waves between March 25, 2020, and July 31, 2021. The survivors were followed for a maximum period of 24 months (till September 2022) and were studied for readmission rates, serious infection requiring hospitalization (SIRH), graft dysfunctions and biopsy-proven acute rejections (BPAR), patient and graft survival. RESULT(S): Of 251 RTRs with SARS-COV2 infection, 104 were treated during the first wave and 147 during the second wave. After an index mortality noted in 38 patients (15.1% - 11.5% in first wave vs 17.5% in second wave, P = 0.23), follow-up data of 213 patients were analyzed. 45 patients were lost to follow-up, and a complete follow-up data was available for 168 patients. A total of 70 patients (41.7%) required readmission with SIRH being the most common indication for readmission (19.6%) followed by rejection (8.9%). Patients who received high dose steroids during the COVID-19 illness had higher SIRH (32.4% vs 16%, p = 0.027). However, graft dysfunctions (13.5% vs 16%, p = 0.70) and the BPAR (8.1%vs9.2%, p = 0.84) were similar in both the groups. Overall mortality (5.4% vs 6.9%, p = 0.75) and graft loss (10.8% vs 5.3%, p = 0.23) were also similar at 24-month follow-up. CONCLUSION(S): The high-dose corticosteroid dosing in the RTRs during COVID-19 appears to be associated with increased infectious complications over long-term although the overall patient and graft survival was similar.

6.
Indian Journal of Nephrology ; 32(7 Supplement 1):S29, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2201593

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A significant reduction of acute rejection rates was observed after using Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in renal transplant recipients (RTR). However side-effects like hematological and gastrointestinal intolerance often occur when MMF is used in routine doses. MMF dose reduction is required during its side-effects or coexisting infection in RTR. The outcome of MMF dose modulation in RTR is not well established AIM OF THE STUDY: COVID-19 pandemic has given an opportunity to study the effect of MMF dose modulation on graft function as large number of RTR who had COVID-19 received MMF dose reduction or discontinuation. This study's objective was to determine whether MMF dose reduction or discontinuation was associated with the effect on allograft function after renal transplantation. We included all RTR who had an infection with SARS-CoV2 and received MMF dose reduction or discontinuation METHODS: We prospectively collected data of renal transplant recipients developing COVID-19 infection during the first and second covid waves. Management including decision on admission immunosuppression modulation antibiotics were done based on clinician'S discretion subject to logistics and the prevailing guidelines by the ISOT. All patients were followed up for minimum 15 months for graft dysfunction biopsy rate biopsy-proven acute rejection ( BPAR). The effect of immunosuppression modulation - MMF cessation (Group A) Vs MMF reduction/no manipulation (Group B) and its bearing on the incidence of rejection and was compared. Additional factors such as follow - up sub therapeutic CNI levels development of DSA ( when done ) steroid increment were studied regression model. Kaplan - Meier survival curves for 24 months drawn. RESULT(S): Among 251 renal transplant patients with SARSCoV2 infection, 38 patients died during Index admission. 45 patients have not completed for 15 months. 168 patients completed 15 month follow - up. Among them, antimetabolite were reduced in 115 (68.5%), stopped in 42 (25%), not manipulated in 5 ( 3%) and 6 patients were not on anti-metabolites and hence excluded from present analysis. Of the 162 patients, MMF had been stopped for 2 weeks or until presumed clinical recovery in 42 patients ( Group A) and the rest in 120 patients ( Group B). Mean age was 41.18 ( i' +/- 12.8), and 75.6% had mild COVID. Median duration of followup was 18 months ( 14q1-22q3 months). Total readmission rate was 66 (40.7%) (Group A 21 (50%) Vs Group B 45 (37.5%). Graft biopsy was done in 16% of patients. 9.3% patients had acute rejection (11.9% Vs 8.3%, p 0.05). Among those who had rejection, ABMR was seen in 2, ACR in 3, CABMR in 5 and combined rejection in 1 CONCLUSION(S): MMF dose modulation to tackle an infectious episode may be associated with graft dysfunction and rejection on follow-up and close follow-up is needed in any patient in whom MMF dose in manipulated.

7.
Indian Journal of Nephrology ; 32(7 Supplement 1):S39, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2201585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cellular and humoral response are required for SARS-CoV-2 eradication. Antigen-presenting cell loads SARS-CoV-2 peptides on human leukocyte antigen with different avidity and present to T and B cell for humoral and cellular activity. Due to immunosuppression, renal transplant recipient patients are speculated to poorly form the antibody against SARS-CoV-2 virus. Therefore, determining the association of specific HLA alleles with anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody formation will be helpful in managing the renal transplant recipient patients having specific HLA alleles from SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. AIM OF THE STUDY: To study the association of human leukocyte antigens with anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody formation in response to vaccination in renal allograft recipient METHODS: In this study, anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody in 78 renal allograft recipient patients were determined by the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay methods and human leukocyte antigen alleles were determined by the polymerase chain reaction-single strand oligonucleotide methods and analyzed to study the association of human leukocyte antigens with anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody formation in response to vaccination in renal allograft recipient RESULTS: The mean age of the patients in seroconversion vs non-seroconversion (45.88 +/- 8.86 vs 45.55 +/- 8.74, p value - 0.90). The post-transplant interval in seroconversion vs non-seroconversion (103.63 +/- 57.57 vs 77.45 +/- 35.25, p value - 0.14). The duration between the vaccination with both the doses and sample collection of renal transplant recipients in seroconversion vs non- seroconversion (47.58 +/- 30.18 vs 45.55 +/- 35, p value - 0.85). The anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody seroconversion rate in renal allograft recipients were 85.9% with median titer in seroconversion vs non- seroconversion 3175.00 (IQR, 798.50 - 8391.70) vs 5.50 (IQR, 4.10 - 8.20, p value - 0.001). In covishield vs covaxin group 2500.70 (IQR, 146.40 - 7705.60) vs 1828.70 (IQR, 665.00 - 3765.10, p value - 0.63). The frequency of HLA class I alleles A*26 was 18.18%, B*08 was 18.18%, C*05 was 25% and Class II HLA alleles - DRB1*03 was 18.18%, and HLADQA1* 20 was 25% of patient were significantly associated with non-seroconversion and C*06 was 18.75% were significantly associated with seroconversion. CONCLUSION(S): Renal transplant recipients with anti-SARSCoV- 2 vaccination developed a robust seroconversion rate of 85.9% and alleles of A*26, B*08, C*05, DRB1*03, and DQA1*20 were significantly associated with non-seroconversion.

8.
Indian Journal of Transplantation ; 16(5):106-111, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2163908

ABSTRACT

Infections are common after solid organ transplantation (SOT) and are an important cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Many of these infections can be prevented or their severity reduced by vaccination in pre and posttransplantation period. It is better to complete the vaccination before transplantation as protection and seroconversion is better, and live vaccines are mostly contraindicated after SOT. Live vaccines should be given at least 4 weeks before transplantation but killed vaccines can be given up to 2 weeks before the planned transplantation. Vaccination for some diseases which are endemic in South Asia should be given, along with usual vaccinations. Serological monitoring is required for some vaccines to check their efficacy. Similarly, some vaccines are recommended for SOT recipients traveling to various endemic regions. Copyright © 2022 Indian Journal of Transplantation Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

9.
Advances in Human Biology ; 12(2):174-179, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2155511

ABSTRACT

Introduction: A highly infectious and life-threatening novel coronavirus Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) has been spreading worldwide, causing severe medical complications and practising dentistry is becoming difficult. To reduce the risk of spread of coronavirus infection between dentist and patient, teledentistry, an innovative digital tool, has the potential to reach patients straightforward without direct contact. Materials and Methods: A self-structured standard questionnaire was framed and distributed among dentists from July 2021 to August 2021. The survey consisted of 15 closed-ended and multiple-choice questions related to awareness, knowledge and attitude of teledentistry during this COVID 19 pandemic. After proper validation of the questionnaire from the experts and evaluating reliability, the survey was conducted by forwarding the link of the Google Form through social media. Totally 520 participants responded to the survey. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS statistical software version 21. All statistical analyses were carried out at a significance level of P < 0.05. The descriptive data were analysed and compared using the Chi-square test. Results: Among specialists, general practitioners, postgraduate students and undergraduate students, specialists have better awareness, knowledge and attitude of teledentistry. Almost all participants have 50% knowledge about teledentistry and have a high (80%) attitude towards teledentistry. Conclusion: From this study, it is clearly understood that it is high time to increase the use of teledentistry practice by spreading knowledge among dentists and dental students. It is potentially an innovative digital tool in this new era of dentistry. It is an effective tool not only in the current pandemic situation but also in emergencies. Thus, teledentistry is a satisfied boon in the field of dentistry through the use of digital technology.

10.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 33:363-364, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2125759

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory corona virus-2(SARS-CoV-2) affected multiple organs including Kidney. SARS-CoV-2 open reading frame protein 3a induces necroptosis in infected cell leading release of mt-DNA, which binds to TLR9 and trigger innate immunity, which may lead to acute allograft injury. Method(s): Sixty-six live related renal allograft recipient previously hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection were recruited after 2-3week of discharge. Patients were categorized either in non-AKI(n=47) or AKI(n=19) group, if hospitalization serum creatinine level was >30% of preCovid serum creatinine. A 50ml urine sample was collected for the umt-DNA gene NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain1(ND-1) and nuclear 36B4 gene quantification by RT-PCR and urine N-GAL measurement by ELISA. A 10ml blood sample from 10healthy volunteers was collected for PBMCs isolation. A 1x106 PBMCs were stimulated for 24hrs. with 1mug/ml of urinary DNA or CpG oligodeoxynucleotide(5'-tcgtcgttttcggcgc:gcgccg-3') in duplicate. Unstimulated PBMCs served as control. The gene expression of IL-10, IL-6, MYD88 was analyzed by the RT-PCR and IL-6, IL-10 level in supernatants by the ELISA. Result(s): The precovid creatinine in non-AKI vs AKI patient was 1.06+/-0.20vs0.97+/-0.27, p=.14;at hospitalization 1.27+/-0.18vs1.84 +/-0.37, p<.001;at discharge 1.09+/-0.20vs1.11+/-0.32mg/dl, p=0.73. The mean ND-1 gene Ct in non-AKI vs AKI was 21.77+/-3.60vs19.44+/-2.58a.u, p=.013. The normalized ND-1 Ct in non-AKI vs AKI was 0.89+0.14vs0.79+/-0.11a.u, P=0.007. The median urinary N-GAL level in non-AKI vs AKI group was 212.78 (range, 219.8-383.06) vs 453.5 (range, 320.2-725.02;p=0.015) ng/ml. The area under curve of ND-1 Ct gene was 0.73, normalized ND-1 Ct was 0.71, uNGAL was 0.66 and normalized uNGAL was 0.68 for detecting the AKI. The IL-10 gene expression was downregulated in umt-DNA treated PBMCs compared to control (-3.5+/-0.40vs1.02+/-0.02, p<0.001). IL-6 and Myd88 gene expression was upregulated. The culture supernatant IL-10 and IL-6 level in umt-DNA treatment PBMCs vs control was 10.65+/-2.02 vs 30.3+/-5.47, p=0.001;and 200.2+/-33.67 vs 47.6+/-12.83, p=0.001 respectively. Conclusion(s): Quantification of umt-DNA can detect the post covid19 mitochondrial distress with higher sensitivity compare to uNGAL. umt-DNA induces robust inflammatory response in PBMCs may exacerbate the post-Covid19 allograft injury.

11.
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 14(11):1-12, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2146053

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, first reported pneumonia like symptoms with unknown aetiology caused by a novel coronavirus. The novel coronavirus was renamed as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by Coronaviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses and the disease was termed as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). As of 19 August, 2022, the infection has reached above 220 countries, areas or territories with a total of 591 683 619 confirmed cases and 6 443 306 deaths, as published by the World Health Organization (WHO). SARS-CoV-2 is strongly contagious as it has R0, 2.2-2.6, in comparison to SARS-CoV (<1) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) (1.4-2.5), respectively. SARS-CoV-2 might become less virulent than the SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, with the currently analyzed mortality of COVID-19 is 3.4%. The original SARS-CoV-2 has undergone "virus evolution"with the occurrence of numerous variants such as Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta etc. Recently, the circulating variant of concern is Omicron subvariants. Currently, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based detection of the viral genome (RNA) is the gold standard for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. At present, Remdesivir (RDV) and Baricitinib drugs as well as vaccines Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna have been approved for the treatment of COVID-19 by Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In this review, we summarized the existing state of knowledge on approved antiviral therapy, combination therapy, blood-derived therapeutics and immunomodulators to treat COVID-19 pandemic. Copyright © 2022 The Authors.

12.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(9):6610-6615, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2145472

ABSTRACT

Pandemic was present for the entire world from 2019 to 20. Due to this reason the workload for doctors and other healthcare professionals were increased. This workload will be eased by machine learning and the development of computer-aided analytical systems. The goal of the proposed methodology is towards the prevalence of COVID-19 to cost/benefit predictions on real-life dataset. Our proposed methodology is given for weka classification for the accuracy measurement ratios by applying 1R machine learning classifiers Considering the development of clustering with positive and negative occurrences ratios in terms of cost-benefit analysis's initial care projections. In this study 1R Supervised Machine Learning Algorithm have been applied to Covid 19 dataset provided by healthcare organization. The best classification accuracy is obtained from the algorithm of 1R with 75.54%. In this paper visualization Cost/Benefit Analysis and also analysed. Copyright © 2022, Anka Publishers. All rights reserved.

13.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2150222.v1

ABSTRACT

Pandemic was present for the entire world from 2019 to 2020. Due to this reason the workload for doctors and other healthcare professionals were increased. This workload will be eased by machine learning and the development of computer-aided analytical systems. The goal of the proposed methodology is towards the prevalence of COVID-19 to cost/benefit predictions on real-life dataset. Our proposed methodology is given for weka classification for the accuracy measurement ratios by applying 1R machine learning classifiers Considering the development of clustering with positive and negative occurrences ratios in terms of cost-benefit analysis's initial care projections. In this study 1R Supervised Machine Learning Algorithm have been applied to Covid 19 dataset provided by healthcare organization. The best classification accuracy is obtained from the algorithm of 1R with 75.54%. In this paper visualization Cost/Benefit Analysis and also analysed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
15.
17.
Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth ; 15(7):S46-S48, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024851

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has caused a pandemic since the end of the year 2019. Controversy regarding the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 in tears and conjunctival sac has created suspense throughout. Moderate to severe dry eye has been observed in the patients infected with COVID-19. Material and Method: We conducted a descriptive, prospective observational study. We enrolled 16 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria for our study. Patients affected with acute COVID-19 from 28-9-2020 to 9-10-2020 registered at our hospital and willing to participate were included. Tears and conjunctival swabs were taken at the interval of 24 h;consecutively three samples were taken from one COVID-19 infected patient. In total, 48 samples were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Result: We had 16 participants, 47% were females and 53% were males;2/16 [12.5%] patients showed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in tears and conjunctival swabs. Both the infected patients were females, and they did not have any obvious abnormal ocular conditions. Schirmer strip reading, however, showed a severe dry eye in both the patients. Conclusion: We identified dry eye ranging from mild to moderate to severe [Schirmer 1 reading ranged from 2 to 8 mm] in all our patients admitted to the COVID-19 ward. The SARS-CoV-2 gene seems to be mutating. More work needs to be done to find the viral load in the tears and any abnormalities in the eyes accordingly. © Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth 2022.

18.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 40(2): 112-117, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954367

ABSTRACT

Background: In this COVID era, it's critical to promote nonaerosol procedures. Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) is one of them, and it's particularly effective in children for lowering anxiety, enhancing dental health, and giving restorative care. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the survival rate of ART compared with conventional treatment procedures in primary dentition. Materials and Methods: The review was done in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analysis statement and is been registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021213729). The studies included comprised clinical investigations with randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared the survival rate of ART and conventional restorative treatments using the same or different restorative materials to treat carious lesion. RCTs in which ART was compared with conventional treatment on patients in the age group of 6-10 years with minimum follow-up of 6 months. Studies available as open access and free full text in PubMed, DOAJ, and Google Scholar databases, and published in English Language only were included in the study. Cochrane's collaboration tool for RCTs was used for the assessment of risk of bias. Results: The survival rate of single surface and multiple surface in primary dentition treated according to the ART compared with conventional treatment was found to be similar. Conclusion: The ART approach is equally helpful in managing dental caries in children and this method may be considered a useful intervention in clinical practice to enhance the dental health of children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment , Dental Caries , Child , Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment/methods , Dental Caries/therapy , Dental Restoration, Permanent/methods , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Survival Rate , Tooth, Deciduous
19.
Infect Dis Now ; 52(5): 286-293, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930875

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the outcomes of COVID-19 Renal Transplant Recipients (RTRs) managed on an ambulatory basis to that of inpatient management. DESIGN, SETTING, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study in Lucknow, India, comparing the ambulatory management with the historical cohort managed in the hospital.R RTRs with mild COVID-19 were managed by supervised home-based self-monitoring (HBSM), a strategy to manage this high-risk group on an outpatient basis during the second wave of the pandemic. The primary outcome was the clinical deterioration to a higher severity category among RTRs with mild COVID-19 managed by HBSM compared to hospitalized patients within two weeks of disease onset. RESULTS: Of the 149 RTRs with mild COVID-19, 94 (63%) and 55 (37%) were managed by HBSM and in the hospital, respectively. The proportion of RTRs who clinically deteriorated to a higher severity category (moderate or severe category) was similar among both groups (28.7% versus 27.2%, P=0.849). Among RTRs with clinical deterioration, COVID-19-related death was reported in two patients of the HBSM group and in none of the patients of the hospitalized group. Graft dysfunction was higher in the hospitalized group (7.4% versus 27.2%, P=0.002). Median time to complete clinical recovery (7 days in both groups), secondary bacterial infections (25% versus 33.3%, P=0.41), and the mean decline in EQ-5D score from baseline at six weeks (-6.6 versus-4.3, P=0.105) were found to be similar in both groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Deterioration , Kidney Transplantation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection ; 42(4):476-482, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1918755

ABSTRACT

Post reporting of deadly virus infecting mankind in city of Wuhan (China) major changes in socio-economic conditions have been encountered. Being reported on 31st December 2019, later named Covid-19 disease has been declared global pandemic on March 11th, 2020 by WHO. Assuming 40-60% people of entire world might get affected due to this virus, lockdown was imposed as an immediate action. This was to curtail transmission of virus through physical contact. This lockdown has shown significant impact on air pollution on a global scale which needs to be analysed for further requirements. It is a known fact that air pollution impacts human respiratory system. Hence analysis of particulate matter and air pollutants post-lockdown and pre-lockdown during Covid pandemic may yield significant results. Even though treatment and prevention of Covid-19 is a big challenge right now, role of nanotechnology should not be ignored. Since nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary and focused field, it is capable of pivoting solutions for problems posed due to this virus and could relieve the excess strained hospitals. Since Covid-19 work on a nanoscale idea of using nanotechnology may offer significant results in the biomedical field that include both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In this context an attempt was made to review some of the published results related to the nature of virus and role of nano and microparticles on Covid-19 as well as to analyse particulate matter and air pollutants for a coastal, urban, industrial station in Visakhapatnam India. © 2022 - Kalpana Corporation.

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