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1.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(12): e0601, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598931

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the yield of mini-bronchoalveolar lavage compared with that of directed bronchoalveolar lavage in critically ill patients with suspected coronavirus disease 2019-associated pulmonary aspergillosis. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: The ICU of the Amsterdam University Medical Centers. PATIENTS: Patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 screened for coronavirus disease 2019-associated pulmonary aspergillosis. INTERVENTIONS: Mini-bronchoalveolar lavage and/or directed bronchoalveolar lavage. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In total, 76 patients were included, 20 of whom underwent bronchoalveolar lavage, 40 mini-bronchoalveolar lavage, and 16 both mini-bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchoalveolar lavage. The percentage of samples with one or more positive Aspergillus detecting test (galactomannan, culture, polymerase chain reaction) did not differ significantly between bronchoalveolar lavage and mini-bronchoalveolar lavage (16.7% vs 21.4%). However, in mini-bronchoalveolar lavage samples, this was more frequently driven by a positive polymerase chain reaction than in bronchoalveolar lavage samples (17.9% vs 2.8%; p = 0.030). In 81% of patients (13/16) with both mini-bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchoalveolar lavage, the test results were in agreement. In 11 of 12 patients (92%) with first a negative mini-bronchoalveolar lavage, the subsequent bronchoalveolar lavage sample was also negative. CONCLUSIONS: We found a similar percentage of positive test results in mini-bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchoalveolar lavage samples in patients with suspected coronavirus disease 2019-associated pulmonary aspergillosis. Our findings indicate that mini-bronchoalveolar lavage could be a useful tool for coronavirus disease 2019-associated pulmonary aspergillosis screening in ICU patients.

2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2892-2898, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551452

ABSTRACT

We performed an observational study to investigate intensive care unit incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of coronavirus disease-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). We found 10%-15% CAPA incidence among 823 patients in 2 cohorts. Several factors were independently associated with CAPA in 1 cohort and mortality rates were 43%-52%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(12): e0122921, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522903

ABSTRACT

The literature regarding COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has shown conflicting observations, including survival of CAPA patients not receiving antifungal therapy and discrepancy between CAPA diagnosis and autopsy findings. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of CAPA, we performed a case-control study in which we compared Aspergillus test profiles in CAPA patients and controls in relation to intensive care unit (ICU) mortality. This was a multinational case-control study in which Aspergillus test results, use of antifungal therapy, and mortality were collected from critically ill COVID-19 patients. Patients were classified using the 2020 European Confederation for Medical Mycology and the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ECMM/ISHAM) consensus case definitions. We analyzed 219 critically ill COVID-19 cases, including 1 proven, 38 probable, 19 possible CAPA cases, 21 Aspergillus-colonized patients, 7 patients only positive for serum (1,3)-ß-d-glucan (BDG), and 133 cases with no evidence of CAPA. Mortality was 53.8% in CAPA patients compared to 24.1% in patients without CAPA (P = 0.001). Positive serum galactomannan (GM) and BDG were associated with increased mortality compared to serum biomarker-negative CAPA patients (87.5% versus 41.7%, P = 0.046; 90.0% versus 42.1%, P = 0.029, respectively). For each point increase in GM or 10-point BDG serum concentration, the odds of death increased (GM, odds ratio [OR] 10.208, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.621 to 64.291, P = 0.013; BDG, OR, 1.247, 95% CI, 1.029 to 1.511, P = 0.024). CAPA is a complex disease, probably involving a continuum of respiratory colonization, tissue invasion, and angioinvasion. Serum biomarkers are useful for staging CAPA disease progression and, if positive, indicate angioinvasion and a high probability of mortality. There is need for a biomarker that distinguishes between respiratory tract colonization and tissue-invasive CAPA disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Animals , Aspergillus , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2892-2898, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406813

ABSTRACT

We performed an observational study to investigate intensive care unit incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of coronavirus disease-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). We found 10%-15% CAPA incidence among 823 patients in 2 cohorts. Several factors were independently associated with CAPA in 1 cohort and mortality rates were 43%-52%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(3)2021 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143528

ABSTRACT

There is increasing attention for opportunistic pathogens such as Aspergillus fumigatus complicating SARS-CoV-2 infections in the critically ill. For invasive fungal disease, establishing a clear diagnosis can be challenging due to the invasiveness of diagnostic procedures required for a proven case. Here we present one of the first proven cases of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis by positive culture of post-mortem lung biopsy.

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