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1.
Atherosclerosis ; 341: 43-49, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Thrombosis is a major driver of adverse outcome and mortality in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Hypercoagulability may be related to the cytokine storm associated with COVID-19, which is mainly driven by interleukin (IL)-6. Plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels increase following IL-6 upregulation and Lp(a) has anti-fibrinolytic properties. This study investigated whether Lp(a) elevation may contribute to the pro-thrombotic state hallmarking COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Lp(a), IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured in 219 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and analyzed with linear mixed effects model. The baseline biomarkers and increases during admission were related to venous thromboembolism (VTE) incidence and clinical outcomes in a Kaplan-Meier and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Lp(a) levels increased significantly by a mean of 16.9 mg/dl in patients with COVID-19 during the first 21 days after admission. Serial Lp(a) measurements were available in 146 patients. In the top tertile of Lp(a) increase, 56.2% of COVID-19 patients experienced a VTE event compared to 18.4% in the lowest tertile (RR 3.06, 95% CI 1.61-5.81; p < 0.001). This association remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, IL-6 and CRP increase and number of measurements. Increases in IL-6 and CRP were not associated with VTE. Increase in Lp(a) was strongly correlated with increase in IL-6 (r = 0.44, 95% CI 0.30-0.56, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Increases in Lp(a) levels during the acute phase of COVID-19 were strongly associated with VTE incidence. The acute increase in anti-fibrinolytic Lp(a) may tilt the balance to VTE in patients hospitalized for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , Lipoprotein(a) , Pilot Projects , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317019

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to systemic coagulation activation and thrombotic complications. We investigated the incidence of objectively confirmed venous thromboembolism (VTE) in 198 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in a single-center cohort study. Seventy-four patients (37%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). At time of data collection, 58 (29%) were still hospitalized and 14% had died. During a median follow-up of 5 days (IQR, 3-9), 33 patients (17%) were diagnosed with VTE of whom 22 (11%) had symptomatic VTE, despite routine thrombosis prophylaxis. The cumulative incidences of VTE at 7 and 14 days were 15% (95% CI, 9.3-22) and 34% (95% CI, 23-46), respectively. For symptomatic VTE, these were 11% (95% CI, 5.8-17) and 23% (95% CI, 14-33). VTE appeared to be associated with death (adjusted HR, 2.9;95% CI, 1.02-8.0). The cumulative incidence of VTE was higher in the ICU (25% at 7 days 95% CI, 15-36, and 48% at 14 days, 95% CI, 33-61) than on the wards (any VTE and symptomatic VTE 6.5 % at 7 days (95% CI, 1.5-17) and 10% at 14 days (95% CI, 2.9-24)).The observed risk for VTE in COVID-19 is high, particularly in ICU patients, which should lead to a high level of clinical suspicion and low threshold for diagnostic imaging for DVT or PE. Future research should focus on optimal diagnostic and prophylactic strategies to prevent VTE and potentially improve survival.

3.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(4): 1068-1073, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525577

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients have increased risk of pulmonary embolism (PE), but symptoms of both conditions overlap. Because screening algorithms for PE in COVID-19 patients are currently lacking, PE might be underdiagnosed. We evaluated a screening algorithm in which all patients presenting to the ED with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 routinely undergo D-dimer testing, followed by CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) if D-dimer is ≥ 1.00 mg/L. Consecutive adult patients presenting to the ED of two university hospitals in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, between 01-10-2020 and 31-12-2020, who had a final diagnosis of COVID-19, were retrospectively included. D-dimer and CTPA results were obtained. Of 541 patients with a final diagnosis of COVID-19 presenting to the ED, 25 (4.6%) were excluded because D-dimer was missing, and 71 (13.1%) because they used anticoagulation therapy. Of 445 included patients, 185 (41.6%; 95%CI 37.0-46.3) had a D-dimer ≥ 1.00 mg/L. CTPA was performed in 169 of them, which showed PE in 26 (15.4%; 95%CI 10.3-21.7), resulting in an overall detection rate of 5.8% (95%CI 3.9-8.4) in the complete study group. In patients with and without PE at CTPA, median D-dimer was 9.84 (IQR 3.90-29.38) and 1.64 (IQR 1.17-3.01), respectively (p < 0.001). PE prevalence increased with increasing D-dimer, ranging from 1.2% (95%CI 0.0-6.4) if D-dimer was 1.00-1.99 mg/L, to 48.6% (95%CI 31.4-66.0) if D-dimer was ≥ 5.00 mg/L. In conclusion, by applying this screening algorithm, PE was identified in a considerable proportion of COVID-19 patients. Prospective management studies should assess if this algorithm safely rules-out PE if D-dimer is < 1.00 mg/L.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Pulmonary Embolism , Adult , Angiography , COVID-19/complications , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Netherlands , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies
5.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(4): 1068-1073, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279480

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients have increased risk of pulmonary embolism (PE), but symptoms of both conditions overlap. Because screening algorithms for PE in COVID-19 patients are currently lacking, PE might be underdiagnosed. We evaluated a screening algorithm in which all patients presenting to the ED with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 routinely undergo D-dimer testing, followed by CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) if D-dimer is ≥ 1.00 mg/L. Consecutive adult patients presenting to the ED of two university hospitals in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, between 01-10-2020 and 31-12-2020, who had a final diagnosis of COVID-19, were retrospectively included. D-dimer and CTPA results were obtained. Of 541 patients with a final diagnosis of COVID-19 presenting to the ED, 25 (4.6%) were excluded because D-dimer was missing, and 71 (13.1%) because they used anticoagulation therapy. Of 445 included patients, 185 (41.6%; 95%CI 37.0-46.3) had a D-dimer ≥ 1.00 mg/L. CTPA was performed in 169 of them, which showed PE in 26 (15.4%; 95%CI 10.3-21.7), resulting in an overall detection rate of 5.8% (95%CI 3.9-8.4) in the complete study group. In patients with and without PE at CTPA, median D-dimer was 9.84 (IQR 3.90-29.38) and 1.64 (IQR 1.17-3.01), respectively (p < 0.001). PE prevalence increased with increasing D-dimer, ranging from 1.2% (95%CI 0.0-6.4) if D-dimer was 1.00-1.99 mg/L, to 48.6% (95%CI 31.4-66.0) if D-dimer was ≥ 5.00 mg/L. In conclusion, by applying this screening algorithm, PE was identified in a considerable proportion of COVID-19 patients. Prospective management studies should assess if this algorithm safely rules-out PE if D-dimer is < 1.00 mg/L.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Pulmonary Embolism , Adult , Angiography , COVID-19/complications , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Netherlands , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies
6.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(8): 1995-2002, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to systemic coagulation activation and thrombotic complications. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence of objectively confirmed venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Single-center cohort study of 198 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients (38%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). At time of data collection, 16 (8%) were still hospitalized and 19% had died. During a median follow-up of 7 days (IQR, 3-13), 39 patients (20%) were diagnosed with VTE of whom 25 (13%) had symptomatic VTE, despite routine thrombosis prophylaxis. The cumulative incidences of VTE at 7, 14 and 21 days were 16% (95% CI, 10-22), 33% (95% CI, 23-43) and 42% (95% CI 30-54) respectively. For symptomatic VTE, these were 10% (95% CI, 5.8-16), 21% (95% CI, 14-30) and 25% (95% CI 16-36). VTE appeared to be associated with death (adjusted HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.02-5.5). The cumulative incidence of VTE was higher in the ICU (26% (95% CI, 17-37), 47% (95% CI, 34-58), and 59% (95% CI, 42-72) at 7, 14 and 21 days) than on the wards (any VTE and symptomatic VTE 5.8% (95% CI, 1.4-15), 9.2% (95% CI, 2.6-21), and 9.2% (2.6-21) at 7, 14, and 21 days). CONCLUSIONS: The observed risk for VTE in COVID-19 is high, particularly in ICU patients, which should lead to a high level of clinical suspicion and low threshold for diagnostic imaging for DVT or PE. Future research should focus on optimal diagnostic and prophylactic strategies to prevent VTE and potentially improve survival.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , COVID-19 , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Patients' Rooms/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophlebitis/epidemiology , Thrombophlebitis/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
7.
Radiology ; 297(1): E216-E222, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108913

ABSTRACT

A potential link between mortality, d-dimer values, and a prothrombotic syndrome has been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. The National Institute for Public Health of the Netherlands asked a group of radiology and vascular medicine experts to provide guidance for the imaging work-up and treatment of these important complications. This report summarizes evidence for thromboembolic disease, potential diagnostic and preventive actions, and recommendations for prophylaxis and treatment of patients with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Thromboembolism/therapy , Thromboembolism/virology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/prevention & control , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Public Health , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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