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1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are at increased risk of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Effective vaccination against COVID-19 is therefore of great importance in this group, but little is known about the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in these patients. OBJECTIVES: We studied humoral and cellular immune responses after mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccination in adult IEI patients. METHODS: In a prospective, controlled, multicenter study 505 IEI patients (common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), isolated or undefined antibody deficiencies, X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), combined immunodeficiency (CID), phagocyte defects) and 192 controls were included. All participants received two doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. Levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific binding antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, and T-cell responses were assessed at baseline, 28 days after first and 28 days after second vaccination. RESULTS: Seroconversion rates in patients with clinically mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects were similar to healthy controls, but seroconversion rates in patients with more severe IEI, like CVID and CID, were lower. Binding antibody titers correlated well to the presence of neutralizing antibodies. T-cell responses were comparable to controls in all IEI cohorts, with the exception of CVID patients. The presence of non-infectious complications and the use of immunosuppressive drugs in CVID patients were negatively correlated with the antibody response. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccination with mRNA-1273 was immunogenic in mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects and in most patients with CID and CVID. Lowest response was detected in XLA and in CVID patients with non-infectious complications. The assessment of longevity of immune responses in these vulnerable patient groups will guide decision-making for additional vaccinations.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 755(Pt 2): 143182, 2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768525

ABSTRACT

Current models for flu-like epidemics insufficiently explain multi-cycle seasonality. Meteorological factors alone, including the associated behavior, do not predict seasonality, given substantial climate differences between countries that are subject to flu-like epidemics or COVID-19. Pollen is documented to be allergenic, it plays a role in immuno-activation and defense against respiratory viruses, and seems to create a bio-aerosol that lowers the reproduction number of flu-like viruses. Therefore, we hypothesize that pollen may explain the seasonality of flu-like epidemics, including COVID-19, in combination with meteorological variables. We have tested the Pollen-Flu Seasonality Theory for 2016-2020 flu-like seasons, including COVID-19, in the Netherlands, with its 17.4 million inhabitants. We combined changes in flu-like incidence per 100 K/Dutch residents (code: ILI) with pollen concentrations and meteorological data. Finally, a predictive model was tested using pollen and meteorological threshold values, inversely correlated to flu-like incidence. We found a highly significant inverse correlation of r(224) = -0.41 (p < 0.001) between pollen and changes in flu-like incidence, corrected for the incubation period. The correlation was stronger after taking into account the incubation time. We found that our predictive model has the highest inverse correlation with changes in flu-like incidence of r(222) = -0.48 (p < 0.001) when average thresholds of 610 total pollen grains/m3, 120 allergenic pollen grains/m3, and a solar radiation of 510 J/cm2 are passed. The passing of at least the pollen thresholds, preludes the beginning and end of flu-like seasons. Solar radiation is a co-inhibitor of flu-like incidence, while temperature makes no difference. However, higher relative humidity increases with flu-like incidence. We conclude that pollen is a predictor of the inverse seasonality of flu-like epidemics, including COVID-19, and that solar radiation is a co-inhibitor, in the Netherlands.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pollen , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
3.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(4): e609, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763241

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Myxovirus resistance protein 1 (MxA) is a biomarker that is elevated in patients with viral infections. The goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of MxA in diagnosing COVID-19 infections in the emergency department (ED) patients. METHODS: This was a single-center prospective observational cohort study including patients with a suspected COVID-19 infection. The primary outcome of this study was a confirmed COVID-19 infection by RT-PCR test. MxA was assessed using an enzyme immunoassay on whole blood and receiver operating chart and area under the curve (AUC) analysis was conducted. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of MxA on diagnosing COVID-19 at the optimal cut-off of MxA was determined. RESULTS: In 2021, 100 patients were included. Of these patients, 77 patients had COVID-19 infection and 23 were non-COVID-19. Median MxA level was significantly higher (p < .001) in COVID-19 patients compared to non-COVID-19 patients, respectively 1933 and 0.1 ng/ml. The AUC of MxA on a confirmed COVID-19 infection was 0.941 (95% CI: 0.867-1.000). The optimal cut-off point of MxA was 252 ng/ml. At this cut-off point, the sensitivity of MxA on a confirmed COVID-19 infection was 94% (95% CI: 85%-98%) and the specificity was 91% (95% CI: 72%-99%). CONCLUSION: MxA accurately distinguishes COVID-19 infections from bacterial infections and noninfectious diagnoses in the ED in patients with a suspected COVID-19 infection. If the results can be validated, MxA could improve the diagnostic workup and patient flow in the ED.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Orthomyxoviridae , COVID-19/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins , Prospective Studies
4.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection is associated with an increased incidence of thrombosis. OBJECTIVES: By studying the fibrin network structure of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, we aimed to unravel pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to this increased risk of thrombosis. This may contribute to optimal prevention and treatment of COVID-19 related thrombosis. PATIENTS/METHODS: In this case-control study, we collected plasma samples from intensive care unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19, with and without confirmed thrombosis, between April and December 2020. Additionally, we collected plasma from COVID-19 patients admitted to general wards without thrombosis, from ICU patients with pneumococcal infection, and from healthy controls. Fibrin fiber diameters and fibrin network density were quantified in plasma clots imaged with stimulated emission depletion microscopy and confocal microscopy. Finally, we determined the sensitivity to fibrinolysis. RESULTS: COVID-19 ICU patients (n = 37) and ICU patients with pneumococcal disease (n = 7) showed significantly higher fibrin densities and longer plasma clot lysis times than healthy controls (n = 7). No differences were observed between COVID-19 ICU patients with and without thrombosis, or ICU patients with pneumococcal infection. At a second time point, after diagnosis of thrombosis or at a similar time point in patients without thrombosis, we observed thicker fibers and longer lysis times in COVID-19 ICU patients with thrombosis (n = 19) than in COVID-19 ICU patients without thrombosis (n = 18). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that severe COVID-19 is associated with a changed fibrin network structure and decreased susceptibility to fibrinolysis. Because these changes were not exclusive to COVID-19 patients, they may not explain the increased thrombosis risk.

5.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(2): 232-239, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669888

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To study the effect of interferon-α2 auto-antibodies (IFN-α2 Abs) on clinical and virological outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients and the risk of IFN-α2 Abs transfer during convalescent plasma treatment. METHODS: Sera from healthy controls, cases of COVID-19, and other respiratory illness were tested for IFN-α2 Abs by ELISA and a pseudo virus-based neutralization assay. The effects of disease severity, sex, and age on the risk of having neutralizing IFN-α2 Abs were determined. Longitudinal analyses were performed to determine association between IFN-α2 Abs and survival and viral load and whether serum IFN-α2 Abs appeared after convalescent plasma transfusion. RESULTS: IFN-α2 neutralizing sera were found only in COVID-19 patients, with proportions increasing with disease severity and age. In the acute stage of COVID-19, all sera from patients with ELISA-detected IFN-α2 Abs (13/164, 7.9%) neutralized levels of IFN-α2 exceeding physiological concentrations found in human plasma and this was associated with delayed viral clearance. Convalescent plasma donors that were anti-IFN-α2 ELISA positive (3/118, 2.5%) did not neutralize the same levels of IFN-α2. Neutralizing serum IFN-α2 Abs were associated with delayed viral clearance from the respiratory tract. CONCLUSIONS: IFN-α2 Abs were detected by ELISA and neutralization assay in COVID-19 patients, but not in ICU patients with other respiratory illnesses. The presence of neutralizing IFN-α2 Abs in critically ill COVID-19 is associated with delayed viral clearance. IFN-α2 Abs in COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors were not neutralizing in the conditions tested.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Interferon alpha-2/immunology , Plasma/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Blood Component Transfusion/methods , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
6.
Journal of Clinical Investigation ; 131(21):1-13, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1503264

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Little is known about the interplay between preexisting immunity to endemic seasonal coronaviruses and the development of a SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG response. We investigated the kinetics, breadth, magnitude, and level of cross-reactivity of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and heterologous seasonal and epidemic coronaviruses at the clonal level in patients with mild or severe COVID-19 as well as in disease control patients. We assessed antibody reactivity to nucleocapsid and spike antigens and correlated this IgG response to SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Patients with COVID-19 mounted a mostly type-specific SARS-CoV-2 response. Additionally, IgG clones directed against a seasonal coronavirus were boosted in patients with severe COVID-19. These boosted clones showed limited cross-reactivity and did not neutralize SARS-CoV-2. These findings indicate a boost of poorly protective CoV-specific antibodies in patients with COVID-19 that correlated with disease severity, revealing "original antigenic sin."

7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(13)2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302307

ABSTRACT

Public involvement in science has allowed researchers to collect large-scale and real-time data and also engage citizens, so researchers are adopting citizen science (CS) in many areas. One promising appeal is student participation in CS school programs. In this literature review, we aimed to investigate which school CS programs exist in the areas of (applied) life sciences and if any projects target infectious disease surveillance. This review's objectives are to determine success factors in terms of data quality and student engagement. After a comprehensive search in biomedical and social databases, we found 23 projects. None of the projects found focused on infectious disease surveillance, and the majority centered around species biodiversity. While a few projects had issues with data quality, simplifying the protocol or allowing students to resubmit data made the data collected more usable. Overall, students at different educational levels and disciplines were able to collect usable data that was comparable to expert data and had positive learning experiences. In this review, we have identified limitations and gaps in reported CS school projects and provided recommendations for establishing future programs. This review shows the value of using CS in collaboration with traditional research techniques to advance future science and increasingly engage communities.


Subject(s)
Citizen Science , Communicable Diseases , Biodiversity , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Schools , Students
8.
J Infect Dis ; 223(9): 1512-1521, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238201

ABSTRACT

Lower respiratory tract (LRT) disease induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can deteriorate to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Because the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is implicated in ARDS pathogenesis, we investigated the presence of NETs and correlates of pathogenesis in blood and LRT samples of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Plasma NET levels peaked early after intensive care unit admission and were correlated with the SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in sputum and levels of neutrophil-recruiting chemokines and inflammatory markers in plasma samples. The baseline plasma NET quantity was correlated with disease severity but was not associated with soluble markers of thrombosis or with development of thrombosis. High NET levels were present in LRT samples and persisted during the course of COVID-19, consistent with the detection of NETs in bronchi and alveolar spaces in lung tissue from deceased patient with COVID-19. Thus, NETs are produced and retained in the LRT of critically ill patients with COVID-19 and could contribute to SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS disease.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Extracellular Traps/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , Chemokines/blood , Cohort Studies , Computed Tomography Angiography , Critical Illness , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/virology , Viral Load
9.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(2): 278-290, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120206

ABSTRACT

The incidence of venous thrombosis, mostly pulmonary embolism (PE), ranging from local immunothrombosis to central emboli, but also deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is reported to be remarkably high. The relevance of better understanding, predicting, treating, and preventing COVID-19-associated venous thrombosis meets broad support, as can be concluded from the high number of research, review, and guideline papers that have been published on this topic. The Dutch COVID & Thrombosis Coalition (DCTC) is a multidisciplinary team involving a large number of Dutch experts in the broad area of venous thrombosis and hemostasis research, combined with experts on virology, critically ill patients, pulmonary diseases, and community medicine, across all university hospitals and many community hospitals in the Netherlands. Within the consortium, clinical data of at least 5000 admitted COVID-19-infected individuals are available, including substantial collections of biobanked materials in an estimated 3000 people. In addition to considerable experience in preclinical and clinical thrombosis research, the consortium embeds virology-hemostasis research models within unique biosafety facilities to address fundamental questions on the interaction of virus with epithelial and vascular cells, in relation to the coagulation and inflammatory system. The DCTC has initiated a comprehensive research program to answer many of the current questions on the pathophysiology and best anticoagulant treatment of COVID-19-associated thrombotic complications. The research program was funded by grants of the Netherlands Thrombosis Foundation and the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development. Here, we summarize the design and main aims of the research program.

10.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 53(7): 488-497, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in March 2020 in Europe, which is normally the peak incidence period of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infections, implying cocirculation and potentially causing competition between them. METHODS: We investigated differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes of HMPV infections in hospitalized patients before (January 2016-28 February, 2020) and HMPV and COVID-19 during part of the COVID-19 pandemic (28 February, 2020-1 April, 2020). RESULTS: A total of 239 HMPV patients and 303 COVID-19 patients were included. Incidence of HMPV peaked in March. Despite a 324% increase in HMPV testing during the COVID-19 outbreak, incidence of HMPV remained stable. Clinical characteristics showed 25 (11%) ICU admissions and 14 (6%) deaths. History of myocardial infarction, higher age and lower BMI were independently associated with increased 30-day mortality. Clinical characteristics of HMPV-infected patients did not differ between the non-COVID-19 period and the examined COVID-19 period except for length of hospital stay (7 vs. 5 days). HMPV infection and COVID-19 shared many clinical features but HMPV was associated with female gender, elderly patients and chronic conditions (COPD and chronic heart failure). Clinical outcomes did not differ between the viruses during the COVID-19 period. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical impact of HMPV infection did not change during the COVID-19 outbreak in terms of incidence and/or disease severity; hence, HMPV and SARS-CoV-2 are probably co-circulating independently. Despite the current clinical focus on the COVID-19 pandemic, clinicians should keep in mind that HMPV-infection may mimic COVID-19 and is also associated with serious adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metapneumovirus , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , Europe , Female , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Infect Dis ; 223(9): 1512-1521, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052199

ABSTRACT

Lower respiratory tract (LRT) disease induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can deteriorate to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Because the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is implicated in ARDS pathogenesis, we investigated the presence of NETs and correlates of pathogenesis in blood and LRT samples of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Plasma NET levels peaked early after intensive care unit admission and were correlated with the SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in sputum and levels of neutrophil-recruiting chemokines and inflammatory markers in plasma samples. The baseline plasma NET quantity was correlated with disease severity but was not associated with soluble markers of thrombosis or with development of thrombosis. High NET levels were present in LRT samples and persisted during the course of COVID-19, consistent with the detection of NETs in bronchi and alveolar spaces in lung tissue from deceased patient with COVID-19. Thus, NETs are produced and retained in the LRT of critically ill patients with COVID-19 and could contribute to SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS disease.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Extracellular Traps/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , Chemokines/blood , Cohort Studies , Computed Tomography Angiography , Critical Illness , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/virology , Viral Load
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 267, 2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1019818

ABSTRACT

Key questions in COVID-19 are the duration and determinants of infectious virus shedding. Here, we report that infectious virus shedding is detected by virus cultures in 23 of the 129 patients (17.8%) hospitalized with COVID-19. The median duration of shedding infectious virus is 8 days post onset of symptoms (IQR 5-11) and drops below 5% after 15.2 days post onset of symptoms (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.4-17.2). Multivariate analyses identify viral loads above 7 log10 RNA copies/mL (odds ratio [OR] of 14.7 (CI 3.57-58.1; p < 0.001) as independently associated with isolation of infectious SARS-CoV-2 from the respiratory tract. A serum neutralizing antibody titre of at least 1:20 (OR of 0.01 (CI 0.003-0.08; p < 0.001) is independently associated with non-infectious SARS-CoV-2. We conclude that quantitative viral RNA load assays and serological assays could be used in test-based strategies to discontinue or de-escalate infection prevention and control precautions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding , Aged , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , RNA, Viral , Respiratory System/virology , Viral Load
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 755(Pt 2): 143182, 2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885437

ABSTRACT

Current models for flu-like epidemics insufficiently explain multi-cycle seasonality. Meteorological factors alone, including the associated behavior, do not predict seasonality, given substantial climate differences between countries that are subject to flu-like epidemics or COVID-19. Pollen is documented to be allergenic, it plays a role in immuno-activation and defense against respiratory viruses, and seems to create a bio-aerosol that lowers the reproduction number of flu-like viruses. Therefore, we hypothesize that pollen may explain the seasonality of flu-like epidemics, including COVID-19, in combination with meteorological variables. We have tested the Pollen-Flu Seasonality Theory for 2016-2020 flu-like seasons, including COVID-19, in the Netherlands, with its 17.4 million inhabitants. We combined changes in flu-like incidence per 100 K/Dutch residents (code: ILI) with pollen concentrations and meteorological data. Finally, a predictive model was tested using pollen and meteorological threshold values, inversely correlated to flu-like incidence. We found a highly significant inverse correlation of r(224) = -0.41 (p < 0.001) between pollen and changes in flu-like incidence, corrected for the incubation period. The correlation was stronger after taking into account the incubation time. We found that our predictive model has the highest inverse correlation with changes in flu-like incidence of r(222) = -0.48 (p < 0.001) when average thresholds of 610 total pollen grains/m3, 120 allergenic pollen grains/m3, and a solar radiation of 510 J/cm2 are passed. The passing of at least the pollen thresholds, preludes the beginning and end of flu-like seasons. Solar radiation is a co-inhibitor of flu-like incidence, while temperature makes no difference. However, higher relative humidity increases with flu-like incidence. We conclude that pollen is a predictor of the inverse seasonality of flu-like epidemics, including COVID-19, and that solar radiation is a co-inhibitor, in the Netherlands.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pollen , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
14.
Sci Immunol ; 5(48)2020 06 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617063

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has been identified as the causative agent of a global outbreak of respiratory tract disease (COVID-19). In some patients the infection results in moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. High serum levels of IL-6, IL-10 and an immune hyperresponsiveness referred to as a 'cytokine storm' have been associated with poor clinical outcome. Despite the large numbers of COVID-19 cases and deaths, information on the phenotype and kinetics of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells is limited. Here, we studied 10 COVID-19 patients who required admission to an intensive care unit and detected SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in 10 out of 10 and 8 out of 10 patients, respectively. We also detected low levels of SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in 2 out of 10 healthy controls not previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2, which is indicative of cross-reactivity due to past infection with 'common cold' coronaviruses. The strongest T-cell responses were directed to the spike (S) surface glycoprotein, and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells predominantly produced effector and Th1 cytokines, although Th2 and Th17 cytokines were also detected. Furthermore, we studied T-cell kinetics and showed that SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells are present relatively early and increase over time. Collectively, these data shed light on the potential variations in T-cell responses as a function of disease severity, an issue that is key to understanding the potential role of immunopathology in the disease, and also inform vaccine design and evaluation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Phenotype , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Aged , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Kinetics , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Load/immunology
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