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1.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 78(7): 1644-1648, 2023 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237061

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Immunocompromised patients have an increased risk of severe or prolonged COVID-19. Currently available drugs are registered to treat COVID-19 during the first 5 to 7 days after symptom onset. Data on the effectivity in immunocompromised patients with chronic non-resolving COVID-19 are urgently needed. Here, we report the outcome of patients treated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir together with high-titer convalescent plasma (CP) in six immunocompromised patients with non-resolving COVID-19. METHODS: Immunocompromised patients with persisting COVID-19 (positive PCR with Ct values <30 for ≥20 days) received off-label therapy with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir. It was combined with CP containing BA.5 neutralizing titers of ≥1/640 whenever available. Follow-up was done by PCR and sequencing on nasopharyngeal swabs on a weekly basis until viral genome was undetectable consecutively. RESULTS: Five immunocompromised patients were treated with high-titer CP and 5 days of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir. One patient received nirmatrelvir/ritonavir monotherapy. Median duration of SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity was 70 (range 20-231) days before nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment. In four patients receiving combination therapy, no viral genome of SARS-CoV-2 was detected on day 7 and 14 after treatment while the patient receiving nirmatrelvir/ritonavir monotherapy, the day 7 Ct value increased to 34 and viral genome was undetectable thereafter. Treatment was unsuccessful in one patient. In this patient, sequencing after nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment did not show protease gene mutations. CONCLUSIONS: In immunocompromised patients with non-resolving COVID-19, the combination of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and CP may be an effective treatment. Larger prospective studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results and should compare different treatment durations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 Serotherapy , Immunocompromised Host , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Ther Adv Allergy Rhinol ; 14: 27534030231172391, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326827

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the coronavirus pandemic in 2020, there is not much reported about the disease course of COVID-19 in patients with allergic diseases. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the cumulative incidence and severity of COVID-19 among patients from the allergy department compared with the general Dutch population and people from their household. Design: We conducted a comparative longitudinal cohort study. Methods: In this study patients of the allergy department were included with their household members as a control group. Data from the beginning of the pandemic were systematically obtained through questionnaires by telephonic interviews and retrieved from electronic patient files between October 15, 2020 and January 29, 2021. Main outcomes were confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, disease duration, hospitalization, intensive care admission, and mortality. Questions regarding applied social distancing measures were inventoried as well. Results: Three hundred and eighty nine patients (median age 39.1 (18.7-84.7) years, 69.9% female) and 441 household members (median age 42.0 (18.0-91.5), 44.1% female) were included. The cumulative COVID-19 incidence in patients was higher compared with the general population (10.5% vs 5.6%, P < .001). In total, 41 (10.5%) patients attending the allergy clinic compared to 38 (8.6%) household members were infected with SARS-CoV-2 (P = .407). Median disease duration was 11.0 (0.0-61.0) days in patients compared to 10.5(1.0-232.0) days in household members (P = .996). Conclusion: The cumulative COVID-19 incidence in patients from the allergy cohort was higher compared with the general Dutch population, but similar compared with household members. There was no difference in symptoms, disease duration, or hospitalization rate between the allergy cohort and their household members.

3.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 40(8): 1504-1509, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to investigate the cumulative incidence and the severity of COVID-19 infections in patients with Behçet's disease. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients with Behçet's disease was conducted. We obtained the data systematically from electronic patient files and through telephone interviews between February 2020 and May 1, 2021. Main outcomes were COVID-19 infection, disease duration, hospitalisation, intensive care admission and mortality. Secondary outcome was adherence to quarantine measures as recommended by the government. RESULTS: 185 Behçet's disease patients were included (mean age 42.2 years, 54% female); 58% of the patients were receiving colchicine, 30% anti-TNFα, 16% azathioprine and 8% systemic steroids. 30 patients (16.2%) were positive for COVID-19. Within our cohort, the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 was therefore 16.2% (95% CI 11.2-22.3%), which is significantly increased when compared to the general Dutch population (8.7% (95% CI 8.72-8.73%)) (p < 0.001). Four out of 30 (13%) patients were admitted to the hospital. There was no COVID-19 related mortality observed. Patients adhered to government measures; except in the period between the 1st of June and the 28th of September, this cohort received more visitors than in period 1 and 3. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, Behçet's disease patients have a higher risk for COVID-19 infection, without an increase of virus-related mortality. The course of COVID-19 disease in this cohort is relatively mild, with a lower admission rate than expected of patients using immunosuppressive medication.


Subject(s)
Behcet Syndrome , COVID-19 , Adult , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Behcet Syndrome/diagnosis , Behcet Syndrome/drug therapy , Behcet Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Netherlands/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
4.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 40(4): 422-434, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2289003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neanderthals were a species of archaic humans that became extinct around 40,000 years ago. Modern humans have inherited 1-6% of Neanderthal DNA as a result of interbreeding. These inherited Neanderthal genes have paradoxical influences, while some can provide protection to viral infections, some others are associated with autoimmune/auto-inflammatory diseases. OBJECTIVE: We aim to investigate whether genetic variants with strong detrimental effects on the function of the immune system could have potentially contributed to the extinction of the Neanderthal population. METHODS: We used the publically available genome information from an Altai Neanderthal and filtered for potentially damaging variants present in genes associated with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) and checked whether these variants were present in the genomes of the Denisovan, Vindija and Chagyrskaya Neanderthals. RESULTS: We identified 24 homozygous variants and 15 heterozygous variants in IEI-related genes in the Altai Neanderthal. Two homozygous variants in the UNC13D gene and one variant in the MOGS gene were present in all archaic genomes. Defects in the UNC13D gene are known to cause a severe and often fatal disease called hemophagocytic lymphohistiocystosis (HLH). One of these variants p.(N943S) has been reported in patients with HLH. Variants in MOGS are associated with glycosylation defects in the immune system affecting the susceptibility for infections. CONCLUSIONS: Although the exact functional impact of these three variants needs further elucidation, we speculate that they could have resulted in an increased susceptibility to severe diseases and may have contributed to the extinction of Neanderthals after exposure to specific infections.


Subject(s)
Neanderthals , Humans , Animals , Neanderthals/genetics , Genome , Genome, Human , Membrane Proteins/genetics
5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(6): 1949-1957, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are at increased risk of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Effective vaccination against COVID-19 is therefore of great importance in this group, but little is known about the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in these patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to study humoral and cellular immune responses after mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccination in adult patients with IEI. METHODS: In a prospective, controlled, multicenter study, 505 patients with IEI (common variable immunodeficiency [CVID], isolated or undefined antibody deficiencies, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, phagocyte defects) and 192 controls were included. All participants received 2 doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. Levels of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2-specific binding antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, and T-cell responses were assessed at baseline, 28 days after first vaccination, and 28 days after second vaccination. RESULTS: Seroconversion rates in patients with clinically mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects were similar to those in healthy controls, but seroconversion rates in patients with more severe IEI, such as CVID and combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, were lower. Binding antibody titers correlated well to the presence of neutralizing antibodies. T-cell responses were comparable to those in controls in all IEI cohorts, with the exception of patients with CVID. The presence of noninfectious complications and the use of immunosuppressive drugs in patients with CVID were negatively correlated with the antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination with mRNA-1273 was immunogenic in mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects and in most patients with combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency and CVID. Lowest response was detected in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and in patients with CVID with noninfectious complications. The assessment of longevity of immune responses in these vulnerable patient groups will guide decision making for additional vaccinations.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/blood , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Adult , Agammaglobulinemia/genetics , Agammaglobulinemia/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/genetics , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/blood , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/immunology , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/blood , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/genetics , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/genetics , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
J Transl Autoimmun ; 4: 100084, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081861

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Knowledge about COVID-19 infections is expanding, although knowledge about the disease course and antibody formation in patients with an auto-immune disease or immunodeficiency is not fully unraveled yet. It could be hypothesized that immunodeficient patients, due to immunosuppressive drugs or their disease, have a more severe disease course due to their immunocompromised state. However, it could also be hypothesized that some of the immunosuppressive drugs protect against a hyperinflammatory state. METHODS: We collected data on the incidence of COVID-19, disease course and SARS-CoV-2 antibody formation in COVID-19 positive patients in a cohort of patients (n â€‹= â€‹4497) known at the Clinical Immunology outpatient clinic in a tertiary care hospital in the Netherlands. RESULTS: In the first six months of the pandemic, 16 patients were identified with COVID-19, 14 by nasal swab PCR, and 2 patients by SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Eight patients were admitted to the hospital. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were measured in 8 patients and were detectable in all, including one patient on B-cell ablative therapy and one patient with Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disorder. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the disease course differs among immunocompromised patients, independently of (dis)continuation of immunosuppressive drugs. Antibody production for SARS-CoV-2 in immunocompromised patients was shown. More research needs to be conducted to confirm these observations and guidelines regarding (dis)continuation of immunosuppressive drugs in COVID-19 positive immunocompromised patients should be developed.

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