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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 734, 2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625506

ABSTRACT

Although male Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) patients have higher Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission rates and a worse disease course, a comprehensive analysis of female and male ICU survival and underlying factors such as comorbidities, risk factors, and/or anti-infection/inflammatory therapy administration is currently lacking. Therefore, we investigated the association between sex and ICU survival, adjusting for these and other variables. In this multicenter observational cohort study, all patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted to seven ICUs in one region across Belgium, The Netherlands, and Germany, and requiring vital organ support during the first pandemic wave were included. With a random intercept for a center, mixed-effects logistic regression was used to investigate the association between sex and ICU survival. Models were adjusted for age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, comorbidities, and anti-infection/inflammatory therapy. Interaction terms were added to investigate effect modifications by sex with country and sex with obesity. A total of 551 patients (29% were females) were included. Mean age was 65.4 ± 11.2 years. Females were more often obese and smoked less frequently than males (p-value 0.001 and 0.042, respectively). APACHE II scores of females and males were comparable. Overall, ICU mortality was 12% lower in females than males (27% vs 39% respectively, p-value < 0.01) with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.62 (95%CI 0.39-0.96, p-value 0.032) after adjustment for age and APACHE II score, 0.63 (95%CI 0.40-0.99, p-value 0.044) after additional adjustment for comorbidities, and 0.63 (95%CI 0.39-0.99, p-value 0.047) after adjustment for anti-infection/inflammatory therapy. No effect modifications by sex with country and sex with obesity were found (p-values for interaction > 0.23 and 0.84, respectively). ICU survival in female SARS-CoV-2 patients was higher than in male patients, independent of age, disease severity, smoking, obesity, comorbidities, anti-infection/inflammatory therapy, and country. Sex-specific biological mechanisms may play a role, emphasizing the need to address diversity, such as more sex-specific prediction, prognostic, and therapeutic approach strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
2.
BMC Med Ethics ; 22(1): 73, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277937

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has created ethical challenges for intensive care unit (ICU) professionals, potentially causing moral distress. This study explored the levels and causes of moral distress and the ethical climate in Dutch ICUs during COVID-19. METHODS: An extended version of the Measurement of Moral Distress for Healthcare Professionals (MMD-HP) and Ethical Decision Making Climate Questionnaire (EDMCQ) were online distributed among all 84 ICUs. Moral distress scores in nurses and intensivists were compared with the historical control group one year before COVID-19. RESULTS: Three hundred forty-five nurses (70.7%), 40 intensivists (8.2%), and 103 supporting staff (21.1%) completed the survey. Moral distress levels were higher for nurses than supporting staff. Moral distress levels in intensivists did not differ significantly from those of nurses and supporting staff. "Inadequate emotional support for patients and their families" was the highest-ranked cause of moral distress for all groups of professionals. Of all factors, all professions rated the ethical climate most positively regarding the culture of mutual respect,  ethical awareness and support. "Culture of not avoiding end-of-life-decisions" and "Self-reflective and empowering leadership" received the lowest mean scores. Moral distress scores during COVID-19 were significantly lower for ICU nurses (p < 0.001) and intensivists (p < 0.05) compared to one year prior. CONCLUSION: Levels and causes of moral distress vary between ICU professionals and differ from the historical control group. Targeted interventions that address moral distress during a crisis are desirable to improve the mental health and retention of ICU professionals and the quality of patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Attitude of Health Personnel , Critical Care , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Morals , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Acta Cardiol ; 76(2): 200-203, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028835

ABSTRACT

This case report describes an intentional intoxication with 18 g of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) presenting with unconsciousness, ventricular dysrhythmias, cardiogenic shock and pulmonary oedema. Initial treatment consisted of sodium bicarbonate, lipid emulsion, diazepam and norepinephrine. Because of persistent cardiogenic shock veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A ECMO) was successfully used as a bridge to recovery. This case underscores the possible side effects of HCQ and the importance of considering ECMO in cardiogenic shock caused by HCQ intoxication which may occur also in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) based on the currently frequent use of such a compound.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Hydroxychloroquine/poisoning , Antirheumatic Agents/poisoning , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Middle Aged
4.
EClinicalMedicine ; 29: 100652, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950032

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many studies investigate the role of pharmacological treatments on disease course in Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Sex disparities in genetics, immunological responses, and hormonal mechanisms may underlie the substantially higher fatality rates reported in male COVID-19 patients. To optimise care for COVID-19 patients, prophylactic and therapeutic studies should include sex-specific design and analyses. Therefore, in this scoping review, we investigated whether studies on pharmacological treatment in COVID-19 were performed based on a priori sex-specific design or post-hoc sex-specific analyses. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, UpToDate, clinical trial.org, and MedRxiv for studies on pharmacological treatment for COVID-19 until June 6th, 2020. We included case series, randomized controlled trials, and observational studies in humans (≥18 years) investigating antiviral, antimalarial, and immune system modulating drugs. Data were collected on 1) the proportion of included females, 2) whether sex stratification was performed (a priori by design or post-hoc), and 3) whether effect modification by sex was investigated. FINDINGS: 30 studies were eligible for inclusion, investigating remdesivir (n = 2), lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 5), favipiravir (n = 1), umifenovir (n = 1), hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (n = 8), convalescent plasma (n = 6), interleukin-6 (IL-6) pathway inhibitors (n = 5), interleukin-1 (IL-1) pathway inhibitors (n = 1) and corticosteroids (n = 3). Only one study stratified its data based on sex in a post-hoc analysis, whereas none did a priori by design. None of the studies investigated effect modification by sex. A quarter of the studies included twice as many males as females. INTERPRETATION: Analyses assessing potential interference of sex with (side-)effects of pharmacological therapy for COVID-19 are rarely reported. Considering sex differences in case-fatality rates and genetic, immunological, and hormonal mechanisms, studies should include sex-specific analyses in their design to optimise COVID-19 care. FUNDING: None.

5.
J Crit Care ; 62: 38-45, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) for mechanical ventilation. The role of multi-organ failure during ICU admission as driver for outcome remains to be investigated yet. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort of mechanically ventilated critically ill with SARS-CoV-2 infection. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: 94 participants of the MaastrICCht cohort (21% women) had a median length of stay of 16 days (maximum of 77). After division into survivors (n = 59) and non-survivors (n = 35), we analysed 1555 serial SOFA scores using linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: Survivors improved one SOFA score point more per 5 days (95% CI: 4-8) than non-survivors. Adjustment for age, sex, and chronic lung, renal and liver disease, body-mass index, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk factors, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score did not change this result. This association was stronger for women than men (P-interaction = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in SOFA score associated with survival suggests multi-organ failure involvement during mechanical ventilation in patients with SARS-CoV-2. Surviving women appeared to improve faster than surviving men. Serial SOFA scores may unravel an unfavourable trajectory and guide decisions in mechanically ventilated patients with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Critical Care , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Respiration, Artificial , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
6.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(9): 2763-2767, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813992

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are prone to pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) and right ventricular pressure overload due to severe bilateral infiltrates, high ventilation pressures, persistent hypoxemia, pulmonary fibrosis, and/or pulmonary embolism. In patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), this potentially leads to increased recirculation. In the current report, the authors present a case in which continuous inhaled nitric oxide (iNO)-enriched ventilation was effective in terms of PAH and recirculation reduction in a COVID-19 patient on veno-venous ECMO.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Nitric Oxide , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventricular Function, Right
7.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e040175, 2020 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809016

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The course of the disease in SARS-CoV-2 infection in mechanically ventilated patients is unknown. To unravel the clinical heterogeneity of the SARS-CoV-2 infection in these patients, we designed the prospective observational Maastricht Intensive Care COVID cohort (MaastrICCht). We incorporated serial measurements that harbour aetiological, diagnostic and predictive information. The study aims to investigate the heterogeneity of the natural course of critically ill patients with a SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Mechanically ventilated patients admitted to the intensive care with a SARS-CoV-2 infection will be included. We will collect clinical variables, vital parameters, laboratory variables, mechanical ventilator settings, chest electrical impedance tomography, ECGs, echocardiography as well as other imaging modalities to assess heterogeneity of the course of a SARS-CoV-2 infection in critically ill patients. The MaastrICCht is also designed to foster various other studies and registries and intends to create an open-source database for investigators. Therefore, a major part of the data collection is aligned with an existing national intensive care data registry and two international COVID-19 data collection initiatives. Additionally, we create a flexible design, so that additional measures can be added during the ongoing study based on new knowledge obtained from the rapidly growing body of evidence. The spread of the COVID-19 pandemic requires the swift implementation of observational research to unravel heterogeneity of the natural course of the disease of SARS-CoV-2 infection in mechanically ventilated patients. Our study design is expected to enhance aetiological, diagnostic and prognostic understanding of the disease. This paper describes the design of the MaastrICCht. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been obtained from the medical ethics committee (Medisch Ethische Toetsingscommissie 2020-1565/3 00 523) of the Maastricht University Medical Centre+ (Maastricht UMC+), which will be performed based on the Declaration of Helsinki. During the pandemic, the board of directors of Maastricht UMC+ adopted a policy to inform patients and ask their consent to use the collected data and to store serum samples for COVID-19 research purposes. All study documentation will be stored securely for fifteen years after recruitment of the last patient. The results will be published in peer-reviewed academic journals, with a preference for open access journals, while particularly considering deposition of the manuscripts on a preprint server early. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The Netherlands Trial Register (NL8613).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness , Multimodal Imaging/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiration, Artificial , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
8.
J Crit Care ; 63: 113-116, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779219

ABSTRACT

An overview of the experiences with deployment of undergraduate medical students in a Dutch university center during the COVID-19 pandemic is provided from organisational and educational perspectives. Medical students' and specialists' experiences during the first peak of COVID-19 underscore the preliminary suggestion that students can be given more enhanced (yet supervised) responsibility for patient care early in their practicums.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Students, Medical , COVID-19/virology , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Mental Competency , Netherlands/epidemiology
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