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1.
Trials ; 23(1): 158, 2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690887

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a disruptive increase in the number of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS is a severe, life-threatening medical condition characterized by widespread inflammation and vascular leak in the lungs. Although there is no proven therapy to reduce pulmonary vascular leak in ARDS, recent studies demonstrated that the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib reinforces the endothelial barrier and prevents vascular leak in inflammatory conditions, while leaving the immune response intact. METHODS: This is a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial of intravenous (IV) imatinib mesylate in 90 mechanically ventilated subjects with COVID-19-induced ARDS. Subjects are 18 years or older, admitted to the ICU for mechanical ventilation, meeting the Berlin criteria for moderate-severe ARDS with a positive polymerase chain reaction test for SARS-CoV2. Participants will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either imatinib (as mesylate) 200 mg bis in die (b.i.d.) or placebo IV infusion for 7 days, or until ICU discharge or death. The primary study outcome is the change in Extravascular Lung Water Index (EVLWi) between day 1 and day 4. Secondary outcome parameters include changes in oxygenation and ventilation parameters, duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, number of ventilator-free days during the 28-day study period, length of ICU stay, and mortality during 28 days after randomization. Additional secondary parameters include safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics. DISCUSSION: The current study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of IV imatinib in mechanically ventilated subjects with COVID-19-related ARDS. We hypothesize that imatinib decreases pulmonary edema, as measured by extravascular lung water using a PiCCO catheter. The reduction in pulmonary edema may reverse hypoxemic respiratory failure and hasten recovery. As pulmonary edema is an important contributor to ARDS, we further hypothesize that imatinib reduces disease severity, reflected by a reduction in 28-day mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU length of stay. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version and date: V3.1, 16 April 2021. Recruitment started on 09 March 2021. Estimated recruitment period of approximately 40 weeks. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04794088 . Registered on 11 March 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/adverse effects , Multicenter Studies as Topic , RNA, Viral , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
2.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(7): e12597, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coagulopathy has been reported in severely ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is unclear whether outpatients with COVID-19 who are treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) have unstable anticoagulation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the stability of VKA therapy in patients with COVID-19 through a case-crossover study. METHODS: Between February and July 2020, we included patients who tested positive for COVID-19 from two anticoagulant clinics in the Netherlands. We collected international normalized ratios (INRs) determined between 26 weeks before infection and 12 weeks after. Time in therapeutic range (TTR) and the variance growth rate (VGR) were calculated within patients. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients with COVID-19 (mean age, 84 years) were included, of whom 15 (29%) were men. Mean TTR in the 26 weeks before COVID-19 was 80% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75-85) compared to 59% (95% CI, 51-68) in the 6 weeks after infection. Mean TTR difference was -23% (95% CI, -32 to -14) with a time above therapeutic range of 38% (95% CI, 30-47) in the 6 weeks after infection. The TTR rose again to 79% (95% CI, 69-89) between 6 and 12 weeks after infection. Also, VGR increased, with a mean increase of 4.8 (95% CI, 2.1-7.5) in the 6 weeks after infection. In the 26 weeks before infection, we registered 19 of 641 (3%) of INR ≥5.0 compared with 35 of 247 (14%) in the 6 weeks after (risk ratio, 4.4; 95% CI, 2.7-7.3). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is associated with a strong decrease in TTR and in therapeutic stability in patients taking VKAs. Additional monitoring in these patients is advised to maximize therapeutic stability.

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