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1.
Critical care explorations ; 4(5), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837570

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Despite high mortality rates of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) in the ICU, antifungal prophylaxis remains a subject of debate. We initiated nebulized conventional amphotericin B (c-AmB) as antifungal prophylaxis in COVID-19 patients on invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). OBJECTIVES: To assess the CAPA incidence in COVID-19 patients on IMV treated with and without nebulized c-AmB as antifungal prophylaxis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort study of consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to our adult 17-bed ICU in a university-affiliated general hospital in Ede, The Netherlands, between January 25, 2021, and July 9, 2021. Patients not requiring IMV or transferred from or to another ICU were excluded. From April 9, 2021, daily nebulized amphotericin B in all patients on IMV was initiated. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed in case of positive cultures for Aspergillus from the respiratory tract and/or unexplained respiratory deterioration. Incidence of probable and proven CAPA was compared between patients treated with and without nebulized antifungal prophylaxis using Pearson chi-square test. RESULTS: A total of 39 intubated COVID-19 patients could be analyzed, of which 16 were treated with antifungal prophylaxis and 23 were not. Twenty-six patients underwent bronchoscopy with BAL. In patients treated with antifungal prophylaxis, the incidence of probable/proven CAPA was significantly lower when compared with no antifungal prophylaxis (27% vs 67%;p = 0.047). Incidence of tracheobronchial lesions and positive Aspergillus cultures and BAL-galactomannan was significantly lower in patients treated with antifungal prophylaxis (9% vs 47%;p = 0.040, 9% vs 53%;p = 0.044, and 20% vs 60%;p = 0.047, respectively). No treatment-related adverse events and no case of proven CAPA were encountered in patients receiving antifungal prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Nebulization of c-AmB in critically ill COVID-19 patients on IMV is safe and may be considered as antifungal prophylaxis to prevent CAPA. However, a randomized controlled trial to confirm this is warranted.

3.
Chest ; 161(1): e5-e11, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595933

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old obese man (BMI 38.0) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic atrial fibrillation, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia stage II, stable for 8 years after chemotherapy, and a history of smoking presented to the ED with progressive dyspnea and fever due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. He was admitted to a general ward and treated with dexamethasone (6 mg IV once daily) and oxygen. On day 3 of hospital admission, he became progressively hypoxemic and was admitted to the ICU for invasive mechanical ventilation. Dexamethasone treatment was continued, and a single dose of tocilizumab (800 mg) was administered. On day 9 of ICU admission, voriconazole treatment was initiated after tracheal white plaques at bronchoscopy, suggestive of invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis, were noticed. However, his medical situation dramatically deteriorated.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aged , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Bronchoscopy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Male , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Obesity/complications , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
4.
Trials ; 22(1): 546, 2021 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High-dose intravenous vitamin C directly scavenges and decreases the production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during ischemia/reperfusion after a cardiac arrest. The aim of this study is to investigate whether short-term treatment with a supplementary or very high-dose intravenous vitamin C reduces organ failure in post-cardiac arrest patients. METHODS: This is a double-blind, multi-center, randomized placebo-controlled trial conducted in 7 intensive care units (ICUs) in The Netherlands. A total of 270 patients with cardiac arrest and return of spontaneous circulation will be randomly assigned to three groups of 90 patients (1:1:1 ratio, stratified by site and age). Patients will intravenously receive a placebo, a supplementation dose of 3 g of vitamin C or a pharmacological dose of 10 g of vitamin C per day for 96 h. The primary endpoint is organ failure at 96 h as measured by the Resuscitation-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (R-SOFA) score at 96 h minus the baseline score (delta R-SOFA). Secondary endpoints are a neurological outcome, mortality, length of ICU and hospital stay, myocardial injury, vasopressor support, lung injury score, ventilator-free days, renal function, ICU-acquired weakness, delirium, oxidative stress parameters, and plasma vitamin C concentrations. DISCUSSION: Vitamin C supplementation is safe and preclinical studies have shown beneficial effects of high-dose IV vitamin C in cardiac arrest models. This is the first RCT to assess the clinical effect of intravenous vitamin C on organ dysfunction in critically ill patients after cardiac arrest. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03509662. Registered on April 26, 2018. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03509662 European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT): 2017-004318-25. Registered on June 8, 2018. https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2017-004318-25/NL.


Subject(s)
Post-Cardiac Arrest Syndrome , Ascorbic Acid , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
5.
Euro Surveill ; 26(23)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266639

ABSTRACT

We describe four secondary fungal infections caused by Mucorales species in COVID-19 patients. Three COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM) occurred in ICU, one outside ICU. All were men aged > 50 years, three died. Clinical presentations included pulmonary, rhino-orbital cerebral and disseminated infection. Infections occurred in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. CAM is an emerging disease and our observations underscore the need to be aware of invasive mucormycosis, including in COVID-19 patients without (poorly controlled) diabetes mellitus and outside ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Female , Humans , Male , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Netherlands/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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