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1.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133693

ABSTRACT

Natural infection with SARS-CoV-2 induces a robust circulating memory B cell (Bmem) population, which remains stable in number at least 8 months post-infection despite the contraction of antibody levels after 1 month. Multiple vaccines have been developed to combat the virus. These include two new formulations, mRNA and adenoviral vector vaccines, which have varying efficacy rates, potentially related to their distinct capacities to induce humoral immune responses. The mRNA vaccines BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) elicit significantly higher serum IgG and neutralizing antibody levels than the adenoviral vector ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen) vaccines. However, all vaccines induce Spike- and RBD-specific Bmem, which are vital in providing long-lasting protection in the form of rapid recall responses to subsequent infections. Past and current SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoC) have shown the capacity to escape antibody neutralization to varying degrees. A booster dose with an mRNA vaccine following primary vaccination restores antibody levels and improves the capacity of these antibodies and Bmem to bind viral variants, including the current VoC Omicron. Future experimental research will be essential to evaluate the durability of protection against VoC provided by each vaccine and to identify immune markers of protection to enable prognostication of people who are at risk of severe complications from COVID-19.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 889372, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071084

ABSTRACT

Joining a function-enhanced Fc-portion of human IgG to the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2 produces an antiviral decoy with strain transcending virus neutralizing activity. SARS-CoV-2 neutralization and Fc-effector functions of ACE2-Fc decoy proteins, formatted with or without the ACE2 collectrin domain, were optimized by Fc-modification. The different Fc-modifications resulted in distinct effects on neutralization and effector functions. H429Y, a point mutation outside the binding sites for FcγRs or complement caused non-covalent oligomerization of the ACE2-Fc decoy proteins, abrogated FcγR interaction and enhanced SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Another Fc mutation, H429F did not improve virus neutralization but resulted in increased C5b-C9 fixation and transformed ACE2-Fc to a potent mediator of complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) expressing cells. Furthermore, modification of the Fc-glycan enhanced cell activation via FcγRIIIa. These different immune profiles demonstrate the capacity of Fc-based agents to be engineered to optimize different mechanisms of protection for SARS-CoV-2 and potentially other viral pathogens.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Allergy ; 77(12): 3553-3566, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019113

ABSTRACT

Since early 2020, the world has been embroiled in an ongoing viral pandemic with SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants resulting in mass morbidity and an estimated 6 million deaths globally. The scientific community pivoted rapidly, providing unique and innovative means to identify infected individuals, technologies to evaluate immune responses to infection and vaccination, and new therapeutic strategies to treat infected individuals. Never before has immunology been so critically at the forefront of combatting a global pandemic. It has now become evident that not just antibody responses, but formation and durability of immune memory cells following vaccination are associated with protection against severe disease from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, the emergence of variants of concern (VoC) highlight the need for immunological markers to quantify the protective capacity of Wuhan-based vaccines. Thus, harnessing and modulating the immune response is key to successful vaccination and treatment of disease. We here review the latest knowledge about immune memory generation and durability following natural infection and vaccination, and provide insights into the attributes of immune memory that may protect from emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunologic Memory , Vaccination , Pandemics
4.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1990170

ABSTRACT

Joining a function-enhanced Fc-portion of human IgG to the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2 produces an antiviral decoy with strain transcending virus neutralizing activity. SARS-CoV-2 neutralization and Fc-effector functions of ACE2-Fc decoy proteins, formatted with or without the ACE2 collectrin domain, were optimized by Fc-modification. The different Fc-modifications resulted in distinct effects on neutralization and effector functions. H429Y, a point mutation outside the binding sites for FcγRs or complement caused non-covalent oligomerization of the ACE2-Fc decoy proteins, abrogated FcγR interaction and enhanced SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Another Fc mutation, H429F did not improve virus neutralization but resulted in increased C5b-C9 fixation and transformed ACE2-Fc to a potent mediator of complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) expressing cells. Furthermore, modification of the Fc-glycan enhanced cell activation via FcγRIIIa. These different immune profiles demonstrate the capacity of Fc-based agents to be engineered to optimize different mechanisms of protection for SARS-CoV-2 and potentially other viral pathogens.

5.
Sci Immunol ; 7(74): eabq5901, 2022 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874492

ABSTRACT

Analysis of memory B cell responses to Spike antigen after Omicron BA.1 breakthrough infections suggests that "original antigenic sin" is in play.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 100(1): 15-17, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550826

ABSTRACT

In a new study, a group evaluate immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 in vaccinated individuals and find evidence of durable immune memory for at least 6 months, irrespective of former infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cultural Diversity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Sci Immunol ; 5(54)2020 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028765

ABSTRACT

Lasting immunity following SARS-CoV-2 infection is questioned because serum antibodies decline in convalescence. However, functional immunity is mediated by long-lived memory T and B (Bmem) cells. Therefore, we generated fluorescently-labeled tetramers of the spike receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid protein (NCP) to determine the longevity and immunophenotype of SARS-CoV-2-specific Bmem cells in COVID-19 patients. A total of 36 blood samples were obtained from 25 COVID-19 patients between 4 and 242 days post-symptom onset including 11 paired samples. While serum IgG to RBD and NCP was identified in all patients, antibody levels began declining at 20 days post-symptom onset. RBD- and NCP-specific Bmem cells predominantly expressed IgM+ or IgG1+ and continued to rise until 150 days. RBD-specific IgG+ Bmem were predominantly CD27+, and numbers significantly correlated with circulating follicular helper T cell numbers. Thus, the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response contracts in convalescence with persistence of RBD- and NCP-specific Bmem cells. Flow cytometric detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific Bmem cells enables detection of long-term immune memory following infection or vaccination for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology
8.
Allergy ; 75(10): 2503-2541, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597826

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, China reported the first cases of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This disease, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has developed into a pandemic. To date, it has resulted in ~9 million confirmed cases and caused almost 500 000 related deaths worldwide. Unequivocally, the COVID-19 pandemic is the gravest health and socioeconomic crisis of our time. In this context, numerous questions have emerged in demand of basic scientific information and evidence-based medical advice on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Although the majority of the patients show a very mild, self-limiting viral respiratory disease, many clinical manifestations in severe patients are unique to COVID-19, such as severe lymphopenia and eosinopenia, extensive pneumonia, a "cytokine storm" leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome, endothelitis, thromboembolic complications, and multiorgan failure. The epidemiologic features of COVID-19 are distinctive and have changed throughout the pandemic. Vaccine and drug development studies and clinical trials are rapidly growing at an unprecedented speed. However, basic and clinical research on COVID-19-related topics should be based on more coordinated high-quality studies. This paper answers pressing questions, formulated by young clinicians and scientists, on SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, and allergy, focusing on the following topics: virology, immunology, diagnosis, management of patients with allergic disease and asthma, treatment, clinical trials, drug discovery, vaccine development, and epidemiology. A total of 150 questions were answered by experts in the field providing a comprehensive and practical overview of COVID-19 and allergic disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hypersensitivity/complications , Hypersensitivity/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Humans , Hypersensitivity/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2
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